Appendix

 

TABLE OF WIRE SIZES: 

The wire sizes specified for use in some designs are American Wire Gauge so a comparison table showing the UK ‘Standard Wire Gauge’ (with lengths on a 500 gram reel of enamelled copper wire), and the ‘American Wire Gauge’ is given here:

 

AWG

Dia mm

Area

sq. mm

SWG

Dia mm

Area

sq. mm

Max

Amps

Ohms /

metre

Metres

Per 500g

Max

Hz

1

7.35

42.40

2

7.01

38.60

119

 

 

325

2

6.54

33.60

3

6.40

32.18

94

 

 

410

3

5.88

27.15

4

5.89

27.27

75

 

 

500

4

5.19

21.20

6

4.88

18.68

60

 

 

650

5

4.62

16.80

7

4.47

15.70

47

 

 

810

6

4.11

13.30

8

4.06

12.97

37

 

 

1,100

7

3.67

10.60

9

3.66

10.51

30

 

 

1,300

8

3.26

8.35

10

3.25

8.30

24

 

 

1,650

9

2.91

6.62

11

2.95

6.82

19

 

 

2,050

10

2.59

5.27

12

2.64

5.48

15

0.0042

 

2,600

11

2.30

4.15

13

2.34

4.29

12

0.0047

 

3,200

12

2.05

3.31

14

2.03

3.49

9.3

0.0053

17.5 m

4,150

13

1.83

2.63

15

1.83

2.63

7.4

0.0068

 

5,300

14

1.63

2.08

16

1.63

2.08

5.9

0.0083

27 m

6,700

15

1.45

1.65

17

1.42

1.59

4.7

0.0135

 

8,250

16

1.29

1.31

18

1.219

1.17

3.7

0.0148

48 m

11 kHz

17

1.15

1.04

 

 

 

2.9

0.0214

 

13 kHz

18

1.024

0.823

19

1.016

0.811

2.3

0.027

 

17 kHz

19

0.912

0.653

20

0.914

0.657

1.8

0.026

85 m

21 kHz

20

0.812

0.519

21

0.813

0.519

1.5

0.036

 

27 kHz

21

0.723

0.412

22

0.711

0.397

1.2

0.043

140 m

33 kHz

22

0.644

0.325

23

0.610

0.292

0.92

0.056

 

42 kHz

23

0.573

0.259

24

0.559

0.245

0.729

0.070

225 m

53 kHz

24

0.511

0.205

25

0.508

0.203

0.577

0.087

 

68 kHz

25

0.455

0.163

26

0.457

0.164

0.457

0.105

340 m

85 kHz

26

0.405

0.128

27

0.417

0.136

0.361

0.130

 

107 kHz

27

0.361

0.102

28

0.376

0.111

0.288

0.155

500 m

130 kHz

28

0.321

0.0804

30

0.315

0.0779

0.226

0.221

700 m

170 kHz

29

0.286

0.0646

32

0.274

0.0591

0.182

0.292

950 m

210 kHz

30

0.255

0.0503

33

0.254

0.0506

0.142

0.347

1125 m

270 kHz

31

0.226

0.0401

34

0.234

0.0428

0.113

0.402

1300 m

340 kHz

32

0.203

0.0324

36

0.193

0.0293

0.091

0.589

1900 m

430 kHz

33

0.180

0.0255

37

0.173

0.0234

0.072

0.767

2450 m

540 kHz

34

0.160

0.0201

38

0.152

0.0182

0.056

0.945

3000 m

690 kHz

35

0.142

0.0159

39

0.132

0.0137

0.044

1.212

3700 m

870 kHz

 

 

 

 

 

 

HOWARD JOHNSON: PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR

 

Patent US 4,151,431                    24th April 1979                     Inventor: Howard R. Johnson

 

PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR

 

 

 

This is a re-worded extract from this Patent.  It describes a motor powered solely by permanent magnets and which it is claimed can power an electrical generator.

 

ABSTRACT

The invention is directed to the method of utilising the unpaired electron spins in ferromagnetic and other materials as a source of magnetic fields for producing power without any electron flow as occurs in normal conductors, and to permanent magnet motors for utilising this method to produce a power source.  In the practice of the invention the unpaired electron spins occurring within permanent magnets are utilised to produce a motive power source solely through the superconducting characteristics of a permanent magnet, and the magnetic flux created by the magnets is controlled and concentrated to orientate the magnetic forces generated in such a manner to produce useful continuous work, such as the displacement of a rotor with respect to a stator.  The timing and orientation of magnetic forces at the rotor and stator components produced by the permanent magnets is accomplished by the proper geometrical relationship of these components.

 

 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION:

Conventional electric motors employ magnetic forces to produce either rotational or linear motion. Electric motors operate on the principal that when a conductor which carries a current is located in a magnetic field, a magnetic force is exerted upon it.   Normally, in a conventional electric motor, the rotor, or stator, or both, are so wired that magnetic fields created by electromagnets use attraction, repulsion, or both types of magnetic forces, to impose a force upon the armature  causing rotation, or linear displacement of the armature. Conventional electric motors may employ permanent magnets either in the armature or stator components, but to date they require the creation of an electromagnetic field to act upon the permanent magnets. Also, switching gear is needed to control the energising of the electromagnets and the orientation of the magnetic fields producing the motive power. 

 

It is my belief that the full potential of magnetic forces existing in permanent magnets has not been recognised or utilised because of incomplete information and theory with respect to atomic motion occurring within a permanent magnet. It is my belief that a presently unnamed atomic particle is associated with the electron movement of a superconducting electromagnet and the loss-less flow of currents in permanent magnets. The unpaired electron flow is similar in both situations. This small particle is believed to be opposite in charge to an electron and to be located at right angles to the moving electron.  This particle must be very small to penetrate all known elements in their various states as well as their known compounds (unless they have unpaired electrons which capture these particles as they endeavour to pass through).

        

The electrons in ferrous materials differ from those found in most elements in that they are unpaired, and being unpaired they spin around the nucleus in such a way that they respond to magnetic fields as well as creating a magnetic field themselves.  If they were paired, their magnetic fields would cancel out. However, being unpaired they create a measurable magnetic field if their spins are orientated in one direction. The spins are at right angles to their magnetic fields.

 

In niobium superconductors, at a critical state, the magnetic lines of force cease to be at right angles. This change must be due to establishing the required conditions for unpaired electronic spins instead of electron flow in the conductor, and the fact that very powerful electromagnets can be formed with superconductors illustrates the tremendous advantage of producing the magnetic field by unpaired electron spins rather than conventional electron flow.   In a superconducting metal, wherein the electrical resistance becomes greater in the metal than the proton resistance, the flow turns to electron spins and the positive particles flow parallel in the metal in the manner occurring in a permanent magnet where a powerful flow of magnetic positive particles or magnetic flux causes the unpaired electrons to spin at right angles. Under cryogenic superconduction conditions the freezing of the crystals in place makes it possible for the spins to continue, and in a permanent magnet the grain orientation of the magnetised material allows these spins, permitting them to continue and causing the flux to flow parallel to the metal.  In a superconductor, at first the electron is flowing and the positive particle is spinning; later, when critical, the reverse occurs, i.e., the electron is spinning and the positive particle is flowing at right angles.    These positive particles will thread or work their way through the electron spins present in the metal.

        

In a sense, a permanent magnet may be considered a room-temperature superconductor. It is a superconductor because the electron flow does not cease, and this electron flow can be made to do work through the magnetic field which it creates. Previously, this source of power has not been used because it was not possible to modify the electron flow to accomplish the switching functions of the magnetic field. Such switching functions are common in a conventional electric motor where electrical current is employed to align the much greater electron current in the iron pole pieces and concentrate the magnetic field at the proper places to give the thrust necessary to move the motor armature. In a conventional electric motor, switching is accomplished by the use of brushes, commutators, alternating current, or other means.

 

In order to accomplish the switching function in a permanent magnet motor, it is necessary to shield the magnetic leakage so that it will not appear as too great a loss factor at the wrong places. The best method to accomplish this is to concentrate the magnetic flux in the place where it will be the most effective. Timing and switching can be achieved in a permanent magnet motor by concentrating the flux and using the proper geometry of the motor rotor and stator to make most effective use of the magnetic fields. By the proper combination of materials, geometry and magnetic concentration, it is possible to achieve a mechanical advantage of high ratio, greater than 100 to 1, capable of producing continuous motive force.

 

To my knowledge, previous work done with permanent magnets, and motive devices utilising permanent magnets, have not achieved the result desired in the practice of the inventive concept, and it is with the proper combination of materials, geometry and magnetic concentration that the presence of the magnetic spins within a permanent magnet may be utilised as a motive force.

 

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION:

It is an object of the invention to utilise the magnetic spinning phenomenon of unpaired electrons occurring in ferromagnetic material to produce the movement of a mass in a unidirectional manner so as to permit a motor to be driven solely by the magnetic forces occurring within permanent magnets. Both linear and rotational types of motor may be produced. It is an object of the invention to provide the proper combination of materials, geometry and magnetic concentration to power a motor. Whether the motor is a linear type or a rotary type, in each instance the "stator" may consist of several permanent magnets fixed relative to each other, to create a track.  This track is linear for a linear motor and circular for a rotary motor. An armature magnet is carefully positioned above this track so that an air gap exists between it and the track. The length of the armature magnet is defined by poles of opposite polarity, and the longer axis of the armature magnet is pointed in the direction of its movement.

 

The stator magnets are mounted so that all the same poles face the armature magnet.  The armature magnet has poles which are both attracted to and repelled by the adjacent pole of the stator magnets, so both attractive and repulsive forces act upon the armature magnet to make it move.

 

The continuing motive force which acts on the armature magnet is caused by the relationship of the length of the armature magnet to the width and spacing of the stator magnets. This ratio of magnet and magnet spacings, and with an acceptable air gap spacing between the stator and armature magnets, produces a continuous force which causes the movement of the armature magnet.

 

In the practice of the invention, movement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets results from a combination of attractive and repulsive forces between the stator and armature magnets. By concentrating the magnetic fields of the stator and armature magnets the motive force imposed upon the armature magnet is intensified, and in the disclosed embodiments, the means for achieving this magnetic field concentration are shown.

 

This method comprises of a plate of high magnetic field permeability placed behind one side of the stator magnets and solidly engaged with them. The magnetic field of the armature magnet may be concentrated and directionally oriented by bowing the armature magnet, and the magnetic field may further be concentrated by shaping the pole ends of the armature magnet to concentrate the magnet field at a relatively limited surface at the armature magnet pole ends.

 

Preferably, several armature magnets are used and these are staggered relative to each other in the direction their movement. Such an offsetting or staggering of the armature magnets distributes the impulses of force imposed upon the armature magnets and results in a smoother application of forces to the armature magnet producing a smoother and more uniform movement of the armature component.

 

In the rotary embodiment of the permanent magnet motor of the invention the stator magnets are arranged in a circle, and the armature magnets rotate about the stator magnets. A mechanism is shown which can move the armature relative to the stator and this controls the magnitude of the magnetic forces, altering the speed of rotation of the motor.

 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The objects and advantages of the invention mentioned earlier, will be appreciated from the following description and accompanying drawings:

 

Fig. 1 is a schematic view of electron flow in a superconductor indicating the unpaired electron spins,

Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view of a superconductor under a critical state illustrating the electron spins,

Fig. 3 is a view of a permanent magnet illustrating the flux movement through it,

Fig. 4 is a cross-sectional view illustrating the diameter of the magnet of Fig.3,

Fig. 5 is an elevational representation of a linear motor embodiment of the permanent magnet motor of the invention illustrating one position of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets, and indicating the magnetic forces imposed upon the armature magnet,

Fig. 6 is a view similar to Fig.5 illustrating displacement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets, and the influence of magnetic forces thereon at this location,

Fig. 7 is a further elevational view similar to Fig.5 and Fig.6 illustrating further displacement of the armature magnet to the left, and the influence of the magnetic forces thereon,

Fig. 8 is a top plan view of a linear embodiment of the inventive concept illustrating a pair of armature magnets in linked relationship disposed above the stator magnets,

Fig. 9 is a diametrical, elevational, sectional view of a rotary motor embodiment in accord with the invention as taken along section IX-IX of Fig.10, and

Fig. 10 is an elevational view of the rotary motor embodiment as taken along X-X of Fig.9.

 

 

 

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

In order to better understand the theory of the inventive concept, reference is made to Figs. 1 through 4. In Fig.1 a superconductor 1 is illustrated having a positive particle flow as represented by arrow 2, the unpaired electrons of the ferrous conductor 1 spin at right angles to the proton flow in the conductor as represented by the spiral line and arrow 3. In accord with the theory of the invention the spinning of the ferrous unpaired electrons results from the atomic structure of ferrous materials and this spinning atomic particle is believed to be opposite in charge and located at right angles to the moving electrons. It is assumed to be very small in size capable of penetrating other elements and their compounds unless they have unpaired electrons which capture these particles as they endeavour to pass through.

 

The lack of electrical resistance of conductors at a critical superconductor state has long been recognised, and superconductors have been utilised to produce very high magnetic flux density electromagnets. Fig.2 represents a cross section of a critical superconductor and the electron spins are indicated by the arrows 3. A permanent magnet may be considered a superconductor as the electron flow therein does not cease, and is without resistance, and unpaired electric spinning particles exist which, in the practice of the invention, are utilised to produce motor force. Fig.3 illustrates a horseshoe shaped permanent magnet at 4 and the magnetic flux through it is indicated by arrows 5, the magnetic flow being from the south pole to the north pole and through the magnetic material. The accumulated electron spins occurring about the diameter of the magnet 5 are represented at 6 in Fig.4, and the spinning electron particles spin at right angles in the iron as the flux travels through the magnet material.

 

By utilising the electron spinning theory of ferrous material electrons, it is possible with the proper ferromagnetic materials, geometry and magnetic concentration to utilise the spinning electrons to produce a motive force in a continuous direction, thereby resulting in a motor capable of doing work.

 

It is appreciated that the embodiments of motors utilising the concepts of the invention may take many forms, and in the illustrated forms the basic relationships of components are illustrated in order to disclose the inventive concepts and principles.   The relationships of the plurality of magnets defining the stator 10 are best appreciated from Figs. 5 through 8. The stator magnets 12 are preferably of a rectangular configuration, Fig.8, and so magnetised that the poles exist at the large surfaces of the magnets, as will be appreciated from the N (North) and S (South) designations. The stator magnets include side edges 14 and 16 and end edges 18. The stator magnets are mounted upon a supporting plate 20, which is preferably of a metal having a high permeability to magnetic fields and magnetic flux such as that available under the trademark Netic CoNetic sold by Perfection Mica Company of Chicago, Illinois. Thus, the plate 20 will be disposed toward the south pole of the stator magnets 12, and preferably in direct engagement therewith, although a bonding material may be interposed between the magnets and the plate in order to accurately locate and fix the magnets on the plate, and position the stator magnets with respect to each other.

 

Preferably, the spacing between the stator magnets 12 slightly differs between adjacent stator magnets as such a variation in spacing varies the forces being imposed upon the armature magnet at its ends, at any given time, and thus results in a smoother movement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets. Thus, the stator magnets so positioned relative to each other define a track 22 having a longitudinal direction left to right as viewed in Figs. 5 through 8.  

 

In Figs. 5 through 7 only a single armature magnet 24 is disclosed, while in Fig.8 a pair of armature magnets are shown. For purposes of understanding the concepts of the invention the description herein will be limited to the use of single armature magnet as shown in Figs. 5 through 7.

 

The armature magnet is of an elongated configuration wherein the length extends from left to right, Fig.5, and may be of a rectangular transverse cross-sectional shape. For magnetic field concentrating and orientation purposes the magnet 24 is formed in an arcuate bowed configuration as defined by concave surfaces 26 and convex surfaces 28, and the poles are defined at the ends of the magnet as will be appreciated from Fig.5. For further magnetic field concentrating purposes the ends of the armature magnet are shaped by bevelled surfaces 30 to minimise the cross sectional area at the magnet ends 32, and the magnetic flux existing between the poles of the armature magnet are as indicated by the light dotted lines. In like manner the magnetic fields of 6 the stator magnets 12 are indicated by the light dotted lines.

 

The armature magnet 24 is maintained in a spaced relationship above the stator track 22. This spacing may be accomplished by mounting the armature magnet upon a slide, guide or track located above the stator magnets, or the armature magnet could be mounted upon a wheeled vehicle carriage or slide supported upon a non-magnetic surface or guideway disposed between the stator magnets and the armature magnet. To clarify the illustration, the means for supporting the armature magnet 24 is not illustrated and such means form no part of invention, and it is to be understood that the means supporting the armature magnet prevents the armature magnet from moving away from the stator magnets, or moving closer thereto, but permits free movement of the armature magnet to the left or right in a direction parallel to the track 22 defined by the stator magnets.

 

It will be noted that the length of the armature magnet 24 is slightly greater than the width of two of the stator magnets 12 and the spacing between them. The magnetic forces acting upon the armature magnet when in the position of Fig.5 will be repulsion forces 34 due to the proximity of like polarity forces and attraction forces at 36 because of the opposite polarity of the south pole of the armature magnet, and the north pole field of the sector magnets. The relative strength of this force is represented by the thickness of the force line.

 

The resultant of the force vectors imposed upon the armature magnet as shown in Fig.5 produce a primary force vector 38 toward the left, Fig.5, displacing the armature magnet 24 toward the left. In Fig.6 the magnetic forces acting upon the armature magnet are represented by the same reference numerals as in Fig.5. While the forces 34 constitute repulsion forces tending to move the north pole of the armature magnet away from the stator magnets, the attraction forces imposed upon the south pole of the armature magnet and some of the repulsion forces, tend to move the armature magnet further to the left, and as the resultant force 38 continues to be toward the left the armature magnet continues to be forced to the left. Fig.7 represents further displacement of the armature magnet 24 to the left with respect to the position of Fig.6, and the magnetic forces acting thereon are represented by the same reference numerals as in Fig.5 and Fig.6, and the stator magnet will continue to move to the left, and such movement continues the length of the track 22 defined by the stator magnets 12.

 

Upon the armature magnet being reversed such that the north pole is positioned at the right as viewed in Fig.5, and the south pole is positioned at the left, the direction of movement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets is toward the right, and the theory of movement is identical to that described above.

 

In Fig.8 a plurality of armature magnets 40 and 42 are illustrated which are connected by links 44. The armature magnets are of a shape and configuration identical to that of the embodiment of Fig.5, but the magnets are staggered with respect to each other in the direction of magnet movement, i.e., the direction of the track 22 defined by the stator magnets 12. By so staggering a plurality of armature magnets a smoother movement of the interconnected armature magnets is produced as compared when using a single armature magnet as there is variation in the forces acting upon each armature magnet as it moves above the track 22 due to the change in magnetic forces imposed thereon. The use of several armature magnets tends to "smooth out" the application of forces imposed upon linked armature magnets, resulting in a smoother movement of the armature magnet assembly. Of course, any number of armature magnets may be interconnected, limited only by the width of the stator magnet track 22.

 

In Fig.9 and Fig.10 a rotary embodiment embracing the inventive concepts is illustrated. In this embodiment the principle of operation is identical to that described above, but the orientation of the stator and armature magnets is such that rotation of the armature magnets is produced about an axis, rather than a linear movement being achieved.

 

In Fig.9 and Fig.10 a base is represented at 46 serving as a support for a stator member 48. The stator member 48 is made of a non-magnetic material, such as synthetic plastic, aluminium, or the like. The stator includes a cylindrical surface 50 having an axis, and a threaded bore 52 is concentrically defined in the stator. The stator includes an annular groove 54 receiving an annular sleeve 56 of high magnetic field permeability material such as Netic Co-Netic and a plurality of stator magnets 58 are affixed upon the sleeve 56 in spaced circumferential relationship as will be apparent in Fig.10. Preferably, the stator magnets 58 are formed with converging radial sides as to be of a wedge configuration having a curved inner surface engaging sleeve 56, and a convex pole surface 60.

 

The armature 62, in the illustrated embodiment, is of a dished configuration having a radial web portion, and an axially extending portion 64. The armature 62 is formed of a non-magnetic material, and an annular belt receiving groove 66 is defined therein for receiving a belt for transmitting power from the armature to a generator, or other power consuming device. Three armature magnets 68 are mounted on the armature portion 64, and such magnets are of a configuration similar to the armature magnet configuration of Figs. 5 through 7.

 

The magnets 68 are staggered with respect to each other in a circumferential direction wherein the magnets are not placed exactly 120 degrees apart but instead, a slight angular staggering of the armature magnets is desirable to "smooth out" the magnetic forces being imposed upon the armature as a result of the magnetic forces being simultaneously imposed upon each of the armature magnets. The staggering of the armature magnets 68 in a circumferential direction produces the same effect as the staggering of the armature magnets 40 and 42 as shown in Fig.8.

 

The armature 62 is mounted upon a threaded shaft 70 by anti-friction bearings 72, and the shaft 70 is threaded into the stator threaded bore 52, and may be rotated by the knob 74. In this manner rotation of the knob 74, and shaft 70, axially displaces the armature 62 with respect to the stator magnets 58, and such axial displacement will very the magnitude of the magnetic forces imposed upon the armature magnets 68 by the stator magnets thereby controlling the speed of rotation of the armature.    As will be noted from Figs. 4 to 7, 9 and 10, an air gap exists between the armature magnets and the stator magnets and the dimension of this spacing, effects the magnitude of the forces imposed upon the armature magnet or magnets. If the distance between the armature magnets and the stator magnets is reduced the forces imposed upon the armature magnets by the stator magnets are increased, and the resultant force 8 vector tending to displace the armature magnets in their path of movement increases. However, the decreasing of the spacing  between the armature and stator magnets creates a "pulsation" in the movement of the armature magnets which is objectionable, but can be, to some extent, minimised by using a plurality of armature magnets. Increasing the distance between the armature and stator magnets reduces the pulsation tendency of the armature magnet, but also reduces the magnitude of the magnetic forces imposed upon the armature magnets. Thus, the most effective spacing between the armature and stator magnets is that spacing which produces the maximum force vector in the direction of armature magnet movement, with a minimum creation of objectionable pulsation.

 

In the disclosed embodiments the high permeability plate 20 and sleeve 56 are disclosed for concentrating the magnetic field of the stator magnets, and the armature magnets are bowed and have shaped ends for magnetic field concentration purposes. While such magnetic field concentration means result in higher forces imposed upon the armature magnets for given magnet intensities, it is not intended that the inventive concepts be limited to the use of such magnetic field concentrating means.

 

As will be appreciated from the above description of the invention, the movement of the armature magnet or magnets results from the described relationship of components. The length of the armature magnets as related to the width of the stator magnets and spacing between them, the dimension of the air gap and the configuration of the magnetic field, combined, produce the desired result and motion. The inventive concepts may be practised even though these relationships may be varied within limits not yet defined and the invention is intended to encompass all dimensional relationships which achieve the desired goal of armature movement. By way of example, with respect to Figs. to 7, the following dimensions were used in an operating prototype:

 

The length of armature magnet 24 is 3.125", the stator magnets 12 are 1" wide, .25" thick and 4" long and grain oriented. The air gap between the poles of the armature magnet and the stator magnets is approximately 1.5" and the spacing between the stator magnets is approximately .5" inch.

 

In effect, the stator magnets define a magnetic field track of a single polarity transversely interrupted at spaced locations by the magnetic fields produced by the lines of force existing between the poles of the stator magnets and the unidirectional force exerted on the armature magnet is a result of the repulsion and attraction forces existing as the armature magnet traverses this magnetic field track.

 

It is to be understood that the inventive concept embraces an arrangement wherein the armature magnet component is stationary and the stator assembly is supported for movement and constitutes the moving component, and other variations of the inventive concept will be apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope thereof. As used herein the term "track" is intended to include both linear and circular arrangements of the static magnets, and the "direction" or "length" of the track is that direction parallel or concentric to the intended direction of armature magnet movement.

 

 

 

 

PAVEL IMRIS: OPTICAL GENERATOR

 

US Patent 3,781,601               25th December 1973                Inventor: Pavel Imris

 

OPTICAL GENERATOR OF AN ELECTROSTATIC FIELD HAVING LONGITUDINAL OSCILLATION AT LIGHT FREQUENCIES FOR USE IN AN ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

 

 

Please note that this is a re-worded excerpt from this patent.  It describes a gas-filled tube which allows many standard 40-watt fluorescent tubes to be powered using less than 1-watt of power each.

 

ABSTRACT

An Optical generator of an electrostatic field at light frequencies for use in an electrical circuit, the generator having a pair of spaced-apart electrodes in a gas-filled tube of quartz glass or similar material with at least one capacitor cap or plate adjacent to one electrode and a dielectric filled container enclosing the tube, the generator substantially increasing the electrical efficiency of the electrical circuit.

 

 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to improved electrical circuits, and more particularly to circuits utilising an optical generator of an electrostatic field at light frequencies.

 

The measure of the efficiency of an electrical circuit may broadly be defined as the ratio of the output energy in the desired form (such as light in a lighting circuit) to the input electrical energy.  Up to now, the efficiency of many circuits has not been very high.  For example, in a lighting circuit using 40 watt fluorescent lamps, only about 8.8 watts of the input energy per lamp is actually converted to visible light, thus representing an efficiency of only about 22%.  The remaining 31.2 watts is dissipated primarily in the form of heat.

 

It has been suggested that with lighting circuits having fluorescent lamps, increasing the frequency of the applied current will raise the overall circuit efficiency.  While at an operating frequency of 60 Hz, the efficiency is 22%, if the frequency is raised to 1 Mhz, the circuit efficiency would only rise to some 25.5%.  Also, if the input frequency were raised to 10 Ghz, the overall circuit efficiency would only be 35%.

 

 

SUMMARY OF THE PRESENT INVENTION

The present invention utilises an optical electrostatic generator which is effective  for producing high frequencies in the visible light range of about 1014 to 1023 Hz.  The operation and theory of the optical electrostatic generator has been described and discussed in my co-pending application serial No. 5,248, filed on 23rd January 1970.  As stated in my co-pending application, the present optical electrostatic generator does not perform in accordance with the accepted norms and standards of ordinary electromagnetic frequencies.

 

The optical electrostatic generator as utilised in the present invention can generate a wide range of frequencies between several Hertz and those in the light frequency.  Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide improved electrical energy circuits utilising my optical electrostatic generator, whereby the output energy in the desired form will be substantially more efficient than possible to date, using standard circuit techniques and equipment.  It is a further object of the present invention to provide such a circuit for use in fluorescent  lighting or other lighting circuits.  It is also an object of the present invention to provide a circuit with may be used in conjunction with electrostatic precipitators for dust and particle collection and removal, as well as many other purposes.

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Fig.1 is a schematic  layout showing an optical electrostatic generator of the present invention, utilised in a lighting circuit for fluorescent lamps:

 

 

 

 

Fig.2 is a schematic layout of a high-voltage circuit incorporating an optical electrostatic generator:

 

 

 

Fig.2A is a sectional view through a portion of the generator and

 

Fig.3 is a schematic sectional view showing an optical electrostatic generator in accordance with the present invention, particularly for use in alternating current circuits, although it may also be used in direct current circuits:

 

 

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE ILLUSTRATED EMBODIMENTS

Referring to the drawings and to Fig.1 in particular, a low voltage circuit utilising an optical electrostatic generator is shown.  As shown in Fig.1, a source of alternating current electrical energy 10, is connected to a lighting circuit.  Connected to one tap of the power source 10 is a rectifier 12 for utilisation when direct current is required.  The illustrated circuit is provided with a switch 14 which may be opened or closed depending on whether AC or DC power is used.  Switch 14 is opened and a switch 16 is closed when AC is used.  With switch 14 closed and switch 16 open, the circuit operates as a DC circuit.

 

 

Extending from switches 14 and 16 is conductor 18 which is connected to an optical electrostatic generator 20.  Conductor 18 is passed through an insulator 22 and connected to an electrode 24.  Spaced from electrode 24 is a second electrode 25.  Enclosing electrodes 24 and 25, which preferably are made of tungsten or similar material, is a quartz glass tube 26 which is filled with an ionisable gas 28 such as xenon or any other suitable ionisable gas such as argon, krypton, neon, nitrogen or hydrogen, as well as the vapour of metals such as mercury or sodium.

 

Surrounding each end of tube 26 and adjacent to electrodes 24 and 25, are capacitor plates 30 and 32 in the form of caps.  A conductor is connected to electrode 25 and passed through a second insulator 34.  Surrounding the tube, electrodes and capacitor caps is a metal envelope in the form of a thin sheet of copper or other metal such as aluminium.  Envelope 36 is spaced from the conductors leading into and out of the generator by means of  insulators 22 and 34.  Envelope 36 is filled with a dielectric material such as transformer oil, highly purified distilled water, nitro-benzene or any other suitable liquid dielectric.  In addition, the dielectric may be a solid such as ceramic material with relatively small molecules.

 

A conductor 40 is connected to electrode 25, passed through insulator 24 and then connected to a series of fluorescent lamps 42 which are connected in series.  It is the lamps 42 which will be the measure of the efficiency of the circuit containing the optical electrostatic generator 20.  A conductor 44 completes the circuit from the fluorescent lamps to the tap of the source of electrical energy 10.  In addition, the circuit is connected to a ground 46 by another conductor 48.  Envelope 36 is also grounded by lead 50 and in the illustrated diagram, lead 50 is connected to the conductor 44.

 

The capacitor caps or plates 30 and 32, form a relative capacitor with the discharge tube.  When a high voltage is applied to the electrode of the discharge tube, the ions of gas are excited and brought to a higher potential than their environment, i.e. the envelope and the dielectric surrounding it.  At this point, the ionised gas in effect becomes one plate of a relative capacitor in co-operation with the capacitor caps or plates 30 and 32.

 

When this relative capacitor is discharged, the electric current does not decrease as would normally be expected.  Instead, it remains substantially constant due to the relationship between the relative capacitor and an absolute capacitor which is formed between the ionised gas and the spaced metal envelope 36.  An oscillation effect occurs in the relative capacitor, but the electrical condition in the absolute capacitor remains substantially constant.

 

As also described in the co-pending application serial No. 5,248, there is an oscillation effect between the ionised gas in the discharge lamp and the metallic envelope 36 will be present if the capacitor caps are eliminated, but the efficiency of the electrostatic generator will be substantially decreased.

 

The face of the electrode can be any desired shape.  However, a conical point of 600 has been found to be satisfactory and it is believed to have an influence on the efficiency of the generator.

 

In addition, the type of gas selected for use in tube 26, as well as the pressure of the gas in the tube, also affect the efficiency of the generator, and in turn, the efficiency of the electrical circuit.

 

To demonstrate the increased efficiency of an electrical circuit utilising the optical electrostatic generator of the present invention as well as the relationship between gas pressure and electrical efficiency, a circuit similar to that shown in Fig.1 may be used with 100 standard 40 watt, cool-white fluorescent lamps connected in series.  The optical electrostatic generator includes a quartz glass tube filled with xenon, with a series of different tubes being used because of the different gas pressures being tested.

 

Table 1 shows the data to be obtained relating to the optical electrostatic generator.  Table 2 shows the lamp performance and efficiency for each of the tests shown in Table 1.  The following is a description of the data in each of the columns of Tables 1 and 2.

 

Column

Description

B

Gas used in discharge tube

C

Gas pressure in tube (in torrs)

D

Field strength across the tube (measured in volts per cm. of length between the electrodes)

E

Current density (measured in microamps per sq. mm. of tube cross-sectional area)

F

Current (measured in amps)

G

Power across the tube (calculated in watts per cm. of length between the electrodes)

H

Voltage per lamp (measured in volts)

K

Current (measured in amps)

L

Resistance (calculated in ohms)

M

Input power per lamp (calculated in watts)

N

Light output (measured in lumens)

 

Table 1

 

 

 

Optical

Generator

Section

 

 

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Test No.

Type of discharge lamp

Pressure of Xenon

Field strength across lamp

Current density

Current

Power str. across lamp

 

 

(Torr)

(V/cm)

(A/sq.mm)

(A)

(W/cm.)

1

Mo elec

-

-

-

-

-

2

Xe

0.01

11.8

353

0.1818

2.14

3

Xe

0.10

19.6

353

0.1818

3.57

4

Xe

1.00

31.4

353

0.1818

5.72

5

Xe

10.00

47.2

353

0.1818

8.58

6

Xe

20.00

55.1

353

0.1818

10.02

7

Xe

30.00

62.9

353

0.1818

11.45

8

Xe

40.00

66.9

353

0.1818

12.16

9

Xe

60.00

70.8

353

0.1818

12.88

10

Xe

80.00

76.7

353

0.1818

13.95

11

Xe

100.00

78.7

353

0.1818

14.31

12

Xe

200.00

90.5

353

0.1818

16.46

13

Xe

300.00

100.4

353

0.1818

18.25

14

Xe

400.00

106.3

353

0.1818

19.32

15

Xe

500.00

110.2

353

0.1818

20.04

16

Xe

600.00

118.1

353

0.1818

21.47

17

Xe

700.00

120.0

353

0.1818

21.83

18

Xe

800.00

122.8

353

0.1818

22.33

19

Xe

900.00

125.9

353

0.1818

22.90

20

Xe

1,000.00

127.9

353

0.1818

23.26

21

Xe

2,000.00

149.6

353

0.1818

27.19

22

Xe

3,000.00

161.4

353

0.1818

29.35

23

Xe

4,000.00

173.2

353

0.1818

31.49

24

Xe

5,000.00

179.1

353

0.1818

32.56

 

 

 

Table 2

 

 

 

Fluorescent

Lamp

Section

 

A

H

K

L

M

N

Test No.

Voltage

Current

Resistance

Input Energy

Light Output

 

(Volts)

(Amps)

(Ohms)

(Watts)

(Lumen)

1

220

0.1818

1,210

40.00

3,200

2

218

0.1818

1,199

39.63

3,200

3

215

0.1818

1,182

39.08

3,200

4

210

0.1818

1,155

38.17

3,200

5

200

0.1818

1,100

36.36

3,200

6

195

0.1818

1,072

35.45

3,200

7

190

0.1818

1,045

34.54

3,200

8

182

0.1818

1,001

33.08

3,200

9

175

0.1818

962

31.81

3,200

10

162

0.1818

891

29.45

3,200

11

155

0.1818

852

28.17

3,200

12

130

0.1818

715

23.63

3,200

13

112

0.1818

616

20.36

3,200

14

100

0.1818

550

18.18

3,200

15

85

0.1818

467

15.45

3,200

16

75

0.1818

412

13.63

3,200

17

67

0.1818

368

12.18

3,200

18

60

0.1818

330

10.90

3,200

19

53

0.1818

291

9.63

3,200

20

50

0.1818

275

9.09

3,200

21

23

0.1818

126

4.18

3,200

22

13

0.1818

71

2.35

3,200

23

8

0.1818

44

1.45

3,200

24

5

0.1818

27

0.90

3,200

 

 

The design of a tube construction for use in the optical electrostatic generator of the type used in Fig.1, may be accomplished by considering the radius of the tube, the length between the electrodes in the tube and the power across the tube.

 

If R is the minimum inside radius of the tube in centimetres, L the minimum length in centimetres between the electrodes, and W the power in watts across the lamp, the following formula can be obtained from Table 1:

 

R = (Current [A] / Current Density [A/sq.mm] ) / pi

 

L = 8R

 

W = L[V/cm] x A

 

For example, for Test No. 18 in Table 1:

The current is 0.1818 A,

The current density 0.000353 A/sq.mm and

The Voltage Distribution is 122.8 V/cm; therefore

 

R = (0.1818 / 0.000353)2 /3.14 = 12.80 mm.

 

L = 8 x R = 8 * 12.8 = 102.4 mm (10.2 cm.)

 

W = 10.2 x 122.8 x 0.1818 = 227.7 VA or 227.7 watts

 

The percent efficiency of operation of the fluorescent lamps in Test No. 18 can be calculated from the following equation:

 

% Efficiency = (Output Energy/Input energy) x 100

 

Across a single fluorescent lamp, the voltage is 60 volts and the current is 0.1818 amps therefore the input energy to the lamp 42 is 10.90 Watts.  The output of the fluorescent lamp is 3,200 lumens which represents 8.8 Watts power of light energy.  Thus, the one fluorescent lamp is operating at 80.7% efficiency under these conditions.

 

However, when the optical generator is the same as described for Test No. 18 and there are 100 fluorescent lamps in series in the circuit, the total power input is 227.7 watts for the optical generator and 1,090 watts for 100 fluorescent lamps, or a total of 1,318 watts.  The total power input normally required to operate the 100 fluorescent lamps in a normal circuit would be 100 x 40 = 4,000 watts.  So by using the optical generator in the circuit, about 2,680 watts of energy is saved.

 

Table 1 is an example of the functioning of this invention for a particular fluorescent lamp (40 watt cool white).  However, similar data can be obtained for other lighting applications, by those skilled in the art.

 

 

In Fig.2, a circuit is shown which uses an optical electrostatic generator 20a, similar to generator 20 of Fig.1.  In generator 20, only one capacitor cap 32a is used and it is preferably of triangular cross-sectional design.  In addition, the second electrode 25a is connected directly back into the return conductor 52, similar to the arrangement shown in my co-pending application serial No. 5,248, filed 23rd January 1970.

 

This arrangement is preferably for very high voltage circuits and the generator is particularly suited for DC usage.

 

In Fig.2, common elements have received the same numbers which were used in Fig.1.

 

 

In Fig.3, still another embodiment of an optical electrostatic generator 20b is shown.  This generator is particularly suited for use with AC circuits.  In this embodiment, the capacitor plates 30b and 32b have flanges 54 and 56 which extend outwards towards the envelope 36.  While the utilisation of the optical electrostatic generator has been described in use in a fluorescent lighting circuit, it is to be understood that many other types of circuits may be used.  For example, the high-voltage embodiment may be used in a variety of circuits such as flash lamps, high-speed controls, laser beams and high-energy pulses.  The generator is also particularly usable in a circuit including electrostatic particle precipitation in air pollution control devices, chemical synthesis in electrical discharge systems such as ozone generators and charging means for high-voltage generators of the Van de Graff type, as well as particle accelerators.  To those skilled in the art, many other uses and circuits will be apparent.

 

 

 

 

HAROLD COLMAN & RONALD SEDDON-GILLESPIE: 70-YEAR BATTERY

 

Patent  GB 763,062        5th December 1956     Inventors: Harold Colman and Ronald Seddon-Gillespie

 

 

APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING AN ELECTRIC CURRENT

 

 

This patent shows the details of a lightweight device which can produce electricity using a self-powered electromagnet and chemical salts.  The working life of the device before needing a recharge is estimated at some seventy years.  The operation is controlled by a transmitter which bombards the chemical sample with 300 MHz radio waves.  This produces radioactive emissions from the chemical mixture for a period of one hour maximum, so the transmitter needs to be run for fifteen to thirty seconds once every hour.  The chemical mixture is shielded by a lead screen to prevent harmful radiation reaching the user.  The output from the tiny device described is estimated to be some 10 amps at 100 to 110 volts DC.

 

 

DESCRIPTION

This invention relates to a new apparatus for producing electric current the apparatus being in the form of a completely novel secondary battery.  The object of this invention is to provide apparatus of the above kind which is considerably lighter in weight than, and has an infinitely greater life than a known battery or similar characteristics and which can be re-activated as and when required in a minimum of time.

 

According to the present invention we provide apparatus comprising a generator unit which includes a magnet, a means for suspending a chemical mixture in the magnetic field, the mixture being composed of elements whose nuclei becomes unstable as a result of bombardment by short waves so that the elements become radio-active and release electrical energy, the mixture being mounted between, and in contact with, a pair of different metals such as copper and zinc, a capacitor mounted between those metals, a terminal electrically connected to each of the metals, means for conveying the waves to the mixture and a lead shield surrounding the mixture to prevent harmful radiation from the mixture.

 

The mixture is preferably composed of the elements Cadmium, Phosphorus and Cobalt having Atomic Weights of 112, 31 and 59 respectively.  The mixture, which may be of powdered form, is mounted in a tube of non-conducting, high heat resistivity material and is compressed between granulated zinc at one end of the tube and granulated copper at the other end, the ends of the tube being closed by brass caps and the tube being carried in a suitable cradle so that it is located between the poles of the magnet.  The magnet is preferably an electro-magnet and is energised by the current produced by the unit.

 

The means for conveying the waves to the mixture may be a pair of antennae which are exactly similar to the antennae of the transmitter unit for producing the waves, each antenna projecting from and being secured to the brass cap at each end of the tube.

 

The transmitter unit which is used for activating the generator unit may be of any conventional type operating on ultra-shortwave and is preferably crystal controlled at the desired frequency.

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

 

 

Fig.1 is a side elevation of one form of the apparatus.

 

 

 

Fig.2 is a view is an end elevation

 

 

 

Fig.3 is a schematic circuit diagram.

 

In the form of our invention illustrated, the generator unit comprises a base 10 upon which the various components are mounted.  This base 10, having projecting upwards from it a pair of arms 11, which form a cradle housing 12 for a quartz tube 13, the cradle 12 preferably being made of spring material so that the tube 13 is firmly, yet removably held in position.  The arms 11 are positioned relative to the poles 14 of an electromagnet 15 so that the tube 13 is located immediately between the poles of the magnet so as to be in the strongest magnetic field created by the electromagnet.  The magnet serves to control the alpha and beta rays emitted by the cartridge when it is in operation.

 

The ends of the quartz tube 13 are each provided with a brass cap 16, and these caps 16 are adapted to engage within the spring cradles 12 and the coils 17 associated with the magnet being so arranged that if the base 10 of the unit is in a horizontal plane, the poles 14 of the magnet are in a substantially vertical plane.

 

Also connected across the cradles is a lead capacitor 18 which may conveniently be housed in the base 10 of the unit and connected in parallel with this capacitor 18 is a suitable high frequency inductance coil 19.  The unit is provided with a lead shield 20 so as to prevent harmful radiation from the quartz tube as will be described later.

 

The quartz tube 13 has mounted in it, at one end, a quantity of granulated copper which is in electrical contact with the brass cap 16 at that end of the tube.  Also mounted within the tube and in contact with the granulated copper is a chemical mixture which is in powdered form and which is capable of releasing electrical energy and which becomes radioactive when subjected to bombardment by ultra-short radio waves.

 

Mounted in the other end of the tube, and in contact with the other end of the powdered chemical mixture is a quantity of granulated zinc which is itself in contact with the brass cap on this end of the tube, the arrangement being that the chemical mixture is compressed between the granulated copper and the granulated zinc.

 

Projecting outwards from each brass cap 16, and electrically connected to them, is an antenna 21.  Each antenna 21 corresponding exactly in dimension, shape and electrical characteristics to the antenna associated with a transmitter unit which is to produce the ultra shortwaves mentioned earlier.

 

The electromagnet 15 is conveniently carried by a centrally positioned pillar 22 which is secured to the base 10.  At the upper end of pillar 22 there is a cross-bar 23, which has the high frequency coil 19 attached to one end of it.  The other end of the cross-bar 23 is bent around into the curved shape as shown at 24 and is adapted to bear against a curved portion 25 of the base 26 of the electromagnet 15.  A suitable locking device is provided for holding the curved portions 24 and 25 in the desired angular position, so that the position of the poles 14 of the electromagnet can be adjusted about the axis of the quartz tube 13.

 

The transmitter unit is of any suitable conventional type for producing ultra shortwaves and may be crystal controlled to ensure that it operates at the desired frequency with the necessity of tuning.  If the transmitter is only required to operate over a short range, it may conveniently be battery powered but if it is to operate over a greater range, then it may be operated from a suitable electrical supply such as the mains.  If the transmitter is to be tuned, then the tuning may be operated by a dial provided with a micrometer vernier scale so that the necessary tuning accuracy may be achieved.

 

The mixture which is contained within the quartz tube is composed of the elements Cadmium, Phosphorus and Cobalt, having atomic weights 112, 31 and 59 respectively.  Conveniently, these elements may be present in the following compounds, and where the tube is to contain thirty milligrams of the mixture, the compounds and their proportions by weight are:

 

1 Part of Co (No3) 2 6H2O

2 Parts of CdCl2

3 Parts of 3Ca (Po3) 2 + 10C.

 

The cartridge which consists of the tube 13 with the chemical mixture in it is preferably composed of a number of small cells built up in series.  In other words, considering the cartridge from one end to the other, at one end and in contact with the brass cap, there would be a layer of powdered copper, then a layer of the chemical mixture, then a layer of powdered zinc, a layer of powdered copper, etc. with a layer of powdered zinc in contact with the brass cap at the other end of the cartridge.  With a cartridge some forty five millimetres long and five millimetres diameter, some fourteen cells may be included.

 

The cradles 12 in which the brass caps 16 engage, may themselves form terminals from which the output of the unit may be taken.  Alternatively, a pair of terminals 27 may be connected across the cradles 12, these terminals 27 being themselves provided with suitable antennae 28, which correspond exactly in dimensions, shape and electrical characteristics to the antennae associated with the transmitter, these antennae 28, replacing the antennae 21.

 

In operation with the quartz tube containing the above mixture located between the granulated copper and the granulated zinc and with the tube itself in position between the poles of the magnet, the transmitter is switched on and the ultra shortwaves coming from it are received by the antennae mounted at each end of the tube and in contact with the copper and zinc respectively, the waves being thus passed through the copper and zinc and through the mixture so that the mixture is bombarded by the short waves and the Cadmium, Phosphorus and Cobalt associated with the mixture become radioactive and release electrical energy which is transmitted to the granulated copper and granulated zinc, causing a current to flow between them in a similar manner to the current flow produced by a thermo couple.  It has been established that with a mixture having the above composition, the optimum release of energy is obtained when the transmitter is operating at a frequency of 300 MHz.

 

The provision of a quartz tube is necessary for the mixture evolves a considerable amount of heat while it is reacting to the bombardment of the short waves.  It is found that the tube will only last for one hour and that the tube will become discharged after an hours operation, that is to say, the radioactiveness of the tube will only last for one hour and it is therefore necessary, if the unit is to be run continuously, for the transmitter to be operated for a period of some fifteen to thirty seconds duration once every hour.

 

With a quartz tube having an overall length of some forty five millimetres and an inside diameter of five millimetres and containing thirty milligrams of the chemical mixture, the estimated energy which will be given off from the tube for a discharge of one hour, is 10 amps at between 100 and 110 volts.  To enable the tube to give off this discharge, it is only necessary to operate the transmitter at the desired frequency for a period of some fifteen to thirty seconds duration.

 

The current which is given off by the tube during its discharge is in the form of direct current.  During the discharge from the tube, harmful radiations are emitted in the form of gamma rays, alpha rays and beta rays and it is therefore necessary to mount the unit within a lead shield to prevent the harmful radiations from affecting personnel and objects in the vicinity of the unit.  The alpha and beta rays which are emitted from the cartridge when it is in operation are controlled by the magnet.

 

When the unit is connected up to some apparatus which is to be powered by it, it is necessary to provide suitable fuses to guard against the cartridge being short-circuited which could cause the cartridge to explode.

 

The estimated weight of such a unit including the necessary shielding, per kilowatt hour output, is approximately 25% of any known standard type of accumulator which is in use today and it is estimated that the life of the chemical mixture is probably in the region of seventy to eighty years when under constant use.

 

It will thus be seen that we have provided a novel form of apparatus for producing an electric current, which is considerably lighter than the standard type of accumulator at present known, and which has an infinitely greater life than the standard type of accumulator, and which can be recharged or reactivated as and when desired and from a remote position depending on the power output of the transmitter.  Such form of battery has many applications.

 

 

 

 

JONG-SOK AN: NO-LOAD GENERATOR

 

Patent US 6,208,061               27th March 2001                 Inventor: Jong-Sok An

 

NO-LOAD GENERATOR

 

 

Electrical power is frequently generated by spinning the shaft of a generator which has some arrangement of coils and magnets contained within it.  The problem is that when current is drawn from the take-off coils of a typical generator, it becomes much more difficult to spin the generator shaft.  The cunning design shown in this patent overcomes this problem with a simple design in which the effort required to turn the shaft is not altered by the current drawn from the generator.

 

 

ABSTRACT

A generator of the present invention is formed of ring permanent magnet trains 2 and 2' attached and fixed on to two orbits 1 and 1' about a rotational axis 3, magnetic induction primary cores 4 and 4' attached and fixed above outer peripheral surfaces of the ring permanent magnet trains 2 and 2' at a predetermined distance from the outer peripheral surfaces, magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5' attached and fixed on to the magnetic induction primary cores 4 and 4' and each having two coupling, holes 6 and 6' formed therein, tertiary cores 8 and 8' inserted for coupling respectively into two coupling holes 6 and 6' of each of the associated magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5' opposite to each other, and responsive coils 7 and 7'.  The ring permanent magnetic trains 2 and 2' are formed of 8 sets of magnets with alternating N and S poles, and magnets associated with each other in the axial direction have opposite polarities respectively and form a pair.

 

           

DESCRIPTION

 

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to generators, and particularly to a load-free generator which can maximise the generator efficiency by erasing or eliminating the secondary repulsive load exerted on the rotor during electric power generation.

 

 

BACKGROUND ART

The generator is a machine which converts mechanical energy obtained from sources of various types of energy such as physical, chemical or nuclear power energy, for example, into electric energy. Generators based on linear motion have recently been developed while most generators are structured as rotational type generators. Generation of electromotive force by electromagnetic induction is a common principle to generators regardless of their size or whether the generator is AC or DC generator.

 

The generator requires a strong magnet such as permanent magnet and electromagnet for generating magnetic field as well as a conductor for generating the electromotive force, and the generator is structured to enable one of them to rotate relative to the other. Depending on which of the magnet and the conductor rotates, generators can be classified into rotating-field type generators in which the magnetic field rotates and rotating-armature type generators in which the conductor rotates.

 

Although the permanent magnet can be used for generating the magnetic field, the electromagnet is generally employed which is formed of a magnetic field coil wound around a core to allow direct current to flow through them. Even if a strong magnet is used to enhance the rotational speed, usually the electromotive force produced from one conductor is not so great. Thus, in a generally employed system, a large number of conductors are provided in the generator and the electromotive forces generated from respective conductare serially added up so as to achieve a high electric power.

 

As discussed above, a usual generator produces electricity by mechanically rotating a magnet (or permanent magnet) or a conductor (electromagnet, electrically responsive coil and the like) while reverse current generated at this time by magnetic induction (electromagnetic induction) and flowing through the coil causes magnetic force which pulls the rotor so that the rotor itself is subjected to unnecessary load which reaches at least twice the electric power production.

 

 

Fig.6 illustrates that the load as discussed above is exerted on a rotor in a rotating-field type generator mentioned above.

 

Referring to Fig.6, a permanent magnet train 104 is arranged about an axis of rotation 106 such that N poles and S poles are alternately located on the outer peripheral surface of the train. At a certain distance outward from the outer periphery of permanent magnet train 104, a magnetic induction core 100 is arranged and a coil 102 is wound around magnetic induction core 100.

 

As permanent magnet train 104 rotates, the magnetic field produced in the coil by permanent magnet train 104 changes to cause induced current to flow through coil 102. This induced current allows coil 102 to generate a magnetic field 110 which causes a repulsive force exerted on permanent magnet train 104 in the direction which interferes the rotation of the magnet train.

 

For example, in the example shown in Fig.6, the S pole of magnetic field 110 faces permanent magnet train 104. The S pole of permanent magnet train 104 approaches coil 102 because of rotation of permanent magnet train 104, resulting in the repulsive force as described above.

 

If reverse current flows in a responsive coil of an armature wound around a magnetic induction core of a generator so that the resulting load hinders the rotor from rotating, reverse magnetic field of the armature responsive coil becomes stronger in proportion to the electricity output and accordingly a load corresponding to at least twice the instantaneous consumption could occur.

 

If electric power of 100W is used, for example, reverse magnetic field of at least 200W is generated so that an enormous amount of load affects the rotor to interfere the rotation of the rotor.

 

All of the conventional generators are subjected to not only a mechanical primary load, i.e. the load when the electric power is not consumed but a secondary load due to reverse current which is proportional to electric power consumption and consequently subjected to a load of at least twice the instantaneous consumption.

 

Such an amount of the load is a main factor of reduction of the electric power production efficiency, and solution of the problem above has been needed.

 

 

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION

One object of the present invention is to provide a generator capable of generating electric power with high efficiency by cancelling out the secondary load except the mechanical load of the generator, i.e. cancelling out the load which is generated due to reverse current of a responsive coil of an armature wound around a magnetic induction core, so as to entirely prevent the secondary load from being exerted.

 

In short, the present invention is applied to a load-free generator including a rotational axis, a first ring magnet train, a second ring magnet train, a first plurality of first magnetic induction primary cores, a first plurality of second magnetic induction primary cores, a first responsive coil, and a second responsive coil.

 

The first ring magnet train has N poles and S poles successively arranged on an outer periphery of a first rotational orbit about the rotational axis. The second ring magnet train has magnets successively arranged on an outer periphery of a second rotational orbit about the rotational axis at a predetermined distance from the first rotational orbit such that the polarities of the magnets on the second rotational orbit are opposite to the polarities at opposite locations on the first rotational orbit respectively. The first plurality of first magnetic induction primary cores are fixed along a first peripheral surface of the first ring magnet train at a predetermined distance from the first peripheral surface. The first plurality of second magnetic induction primary cores are fixed along a second peripheral surface of the second ring magnet train at a predetermined distance from the second peripheral surface. A first plurality of first coupling magnetic induction cores and a first plurality of second coupling magnetic induction cores are provided in pairs to form a closed magnetic circuit between the first and second magnetic induction primary cores opposite to each other in the direction of the rotational axis. The first responsive coil is wound around the first coupling magnetic induction core. The second responsive coil is wound around the second coupling magnetic induction core, the direction of winding of the second responsive coil being reversed relative to the first responsive coil.

 

Preferably, in the load-free generator of the invention, the first ring magnet train includes a permanent magnet train arranged along the outer periphery of the first rotational orbit, and the second ring magnet train includes a permanent magnet train arranged along the outer periphery of the second rotational orbit.

 

Still preferably, the load-free generator of the present invention further includes a first plurality of first magnetic induction secondary cores provided on respective outer peripheries of the first magnetic induction primary cores and each having first and second coupling holes, and a first plurality of second magnetic induction secondary cores provided on respective outer peripheries of the second magnetic induction primary cores and each having third and fourth coupling holes. The first coupling magnetic induction cores are inserted into the first and third coupling holes to couple the first and second magnetic induction secondary cores, and the second coupling magnetic induction cores are inserted into the second and fourth coupling holes to couple the first and second magnetic induction secondary cores.

 

Alternatively, the load-free generator of the present invention preferably has a first plurality of first responsive coils arranged in the rotational direction about the rotational aids that are connected zigzag to each other and a first plurality of second responsive coils arranged in the rotational direction about the rotational axis that are connected zigzag to each other.

 

Alternatively, in the load-free generator of the present invention, preferably the first plurality is equal to 8, and the 8 first responsive coils arranged in the rotational direction about the rotational axis are connected zigzag to each other, and the 8 second responsive coils arranged in the rotational direction about the rotational axis are connected zigzag to each other.

 

Accordingly, a main advantage of the present invention is that two responsive coils wound respectively in opposite directions around a paired iron cores are connected to cancel reverse magnetic forces generated by reverse currents (induced currents) flowing through the two responsive coils, so that the secondary load which interferes the rotation of the rotor is totally prevented and thus a load-free generator can be provided which is subjected to just a load which is equal to or less than mechanical load when electric power production is not done, i.e. the rotational load even when the generator is operated to the maximum.

 

Another advantage of the present invention is that the reverse magnetic force, as found in the conventional generators, due to reverse current occurring when the rotor rotates is not generated, and accordingly load of energy except the primary gravity of the rotor and dynamic energy of the rotor is eliminated to increase the amount of electricity output relative to the conventional electric power generation system and thus enhance the electric power production and economic efficiency.

 

 

 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

 

Fig.1 is a cross sectional view of a rotating-field type generator according to an embodiment of the present invention illustrating an arrangement a permanent magnet, magnetic induction cores and coils.

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.2 is a partial schematic view illustrating a magnetic array of the permanent magnet rotor and an arrangement of one of magnetically responsive coils placed around that rotor in an embodiment of the present invention.

 

Fig.3 illustrates a structure of the magnetically responsive coils and cores in the embodiment of the present invention.

 

 

Fig.4 is an enlarged plan view of magnetically sensitive cores and coil portions of the load-free generator of the present invention illustrating magnetic flow therethrough.

 

 

Fig.5 is an exploded view about a central axis showing the interconnection of magnetic field coils which are respectively wound around tertiary cores surrounding the permanent magnet rotor in FIG. 1 according to the present invention.

 

 

 

Fig.6 illustrates generation of the secondary load in a conventional generator.

 

 

 

 

BEST MODES FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION

The structure and operation of a load-free generator according to the present invention are now described in conjunction with the drawings.

 

Fig.1 illustrates a cross sectional structure of the load-free generator of the invention perpendicular to a rotational axis 3.

 

Fig.2 partially illustrates a cross sectional structure of the load-free generator of the invention in parallel to rotational axis 3.  Specifically, in Fig.2, only one of eight sets of magnetic induction primary cores 4 and 4' arranged around rotational axis 3 as described below is representatively shown.

Referring to Fig.1 and Fig.2, the structure of the load-free generator of the invention is now described. Permanent magnet trains 2 and 2' in ring forms are attached and fixed to respective left and right orbits 1 and 1' provided relative to rotational axis 3 with a certain interval between them.  Permanent magnet trains 2 and 2' are fixed onto left and right orbits 1 and 1' respectively such that the polarities on the outer peripheral surface of each magnet train relative to the rotational axis are alternately N poles and S poles. The permanent magnet trains are rotatable about the axis. Further, the facing polarities of respective permanent magnet train 2 and permanent magnet train 2' relative to the direction of rotational axis 3 are arranged to be opposite.

 

As shown in Fig.2, rotational axis 3 and a case 9 are joined by a bearing 10 at a certain distance from the permanent magnet trains 2 and 2'.

 

At a predetermined distance from permanent magnet trains 2 and 2', magnetic induction primary cores 4 and 4' with respective coils wound around them are fixed to case 9.

 

In addition, magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5' each having two coupling holes 6 and 6' formed therein are structured by stacking and coupling a plurality of thin cores attached and fixed to magnetic induction primary cores 4 and 4' respectively and the secondary cores are attached and fixed to case 9.

 

Magnetic induction tertiary cores 8 and 8' are inserted respectively into coupling holes 6 and 6' of magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5' so as to couple magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5' of each other.

 

Responsive coils 7 and 7' are wound in opposite directions to each other around respective magnetic induction cores 8 and 8'.

 

Fig.3 illustrates a structure formed of magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5', magnetic induction cores 8 and 8' and responsive coils 7 and 7' viewed in the direction perpendicular to rotational axis 3.

 

As explained above, the directions of windings of responsive coils 7 and 7' are respectively opposite to each other around magnetic induction cores 8 and 8' which couple magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5'.

 

In the structure described in conjunction with Fig.1, Fig.2 and Fig.3, when rotational axis 3 of the generator rotates, permanent magnetic trains 2 and 2' accordingly rotate to generate magnetically sensitive currents (electromagnetically induced current) in responsive coils 7 and 7' and the current thus produced can be drawn out for use.

 

As shown in Fig.3, the coils are wound about magnetic induction cores 8 and 8' respectively in the opposite directions in the generator of the present invention, and the directions of the magnetic fields generated by the flow of the induced currents are arranged such that the N pole and S pole alternately occurs around rotational axis 3.

 

Fig.4 illustrates magnetic fields induced in a set of magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5', magnetic induction cores 8 and 8' and responsive coils 7 and 7'.

 

At iron strips on both ends of respective magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5', a reverse current magnetic field is generated by responsive coil 7 upon the rotation of N and S poles of permanent magnet trains 2 and 2' is in the direction of MA shown in Fig.4, for example, while a reverse current magnetic field generated by responsive coil 7 is in the direction of MB in Fig.4.  Consequently, the reverse magnetic fields generated by the flow of currents cancel each other. The cores are formed of a plurality of iron strips in order to eliminate heat generated by eddy currents.

 

The magnetic field of the rotor thus has no dependence on the flow of currents, the load caused by the induced magnetisation phenomenon disappears, and energy of movement necessary for rotation against the mechanical primary load of the rotor itself is applied to the rotor.

 

At this time, a magnetic circuit including magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5' and magnetic induction tertiary cores 8 and 8' should be shaped into ".quadrature." form. If the circuit does not structured as ".quadrature." form, a part of the reverse magnetic field functions as electrical force which hinders the rotational force of the rotor.

 

Further, permanent magnet trains 2 and 2' of the rotor are arranged to have opposite poles to each other on the left and right sides as shown in Fig.2 so as to constitute the flow of magnetic flux.  Each rotor has alternately arranged magnets, for example, eight poles are provided to enhance the generator efficiency.

 

More detailed description of the operational principle is given now. When the rotor in Fig.1 rotates once, S and N poles of permanent magnets 2 and 2' attached to the periphery of the rotor successively supply magnetic fields to induction primary cores 4 above, and magnetic field is accordingly generated in a path from one orbit of the rotor along induction primary core 4, induction secondary core 5, induction tertiary core 8, induction secondary core 5', induction primary core 4' to the other orbit of the rotor as shown in Fig.2.

 

Accordingly, current flows in the coils affected by this electric field to generate electric power. For example, if the generated power is used as generated output for switching on an electric light or for using it as motive energy, the current flowing through the coils generates the reverse magnetic fields. However, this reverse magnetic fields do not influence permanent magnets 2 and 2' attached to the rotor in Fig.2 since the reverse magnetic fields of the same magnitude respectively of S and N or N and S on both ends of magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5' cancel out each other as shown in Fig.4. Because of this, the rotor is in a no-load state in which any resistance except the weight of the rotor itself and dynamic resistance is not exerted on the rotor.

 

Fig.5 illustrates a manner of connecting magnetically responsive coils 7 and 7' wound around magnetic induction tertiary cores 8 and 8' with eight poles.

 

Referring to Fig.5, according to a method of connecting magnetically responsive coils 7 and 7' , line 1a1 of responsive coil 7' (one drawn-out line of the wire coiled around a first magnetic induction core 8) is connected to line 1a2' (one drawn-out line of the wire coiled around a second magnetic induction core 8), and then line 1a2 (the other drawn-out line of the wire coiled around a second magnetic induction core 8) is connected to line 1a3', and subsequently lines 1a and 1a' are connected successively in zigzag manner to allow current to flow.  Further, responsive coil 7 is arranged to connect lines represented by 1b1 in zigzag manner such that lines 1b and 1b' are successively connected.  In this way, lines 1b, 1b' and lines 1a and 1a' of respective magnetically responsive coils 7 and 7' are connected.  As a whole, total four electric wires are drawn out for use.

 

When electric power is to be generated according to the present invention as described above, specifically, a closed circuit is formed by responsive coils 7 and 7', electric currents are induced in responsive coils 7 and 7' wound around the magnetic induction cores of the generator, and the induced magnetic fields produced respectively by responsive coils 7 and 7' could cause a great load which interferes the rotational force of the rotor. However, as shown in Fig.4, the direction of convolution of one coil 7 is opposite to that of the other coil 7' so that the magnetic force generated by the reverse currents (induced currents) in responsive coils 7 and 7' wound around magnetic induction core 4 is not transmitted to magnetic induction cores 8 and 8 accordingly no reverse magnetic force is transmitted to permanent magnets 2 and 2'.

 

Therefore, each time the N poles and S poles alternate with each other because of the alternation of permanent magnets 2 and 2' shown in Fig.2, the reverse magnetic forces in the right and left direction opposite to the direction of arrows denoted by MA and MB completely disappear as shown in Fig.4. Consequently, the reverse magnetic forces caused by the reverse currents are not influenced by permanent magnets 2 and 2' and accordingly no load except the mechanical primary load is exerted on the generator of the invention.

 

As discussed above, the load-free generator of the present invention, secondary load except mechanical load of the generator, i.e. the load caused by the reverse currents flowing through the responsive coils can be nulled. With regard to this load-free generator, even if 100% of the current generated by magnetic induction (electromagnetic induction) is used, the magnetic secondary load due to the reverse currents except the mechanical primary load does not serve as load.

 

Although the number of poles of the rotor is described as 8 in the above description, the present invention is not limited to such a structure, and the invention can exhibit its effect when the smaller or greater number of poles is applied.

 

Further, although the magnet of the rotor is described as the permanent magnet in the above structure, the invention is not limited to such a case and the magnet of the rotor may be an electromagnet, for example.

 

In addition, although the description above is applied to the structure of the rotating-field type generator, the generator may be of the rotating-armature type.

 

 

EXPERIMENTAL EXAMPLE

More detailed description of the generator of the present invention is hereinafter given based on specific experimental examples of the invention.

 

The generator of the present invention and a conventional generator were used to measure the electric power production efficiency and the amount of load and compare the resultant measurements.

 

EXPERIMENTAL EXAMPLE 1

A 12-pole alternating current (AC) generator for battery charging was used, and the electricity output and the load when 50% of the electricity output was used as well as those when 100% of the electricity output was used were measured. The generator above is a single-phase AC motor and the employed power source was 220V, with 1750 rpm and the efficiency of 60%. The result of measurement using power of a motor of 0.5HP and ampere .times.volt gauge is shown in Table 1.

 

EXPERIMENTAL EXAMPLE 2

Measurement was done under the same conditions as those of experimental example 1 and a generator used was the one which was made according to the present invention to have the same conditions as those of the product of the existing model above. The result of measurement using ampere x volt gauge is shown in Table 1.

 

Table 1

 

50% Electricity

Used

100% Electricity

Used

Type of Generator

Electricity Output

 (Watts)

Amount of Load

(Watts)

Electricity Output

 (Watts)

Amount of Load

(Watts)

Conventional:

100

221

14

347

This invention:

100

220

183

200

(electricity output and load amount of the alternating current generators when 50% and 100% of the electricity were used)

 

From the result of Experimental Example 1 above, the reason for the remarkable reduction of the electricity output when the electricity consumption was 100% relative to the electricity consumption of 50% in the conventional generator is considered to be the significant increase of the repulsive load exerted on the generator when 100% of the electricity is used.

 

On the other hand, in the generator of the present invention, there was no appreciable difference in the amount of load between those cases in which 50% of the electricity was used and 100% thereof was used respectively. Rather, the amount of load slightly decreased (approximately 20W) when 100% of the electricity was used. In view of this, it can be understood that the amount of generated electric power of the generator of the present invention is approximately doubled as the electricity consumption increases, which is different from the conventional generator producing electric power which sharply decreases when the electricity consumption increases.

 

In conclusion, the amount of load above is supposed to be numerical value relative to the mechanical load of the generator as described above. Any secondary load except this, i.e. load due to the reverse currents generated in the armature responsive coils can be confirmed as zero.

 

EXPERIMENTAL EXAMPLE 3

12V direct current (DC) generators having similar conditions to those in experimental example 1 were used to make measurement under the same conditions (efficiency 80%). The result of the measurement is presented below.

 

Table 2

 

50% Electricity

Used

100% Electricity

Used

Type of Generator

Electricity Output

 (Watts)

Amount of Load

(Watts)

Electricity Output

 (Watts)

Amount of Load

(Watts)

Conventional:

103

290

21

298

This invention:

107

282

236

272

(electricity output and load amount of the alternating current generators when 50% and 100% of the electricity were used)

 

The DC generator has higher efficiency (80%) than that of the AC generator, while use of the brush increases the cost of the DC generator. When 100% of the electricity was used, the amount of load slightly decreased which was similar to the result shown in Table 1 and the electricity output was approximately at least 2.2 times that when 50% of the electricity was used.

 

 

EXPERIMENTAL EXAMPLE 4

A 220V single-phase alternating current (AC) generator (0.5HP) having similar conditions to those in experimental example 1 was used, and the rotation per minute (rpm) was changed to make measurement under the condition of 100% consumption of the generated electricity. The result of measurement is illustrated in the following Table 3.

 

Table 3

1750

rpm

3600

rpm

5100

rpm

Electricity Output

 (Watts)

Amount of Load

(Watts)

Electricity Output

 (Watts)

Amount of Load

(Watts)

Electricity Output

 (Watts)

Amount of Load

(Watts)

130

160

210

228

307

342

(amounts of generated electric power and load when the rotation per minute of the generator of the present invention was varied)

 

As shown in Table 3 above, as the rotation per minute (rpm) increases as from 1750, 3600 to 5100, the amount of electric power increases respectively from 130, 210 to 307W and consequently the difference between the amount of generated electric power and the amount of load decreases to cause relative decrease of the amount of load as the rotation per minute (rpm) increases.

 

 

EXPERIMENTAL EXAMPLE 5

Measurement was done by changing the number of N and S poles of the permanent magnets of the invention under the same conditions as those of experimental example 1 and under the condition that 100% of the generated electricity was used.

 

The result of the measurement is illustrated below.

 

Table 4

2

poles

4

poles

8

poles

Electricity Output

 (Watts)

Amount of Load

(Watts)

Electricity Output

 (Watts)

Amount of Load

(Watts)

Electricity Output

 (Watts)

Amount of Load

(Watts)

80

152

130

200

265

296

(amounts of generated electric power and load when the number of poles of the permanent magnets of the generator of the invention was changed)

 

From Table 4 above, it can be understood that as the number of poles increases, both of the amounts of generated electric power and load increase.  However, the ratio of the amount of generated electric power to the amount of load monotonously increases.  In the table above, in terms of the amount of load, only the mechanical primary load is exerted and electrical secondary is not exerted.

 

The increase of the number of poles causes increase, by the number of increased poles, in the number of lines of magnetic flux which coils traverse, and accordingly the electromotive force increases to increase the amount of generated electric power. On the other hand, the amount of mechanical load has a constant value regardless of the increase of the number of poles, so that the mechanical load amount relatively decreases to reduce the difference between the amount of load and the amount of generated electric power.

 

Detailed description of the present invention which has been given above is just for the purpose of presenting example and illustration, not for limitation. It will dearly be appreciated that the spirit and scope of the invention will be limited only by the attached scope of claims.

 

 

 

 

ALBERTO MOLINA-MARTINEZ: ELECTRICAL GENERATOR

 

Patent Application US 20020125774     6th March 2002     Inventor: Alberto Molina-Martinez

 

CONTINUOUS ELECTRICAL GENERATOR

 

 

This patent application shows the details of a device which it is claimed, can produce sufficient electricity to power both itself and external loads.  It also has no moving parts.

 

 

ABSTRACT

A stationary cylindrical electromagnetic core, made of one piece thin laminations stacked to desired height, having closed slots radially distributed, where two three-phase winding arrangements are placed together in the same slots, one to the centre, one to the exterior, for the purpose of creating a rotational electromagnetic field by temporarily applying a three-phase current to one of the windings, and by this means, inducting a voltage on the second one, in such a way that the outgoing energy is a lot greater than the input.  A return will feedback the system and the temporary source is then disconnected. The generator will run by itself indefinitely, permanently generating a great excess of energy.

 

 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates generally to electrical power generating systems. More specifically, the present invention relates to self-feeding electrical power generating units.

 

2. Description of Related Art

Since Nikola Tesla invented and patented his Polyphase System for Generators, Induction Motors and Transformers, no essential improvement has been made in the field. The generators would produce the polyphase voltages and currents by means of mechanical rotational movement in order to force a magnetic field to rotate across the generator's radially spaced windings. The basis of the induction motor system was to create an electro-magnetically rotating field, instead of a mechanically rotated magnetic field, which would induce voltages and currents to generate electromotive forces usable as mechanical energy or power. Finally, the transformers would manipulate the voltages and currents to make them feasible for their use and transmission for long distances.

 

In all present Electric Generators a small amount of energy, normally less than one percent of the outgoing power in big generators, is used to excite the mechanically rotated electromagnetic poles that will induce voltages and currents in conductors having a relative speed or movement between them and the polar masses.

 

The rest of the energy used in the process of obtaining electricity, is needed to move the masses and to overcome the losses of the system: mechanical losses; friction losses; brushes losses, windage losses; armature reaction losses; air gap losses; synchronous reactance losses; eddy current losses; hysteresis losses, all of which, in conjunction, are responsible for the excess in power input (mechanical power) required to generate always smaller amounts of electric power.

 

 

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The Continuous Electrical Generator consists of a stationary cylindrical electromagnetic core made of one piece thin laminations stacked together to form a cylinder, where two three-phase windings arrangements are placed in the same slots not having any physical relative speed or displacement between them.  When one of the windings is connected to a temporary three-phase source, an electromagnetic rotating field is created, and the field this way created will cut the stationary coils of the second winding, inducting voltages and currents. In the same way and extent as in common generators, about one percent or less of the outgoing power will be needed to keep the rotational magnetic field excited.

 

In the Continuous Electrical Generator there are no mechanical losses; friction losses; brush losses; windage losses; armature reaction losses; or air gap losses, because there is not any movement of any kind. There are: synchronous reactance losses, eddy current losses and hysteresis losses, which are inherent to the design, construction and the materials of the generator, but in the same extent as in common generators.

 

One percent or less of the total energy produced by present electric generators goes to create their own magnetic field; a mechanical energy that exceeds the total output of present generators is used to make them rotate in the process of extracting electrical currents from them. In the Continuous Electrical Generator there is no need for movement since the field is in fact already rotating electro-magnetically, so all that mechanical energy will not be needed. Under similar conditions of exciting currents, core mass and windings design, the Continuous Electrical Generator is significantly more efficient than present generators, which also means that it can produce significantly more than the energy it needs to operate. The Continuous Electrical Generator can feedback the system, the temporary source may be disconnected and the Generator will run indefinitely.

 

As with any other generator, the Continuous Electrical Generator may excite its own electromagnetic field with a minimum part of the electrical energy produced. The Continuous Electrical Generator only needs to be started up by connecting its inducting three-phase windings to a three-phase external source for an instant, and then to be disconnected, to start the system as described herein. Then, disconnected, it will run indefinitely generating a great excess of electric power to the extent of its design.

 

The Continuous Electrical Generator can be designed and calculated with all mathematical formulas in use today to design and calculate electrical generators and motors. It complies with all of the laws and parameters used to calculate electrical induction and generation of electricity today.

 

Except for the Law of Conservation of Energy, which, by itself, is not a mathematical equation but a theoretical concept and by the same reason does not have any role in the mathematical calculation of an electrical generator of any type, the Continuous Electrical Generator complies with all the Laws of Physics and Electrical Engineering. The Continuous Electrical Generator obligates us to review the Law of Conservation of Energy. In my personal belief, the electricity has never come from the mechanical energy that we put into a machine to move the masses against all oppositions. The mechanical system is actually providing the path for the condensation of electricity.  The Continuous Electrical Generator provides a more efficient path for the electricity.

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

Fig.1 shows one embodiment of the present invention.

 

 

Fig.2 shows an internal wiring diagram for the embodiment of the present invention shown in Fig.1.

 

 

Fig.3 shows a single laminate for an alternate embodiment of the present invention.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.4 shows a two-piece single laminate for another alternate embodiment of the present invention.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.5 shows a wiring diagram for an embodiment of the present invention constructed from the laminate shown in Fig.3 or Fig.4.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.6 shows the magnetic flux pattern produced by the present invention.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.7 shows the rotational magnetic field patterns produced by the present invention.

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.8 shows the complete system of the present invention.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.9 is an expanded view of the alternate embodiment of the present invention shown in Fig.3 or Fig.4.

 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is a Continuous and Autonomous Electrical Generator, capable of producing more energy than it needs to operate, and which provides itself the energy needed to operate. The basic idea consists in the induction of electric voltages and currents without any physical movement by the use of a rotational magnetic field created by a three-phase stator connected temporarily to a three-phase source, and placing stationary conductors on the path of said rotational magnetic field, eliminating the need of mechanical forces.

 

 

The basic system can be observed in Fig.1, which shows one embodiment of the present invention. There is a stationary ferromagnetic core 1 with a three-phase inducting windings 3, spaced 120 degrees and connected in Y 6 in order to provide a rotating electromagnetic field, when a three-phase voltage is applied; for the case, a two-pole arrangement. Inside this core 1 there is a second stationary ferromagnetic core 2, with no space between them, this is, with no air-gap.  This second core 2 has also a three-phase stationary winding arrangement (4a in Fig.4b  and 4b in Fig.2), aligned as shown in Fig.1 and Fig.2 with the external core inducting windings 3. There is not any movement between the two cores, since there is no air-gap between them.

 

There is no shaft on either core since these are not rotating cores. The two cores can be made of stacked insulated laminations or of insulated compressed and bonded ferromagnetic powder. The system works either way, inducting three-phase voltages and currents on the stationary conductors 4a of the internal windings 4b, applying three-phase currents to terminals A 5a, B 5b and C 5c of the external windings 3; or inducting three-phase voltages and currents on the external windings 3, by applying three-phase currents to the terminals T1 7a, T2 7b and T3 7c, of the internal windings 4b.  When a three-phase voltage is applied to terminals A 5a, B 5b and C 5c, the currents will have the same magnitude, but will be displaced in time by an angle of 120 degrees.  These currents produce magneto motive-forces, which, in turn, create a rotational magnetic flux.  The arrangements may vary widely as they occur with present alternators and three-phase motors, but the basics remain the same, a stationary but electro-magnetically rotating magnetic field, inducting voltages and currents on the stationary conductors placed on the path of said rotating magnetic field. The diagram is showing a two-pole arrangement for both windings, but many other arrangements may be used, as in common generators and motors.

 

 

Fig.2 shows the three-phase arrangement of the internal winding 4b which has provided, in practice, symmetrical voltages and currents, due to a space angle of 120 degrees.  It is similar to a two-pole arrangement. Many other three-phase or poly-phase arrangements may be used.  Wherever a conductor is crossed by a rotational magnetic field, a voltage will be induced across its terminals.  The interconnections depend on the use that we will give to the system.  In this case, we will have a three-phase voltage in terminals T1 7a, T2 7b and T3 7c and a neutral 8.  The outgoing voltage depends on the density of the rotational magnetic flux, the number of turns of the conductor, the frequency (instead of the speed) and the length of the conductor crossed by the field, as in any other generator.

 

Fig.3 shows an alternate embodiment of the present invention in which the generator is made from multiple one-piece laminations 9, stacked as a cylinder to the desired height.  This embodiment can also be made of a one-piece block of compressed and bonded insulated ferromagnetic powder. The same slot 10 will accommodate the internal 4a/4b and the external windings 3, that is, the inducting and the induced windings (see Fig.5).   In this case, a 24-slot laminate is shown, but the number of slots may vary widely according to the design and needs.

 

Fig.4 shows a two-piece single laminate for another alternate embodiment of the present invention.  For practical effects the lamination can be divided into two pieces 9a, 9b, as shown, to facilitate the insertion of the coils.  Then, they are solidly assembled without separation between them, as if they were only one piece.

 

The laminates described above may be constructed with thin (0.15 mm thick or less) insulated laminations 9 or 9a and 9b of a high magnetic permeability material and low hysteresis losses such as Hiperco 50A, or similar, to reduce losses or with compressed electrically isolated ferromagnetic powder, which has lower eddy current losses and also may have low hysteresis losses, which can make the generator highly efficient.

 

 

 

OPERATING THE GENERATOR

The Continuous Electrical Generator as described and shown in the following drawings is designed and calculated to produce a strong rotating electromagnetic field with low exciting currents.  By using a laminated material, such as the said Hiperco 50A, we can achieve rotating magnetic fields above two Teslas, since there are no air gap losses, mechanical losses, windage losses, armature reaction losses, etc. as said before.  This may be obtained by applying a temporary three-phase current to the terminals A, B and C 12 of the inducting coils 13, 14 and 15 (5a, 5b and 5c in Fig.1), spaced 120 degrees from each other (see Fig.5).

 

 

Fig.5 shows the spatial distribution of the inducting windings 13, 14 and 15, as well as the induced windings 18a, 18b, 19a, 19b, 20a and 20b.  Both, the inducting and the induced windings are placed in the same slots 10 or 16 and 17, with similar arrangements.  Even though the system works in both directions, the better configuration seems to be to place the inducting windings 13, 14 and 15, to the centre and the induced windings 18a, 18b, 19a, 19b, 20a and 20b, to the exterior, since small windings will be needed to induce a very strong rotational magnetic field, due to the small losses involved in the process, and in exchange, bigger and powerful windings will be needed to extract all the energy that the system will provide. Both windings are connected in Y (not shown), but they can be connected in different ways, as any other generator.  These arrangements are equivalent to the arrangements shown for the embodiment in Fig.1 and Fig.2.

 

The inducting coils 13, 14 and 15 are designed and calculated so that the generator may be started with common three-phase lines voltages (230 Volts 60 Hz per phase, for example).  If the local lines voltages are not appropriate, we can control the voltage to the designed level by means of a three-phase variable transformer, an electronic variator or inverter etc.  Once we have such strong magnetic field rotating and crossing the stationary induced coils 18a, 18b, 19a, 19b, 20a and 20b, a three-phase voltage will be induced across terminals T1, T2, T3 and N 21 in proportion to the magnetic flux density, the number of turns in the coils, the frequency used (instead of the speed), the length of the conductors cut by the rotating field, as in any other alternator.   We can connect, as we desire in Y or delta, etc., as in any other alternator or generator.  The outgoing currents will be three-phase currents (or poly-phase currents depending on the arrangement) and we can have a neutral 21 if we are using a Y connection, as in any other alternator.

 

The outgoing alternate voltages and currents are perfect sinusoidal waves, perfectly spaced in time, and totally symmetrical. The voltages and currents obtained by this method are usable in any conventional manner.   Any voltage can be produced, depending on the design.

 

Fig.6 shows the magnetic flux pattern produced by the three-phase inducting windings 13, 14 and 15.  This pattern is similar to the pattern of an induction motor's stators.  Since there is no air gap; the whole path for the magnetic flux is homogeneous with no change in materials. The core is made of thin insulated laminations of a high magnetic permeability and low hysteresis loss material; eddy current losses are minimal due to the thin lamination.  There are no counter fluxes or armature reactions thus the magnetic flux may be near to saturation with a small exciting current or input energy.  Due to the time differential between the three phases and the spatial distribution of the inducting windings, a rotational magnetic field will be created in the core, as shown in Fig.7.

 

Once the generator is started, a small part of the energy obtained is sent back (Fig.8 and Fig.9) to feed the inducting coils 3 (in Fig.1) or 13, 14 and 15 (in Fig.5), as in any other auto-excited alternator or generator. Of course voltages and phases should be perfectly identical and aligned, and if necessary the feedback voltages should be controlled and handled by means of variable transformers, electronic variators, phase shifters (to align phases) or other type of voltage or phase controllers.

 

One possible method consists of the use of an electronic converter or variator 25 which initially converts two or three lines of alternating current 24 to direct current by an electronic rectifier 26 and then, electronically, converts the direct current 27 to three-phase current 28 to supply three-phase currents spaced in time 120 degrees for the electromagnetic fields A, B and C 3.  Some variators or converters can accept two lines of voltage, while others will accept only a three-phase line voltage. This embodiment uses a variator of 3 kVA that accepts two 220-volt lines.

 

The rotational magnetic field created by the currents going through the inducting three-phase windings 13, 14 and 15, will induce a voltage across the terminals T1, T2, T3, N, 29 (7a, 7b, 7c, 8 in Fig.2). Then, from the outgoing current lines 29, a derivation is made 30 to feed back the system, converting the feed back alternate currents, by means of electronic diode rectifiers 31, to direct current 32 and then feed back the electronic converter or variator 25 to the DC terminals of the electronic rectifier 26 (See Fig.8).  Once the feedback is connected, the Continuous Electrical Generator may be disconnected from the temporary source 24, and will continue generating electric energy indefinitely.

 

In Fig.9, an alternate embodiment of the Continuous Electrical Generator can be observed. The basic principles remain the same as for the embodiment described above and shown in Fig.1 and Fig.2. The basic differences are in the shape of the laminations and the physical distribution of the windings, as discussed and shown previously.   A variation of the feedback, using a variable and shifting transformers is also shown.

 

The ferromagnetic core 11 is made of one-piece laminates 9 as shown in Fig.3 (or two for convenience 9a, 9b as shown in Fig.4) stacked to the desired height. The slots 10, as indicated before, will accommodate both the inducting 13, 14 and 15 and the induced 18a-b, 19a-b and 20a-b windings in the same slot 10 or 16 and 17.  The incoming three phase lines 12 feed the inducting three-phase windings 13, 14 and 15.  They are fed, initially by the temporary source 33 in the first instance, and by the three-phase return 34 once the generator is running by itself.

 

The inducting windings 13, 14 and 15 have a two-pole arrangement, but many other three-phase or poly-phase arrangements can be made to obtain an electromagnetic rotating field.  These windings are connected in Y (not shown) in the same way shown for the embodiment shown in Fig.1, Fig.2 and Fig.8, but may be connected in many different ways.   The inducting windings 13, 14 and 15 are located in the internal portion 16 of the slot 10 (Fig.5).

 

The induced windings 18a-b, 19a-b and 20a-b have a two-pole arrangement, exactly equal to the arrangement for the inducting windings 13, 14 and 15, but many other arrangements can be made depending on the design and the needs.  The induced windings must be calculated in a way that the generator will have the lowest possible synchronous reactance and resistance.  In this way, most of the outgoing power will go to the charge instead of staying to overcome the internal impedance.  These windings are connected in Y to generate a neutral 21, in the same way shown in the embodiment of the present invention shown in Fig.2, but may be connected in different ways according to the needs.  The induced windings 18a-b, 19a-b and 20a-b are located in the external portion 17 of the slot 10.

 

The outgoing three-phase and neutral lines 21 come from the induced windings 18a-b, 19a-b and 20a-b. The rotational magnetic field created in the core (see Fig.6 & Fig.7) by the inducting windings 13, 14 and 15, induces a voltage across the terminals T1, T2 and T3, plus a neutral, 29.   From each of the three-phase outgoing lines 21, a return derivation 34 is made to feedback the system.

 

The temporary three-phase source 33 is temporarily connected to terminals A, B and C 12. The Continuous Electrical Generator must be started with an external three-phase source for an instant, and then disconnected.

 

Even though the return lines voltage can be calculated and obtained precisely by tabbing the induced windings at the voltage required by the inducting windings (according to the design), it may be convenient to place a three-phase variable transformer or other type of voltage controller 35 in the middle for more precise adjustment of the return voltage.

 

Placed after the variable transformer 35, the three-phase shifting transformer 36 will correct and align any phase shift in the voltage and currents angles, before the return is connected. This system functions similarly to the system shown in Fig.8 which uses a variator or a converter 25.

 

Once the voltage and phases are aligned with the temporary source 33, the return lines 34 are connected to the incoming lines A, B and C 12 at feedback connection 37 and the temporary source 33 is then disconnected.  The Continuous Electrical Generator will remain working indefinitely without any external source of energy, providing a great excess of energy permanently.

 

The outgoing electric energy provided by this system has been used to produce light and heat, run poly-phase motors, generate usable mono-phase and poly-phase voltages and currents, transform voltages and currents by means of transformers, convert the alternate outgoing poly-phase currents to direct current, as well as for other uses.  The electricity obtained by the means described is as versatile and perfect as the electricity obtained today with common electric generators.  But the Continuous Electrical Generator is autonomous and does not depend on any other source of energy but itself once it is running; may be carried anywhere with no limitations; it can be constructed in any size and provides any amount of electricity indefinitely, according to the design.

 

The Continuous Electrical Generator is and will be a very simple machine.  The keystones of the systems reside in the ultra-low losses of a non-movement generation system, and in a very low synchronous reactance design.

 

The induced windings must be calculated in a way that the generator may have the lowest possible synchronous reactance and resistance.  In this way, most of the outgoing power will go to the charge instead of staying to overcome the internal impedance.

 

 

 

 

MICHAEL OGNYANOV: SEMICONDUCTORS

 

Patent Application US 3,766,094       20th September 1971        Inventor: Michael Ognyanov

 

SEMICONDUCTOR COMPOSITIONS

 

 

This patent application shows the details of a device which it is claimed, can produce electricity via a solid-state oscillator.  It should be noted that while construction details are provided which imply that the inventor constructed and tested several of these devices, this is only an application and not a granted patent.

 

 

ABSTRACT

A resonance oscillator electric power pack for operating a flash lamp, for example, or other electrically operated device, operates without moving mechanical parts or electrolytic action.  The power pack is contained in a cylindrical metal envelope and in a preferred embodiment, is coupled to a relaxation oscillator and an incandescent lamp.  Within the envelope, and insulated from it, is a semiconductor tablet having a metal base connected to the external circuit.  A metal probe makes contact with a point on the semiconductor tablet and with a cylindrical ferrite rod, axially aligned with the envelope.  Wound about the ferrite rod, are concentric helical coils designated as a ‘primary’ with many turns, and a ‘secondary’ with fewer turns than the primary.

 

One end of the primary coil is connected to the probe and the other end is connected to the secondary coil.  the leads from the secondary coil are connected to the relaxation oscillator via an adjustable capacitor.  Oscillation within the envelope is resonance amplified , and the induced voltage in the secondary coil is rectified for application to the relaxation oscillator and lamp.  Selenium and germanium base semiconductor compositions including Te, Nd, Rb and Ga in varying proportions area used for the tablet.

 

 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This is a continuation-in-part of my co-pending patent application Serial No. 77,452, filed 2nd October 1970, entitled “Electric Power Pack” now abandoned.

 

In many situations it is desirable to have a source of electric power which is not dependent on wires from a central generating station, and therefore, portable power supplies having no moving parts have been employed.  typically, such portable power packs have been primary or secondary electrolytic cells which generate or store electrical energy for release by chemical action.  Such batteries have a limited amount of contained energy and must often be replaced at frequent intervals to maintain equipment in operation.

 

Thus, as one example, flashing lights are commonly used along highways and other locations to warn of dangerous conditions.  These flashing lights in remote locations are typically incandescent or gas-discharge lamps connected to some type of relaxation oscillator powered by a battery.  The batteries employed in such blinking lights have a limited lifetime and must be periodically replaced, typically each 250 to 300 hours of operation.  This involves a rather large labour cost in replacing the expended batteries with fresh ones and additional cost for primary cells or for recharging secondary cells.  It is desirable to provide an electric power pack capable of providing a sufficient quantity of electrical energy over a prolonged period of time so that the requirement for periodic replacement of the electrolytic cells can be avoided.  Such a power pack is valuable even if appreciably more expensive than batteries because of the greatly reduced labour costs required for periodic replacements.

 

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

There is provided in practice of this invention according to a preferred embodiment, semiconductive compositions selected from the Group consisting of:

 

Selenium with, from 4.85% to 5.5% Tellurium,  from 3.95% to 4.2% Germanium, from 2.85% to 3.2% Neodymium, and from 2.0% to 2.5% Gallium.  

 

Selenium with, from 4.8% to 5.5% Tellurium, from 3.9% to 4.5% Germanium, from 2.9% to 3.5% Neodymium and from 4.5% to 5% Rubidium, and

 

Germanium with, from 4.75% to 5.5% Tellurium, from 4.0% to 4.5% Neodymium and from 5.5% to 7.0% Rubidium.

 

 

DRAWINGS

These and other features and advantages of the invention will be appreciated and better understood by reference to the following detailed description of a preferred embodiment when considered in conjunction with the following drawings:

Fig.1 illustrates in exploded schematic, a flashing lamp connected to an electric power supply constructed according to the principles of this invention.

 

Fig.2 illustrates in longitudinal cross-section, the power pack of Fig.1

 

 

Fig.3 is an electric circuit diagram of the system.

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION

Fig.1 illustrates schematically, a typical flashing lamp having a power supply constructed according to the principles of this invention.  As illustrated in this preferred embodiment, an electric power pack 5, is connected electrically to a relaxation oscillator circuit (shown only schematically) on a conventional printed-circuit board 6.

 

The power pack 5 and the printed-circuit board are mounted in a metal box 7, which has a transverse partial partition 8, which creates two spaces, one for the power pack and the other for the printed-circuit board which is prevented from contacting the metal box by any convenient insulating mounting.  Preferably, these components are potted in place in a conventional manner.

 

A cover 9, having mounting lugs 10, is riveted on to the box after assembly.  A small terminal strip 11, mounted on one side of the box 7, provides electrical contacts for connection to a load such as an incandescent lamp (not shown in Fig.1).  the lamp provides a flash of light when the relaxation oscillator switches.  Although the described system is employed for a flashing lamp, it will be apparent that other loads may be powered by the invention.

 

 

In Fig.2, the electric power pack 10, is illustrated in longitudinal cross-section and has dimensions as follows:  These dimensions are provided by way of example for powering a conventional flashing lamp and it will be clear that other dimensions may be used for other applications.  In particular, the dimensions may be enlarged in order to obtain higher power levels and different voltage or current levels.  The power pack is comprised of a cylindrical metal tube 16, having closely fitting metal caps 17 at each end, which are preferably sealed to the tube after the internal elements are inserted in place.  The metal tube 16 and caps 17, which are preferably of aluminium, thus form a closed conductive envelope, which in a typical embodiment, has an inside diameter of about 0.8 inch and a length of about 2.25 inches.

 

Mounted within one end of the envelope is a plastic cup 18, the dimensions of which are not critical, however, a wall thickness of at least 1/16 inch is preferred.  Mounted within the plastic cup 18 is a semiconductor tablet 19 having a flat base and somewhat domed opposite side.  The composition of the semiconductor tablet 19 is set out in greater detail below.  Typically, the semiconductor tablet has a mass of about 3.8 grams.  A metal disc 21 is positioned beneath the base of the tablet 19 in the cup 18, and is preferably adhesively bonded inside the cup.  The metal disc is tightly fitted to the base of the tablet so that good electrical contact is obtained over a substantial area of the semiconductor.

 

An ear 22 on one edge of the disc is soldered to a wire 23, which extends through a short insulating sleeve 24 which passes through a hole in the side of the metal envelope.  The insulating sleeve 24 acts as a grommet and ensures that there is no damage to the insulation of wire 23 and subsequent accidental short circuiting between the wire and the metal envelope.  Preferably, the insulating sleeve 24 is sealed with a small amount of plastic cement or the like, in order to maintain clean air within the cylindrical envelope.  Two other openings for leads through the tube 16, as mentioned below, are also preferably sealed to maintain cleanliness within the envelope.

 

A pair of circular metal discs 26, are fitted inside tube 16 and are preferably cemented in place to prevent shifting.  The two discs 26, are equally spaced from the opposite ends of the envelope and are spaced apart by slightly more than 1.15 inches.  Each of the discs has a central aperture 27, and there is a plurality of holes 28, extending through the disc in a circular array midway between the centre of the disc and it’s periphery.  The holes 28 are preferably in the size range of about 0.01 to 0.06 inch in diameter and there are 12 on each disc located at 300 intervals around the circle.

 

The two discs 26 divide the interior of the cylindrical envelope into three chambers, and the pattern of holes 28 provides communication between the chambers and affects the electrical properties of the cavity.  It is believed that the pattern of holes affects the inductive coupling between the cavities inside the envelope and influences the oscillations in them.

 

Although an arrangement of 12 holes at 300 centres has been found particularly advantageous in the illustrated embodiment, it is found in other arrangements that a pattern of 20 holes at 180 centres or a pattern of 8 holes at 450 centres, provides optimum operation.  In either case, the circle of holes 28 is midway between the centre and the periphery of the disc.

 

Mounted between the discs 26 is a plastic spool 29 which has an inside distance of 1.1 inches between its flanges.  The plastic spool 29 preferably has relatively thin walls and an internal bore diameter of 1/8 inch.  A plastic mounting plug 31,  is inserted through the central aperture 27 of the disc 26 farthest from the semiconductor table 19, and into the bore of the spool 29.  The plastic plug 31 is preferably cemented to the disc 26 in order to hold the assembly together.

 

Also mounted inside the bore of spool 29 is a cylindrical ferrite core 32, about 1/8 inch diameter and 3/4 inch long.  Although a core of any magnetic ferrite is preferred, other ferromagnetic materials having similar properties can be used if desired.  The core 32, is in electrical contact with a metal probe 33 about 1/4 inch long.  half of the length of the probe 33 is in the form of a cylinder positioned within the spool 29, and the other half is in the form of a cone ending in a point 34 in contact with the domed surface of the semiconductor tablet 19 where it makes an electrical contact with the semiconductor in a relatively small point.

 

Electrical contact is also made with the probe 33 by a lead 36, which passes through one of the holes 28 in the disc 26 nearer to the semiconductor tablet and thence to a primary coil 37, wound on the plastic spool 29.  The primary coil 37 is in the form of 800 to 1000 turns wound along the length of the spool, and the lead  38 at the opposite end of the coil 37 is soldered to one of the external leads 39 of the power pack.  This lead 39 proceeds through one of the holes 28 in the disc farthest from the semiconductor tablet 19, and through an insulating sleeve 41 in the metal tube 16. 

 

The lead 39 is also connected to one end of a secondary coil 42 which is composed of 8 to 10 turns around the centre portion of the primary coil 37.  A thin insulating sheet 43 is provided between the primary and secondary coils.  The other lead 44 from the secondary coil passes through one of the holes 28 in the disk nearer the semiconductor tablet and thence through an insulating sleeve 46 through the wall of the tube 16.

 

Fig.3 illustrates schematically, the electrical circuit employing an electric power pack constructed according to the principles of this invention.  At the left hand side of Fig.3, the arrangement of elements is illustrated in a combination of electrical schematic and mechanical position inside tube 16 for ready correlation with the embodiment illustrated in Fig.2.  Thus, the semiconductor tablet 19, probe 33 and ferrite core 32 are shown in both their mechanical and electrical arrangement, the core being inductively coupled to the coils 37 and 42.  The lead 23 from the metal base of the semiconductor tablet 19, is connected to a variable capacitor 47, the other side of which is connected to the lead 44 from the secondary coil 42.  The lead 44 is also connected to a rectifying diode 48 shunted by a high value resistor 49.

 

It will be seen that the variable capacitor 47 is in a tank circuit with the inductive coils 37 and 42 which are coupled by the ferrite core 32, and this circuit also includes the semiconductor tablet 19 to which point contact is made by the probe 33.  The mechanical and electrical arrangement of these elements provides a resonant cavity in which resonance occurs when the capacitor 47 is properly trimmed.  The diode 48, rectifies the oscillations in this circuit to provide a suitable DC for operating an incandescent lamp 50 or similar load.

 

The rectifying diode 48 is connected to a complementary-symmetry relaxation circuit for switching power to the load 50.  The diode is connected directly to the collector of a PNP transistor 51 which is in an inverted connection.  the emitter of the PNP transistor is connected to one side of the load 50 by way of a timing resistor 55.  The base of the transistor 51 is connected by way of a resistor 52 and a capacitor 56 to the collector of an NPN transistor 53, the emitter of which is connected to the other side of the load 50.  The base of the NPN transistor 53 is coupled to the diode by a resistor 54.  The emitter of the PNP transistor 51 is fed back to the base of the NPN transistor 53 by the resistor 55.  Current flow through the lamp 50 is also limited by a resistor 57 which couples one side of the lamp and the emitter of the NPN transistor 53 to the two coils 37 and 42 by way of the common lead 39.

 

The electrical power pack is believed to operate due to a resonance amplification once an oscillation has been initiated in the cavity, particularly the central cavity between the discs 26.  This oscillation, which apparently rapidly reaches amplitudes sufficient for useful power, is then half-wave rectified for use by the diode 48.  With such an arrangement, a voltage level of several volts has been obtained, and power sufficient for intermittent operation of a lamp requiring about 170 to 250 milliwatts has been demonstrated.  The resonant amplification is apparently due to the geometrical and electrical combination of the elements, which provide inductive coupling of components in a suitable resonant circuit.  This amplification is also, at least in part, due to unique semiconductor properties in the tablet 19, which has electronic properties due to a composition giving a unique atomic arrangement, the exact nature of which has not been measured.

 

The semiconductor tablet has electronic properties which are determined by it’s composition and three such semiconductors satisfactory for use in the combination have been identified.  In two of these, the base semiconductor material is selenium provided with suitable dopant elements, and in the third, the base element is germanium, also suitably doped.  The semiconductor tablets are made by melting and casting in an arrangement which gives a large crystal structure.  It has not been found necessary to provide a selected crystal orientation in order to obtain the desired effects.

 

A preferred composition of the semiconductor includes about 5% by weight of tellurium, about 4% by weight of germanium, about 3% by weight of neodymium and about 4.7% by weight of rubidium, with the balance of the composition being selenium.  Such a composition can be made by melting these materials together or by dissolving the materials in molten selenium.

 

Another highly advantageous composition has about 5% by weight of tellurium, about 4% by weight of germanium, about 3% by weight of neodymium, and about 2.24% by weight of gallium, with the balance being selenium.  In order to make this composition, it is found desirable to add the very low melting point gallium in the form of gallium selenide rather than elemental gallium.

 

A third suitable composition has about 5% by weight of tellurium, about 4% by weight of neodymium, about 6% by weight of rubidium, with the balance being germanium.  These preferred compositions are not absolute and it has been found that the level of dopant in the compositions can be varied within limits without significant loss of performance.  Thus, it is found that the proportion of tellurium in the preferred composition can range from about 4.8% to about 5.5% by weight; the germanium can range from about 3.9% to 4.5% by weight; neodymium can range from about 2.9% to 3.5% by weight, and rubidium can vary from about 4.5% to 5.0% by weight.  The balance of the preferred composition is selenium although it has also been found that nominal impurity levels can be tolerated and no great care is required in preventing minor contamination.

 

The other selenium base composition useful in practice of this invention can have a tellurium concentration in the range of from about 4.85% to 5.5% by weight, germanium in the range of from about 3.95% to 4.2% by weight, neodymium in the range of from about 2.85% to 3.2% by weight, and gallium in the range of from about 2.0% to 2.5% by weight.  As in the preferred composition, the balance is selenium and nominal impurity levels can be tolerated.  It is preferred to add the gallium in the form of gallium selenide rather than as elemental gallium with a corresponding decrease in the selenium used to make up the composition.

 

The above selenium base compositions are easier to make and less expensive than the germanium base composition and are therefore preferable for most applications.  It is found that these are particularly suited for relatively small semiconductor tablets up to about 1 inch or a little less.  For relatively large tablets, it is preferred to use the germanium base composition.

 

The germanium base composition has a tellurium level in the range of from about 4.75% to 5.5% by weight, neodymium in the range of from about 4.0% to 4.5% by weight, and rubidium in the range of from about 5.5% to 7.4% by weight.  It is also found that it is of greater importance to maintain purity of the germanium base compositions than the selenium base compositions.  Although the exact purity levels have not been ascertained, it is in excess of 99%.

 

It has been found that it is not necessary to have single crystals in the semiconductor tablets and any convenient grain size in excess of about 1 millimetre appears satisfactory.  In the above compositions, when the recited ranges are exceeded, oscillation in the power pack drops off rapidly and may cease altogether.

 

The reasons that these compositions are satisfactory in the arrangement providing resonance amplification has not been determined with certainty.  It is possible that the semiconductor serves as a source of electrons for providing an oscillating current in the circuit.  This is, of course, combined with a relatively large area contact to one side of the semiconductor tablet, and a point contact on another area.  Any resonant current in the coils wound on the ferrite rod, induces a varying magnetic field in the resonant cavity, and the electrical connection between the ferrite rod and the metal probe, provides a feedback of this oscillation to the semiconductor tablet.

 

it should particularly be noted that the oscillation in the circuit does not commence until it is initiated by an oscillating signal.  In order to accomplish this, it is only necessary to apply a few millivolts of AC for a few seconds to the semiconductor tablet and the associated coils coupled to it.  The initial signal applied to the base of the semiconductor tablet and the lead 39 is preferably in the frequency range of 5.8 to 18 Mhz and can be as high as 150 Mhz.  Such a signal can be applied from any conventional source and no great care appears necessary to provide a single frequency signal or to eliminate noise.  Once such energisation has been applied to the circuit and oscillations initiated, it does not appear to be necessary to apply such a signal again.  This is apparently due to the feedback provided by the ferrite rod to the probe which makes contact with the semiconductor tablet.

 

Energy is, of course, dissipated in the lamp, or other utilisation device, as the combination operates.  Such energy may come from deterioration of the semiconductor tablet as oscillations continue; however, if there is any such deterioration, it is sufficiently slow that a power source may be operated for many months without attendance.  Such a source of energy may be augmented by ambient Radio Frequency radiation, coupled into the resonant cavity by the external leads.  This is a surprising phenomenon because the leads are small compared to what would normally be considered an adequate antenna, and it is therefore postulated that stimulated amplification may also be a consequence of the unique electronic configuration of the semiconductors having the compositions specified above.

 

Although only one embodiment of electric power pack constructed according to principles of this invention has been described and illustrated here, many modifications and variations will be apparent to one skilled in the art.  Thus, for example, a larger power pack may be axially arranged in a cylindrical container with various electronic elements arranged in the annular space.  It is therefore to be understood that other configurations are included within the scope of the invention.

 

 

 

 

 

EDWIN GRAY: ELECTRIC MOTOR

 

US Patent  3,890,548             June 17, 1975            Inventor: Edwin V. Gray snr.

 

 

 

PULSED CAPACITOR DISCHARGE ELECTRIC ENGINE

 

 

Please note that this is a re-worded extract from Edwin Gray’s Patent 3,890,548.  It describes his high voltage motor and the circuitry used to drive it.  Please be aware that the underlying technology was developed by Marvin Cole and Edwin Gray did not understand it.  Also, Edwin wanted at all costs to conceal any useful technology while getting patents to encourage investors, so please understand that this patent is not intended to tell you how to make a working system of this type.

 

 

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION:

 

This invention relates to electric motors or engines, and more particularly to a new electric machine including electromagnetic poles in a stator configuration and electromagnetic poles in a rotor configuration, wherein in one form thereof, the rotor is rotatable within the stator configuration and where both are energised by capacitor discharges through rotor and stator electromagnets at the instant of the alignment of a rotor electromagnet with a stator electromagnet.  The rotor electromagnet is repelled from the stator electromagnet by the discharge of the capacitor through the coils of both the rotor and stator electromagnets at the same instant.

 

In an exemplary rotary engine according to this invention, rotor electromagnets may be disposed 120 degrees apart on a central shaft and major stator electromagnets may be disposed 40 degrees apart in the motor housing about the stator periphery.  Other combinations of rotor elements and stator elements may be utilised to increase torque or rate of rotation.

 

In another form, a second electromagnet is positioned to one side of each of the major stator electromagnets on a centreline 13.5 degrees from the centreline of the stator magnet, and these are excited in a predetermined pattern or sequence.  Similarly, to one side of each rotor electromagnet, is a second electromagnet spaced on a 13.5 degree centreline from the major rotor electromagnet. Electromagnets in both the rotor and stator assemblies are identical, the individual electromagnets of each being aligned axially and the coils of each being wired so that each rotor electromagnetic pole will have the same magnetic polarity as the electromagnet in the stator with which it is aligned and which it is confronting at the time of discharge of the capacitor.

 

Charging of the discharge capacitor or capacitors is accomplished by an electrical switching circuit wherein electrical energy from a battery or other source of d-c potential is derived through rectification by diodes.

 

The capacitor charging circuit comprises a pair of high frequency switchers which feed respective automotive-type ignition coils employed as step-up transformers.  The “secondary” of each of the ignition coils provides a high voltage square wave to a half-wave rectifier to generate a high voltage output pulse of d-c energy with each switching alternation of the high frequency switcher.  Only one polarity is used so that a unidirectional pulse is applied to the capacitor bank being charged.

 

Successive unidirectional pulses are accumulated on the capacitor or capacitor bank until discharged.  Discharge of the bank of capacitors occurs across a spark gap by arc-over.  The gap spacing determines the voltage at which discharge or arc-over occurs.  An array of gaps is created by fixed elements in the engine housing and moving elements positioned on the rotor shaft.  At the instant when the moving gap elements are positioned opposite fixed elements during the rotor rotation, a discharge occurs through the coils of the aligned rotor and stator electromagnets to produce the repulsion action between the stator and rotor electromagnet cores.

 

A plurality of fixed gap elements are arrayed in a motor housing to correspond to the locations of the stator electromagnets in the housing.  The rotor gap elements correspond to the positions of the rotor electromagnets on the rotor so that at the instant of correct alignment of the gaps, the capacitors are discharged to produce the necessary current through the stator and rotor coils to cause the electromagnets to repel one another.

 

The charging circuits are arranged in pairs, and are such that the discharge occurs through both rotor and stator windings of the electromagnets, which are opposite one another when the spark gap elements are aligned and arc-over.

 

The speed of the rotor can be changed by means of a clutch mechanism associated with the rotor.  The clutch shifts the position of the rotor gap elements so that the discharge will energise the stator coils in a manner to advance or retard the time of discharge with respect to the normal rotor/stator alignment positions.  The discharge through the rotor and stator then occurs when the rotor has passed the stator by 6.66 degrees for speed advance.

 

By causing the discharge to occur when the rotor position is approaching the stator, the repulsion pulse occurs 6.66 degrees before the alignment position of the rotor and stator electromagnets, thus reducing the engine speed.

 

The clutch mechanism for aligning capacitor discharge gaps for discharge is described as a control head.  It may be likened to a firing control mechanism in an internal combustion engine in that it “fires” the electromagnets and provides a return of any discharge overshoot potential back to the battery or other energy source.

 

The action of the control head is extremely fast.  From the foregoing description, it can be anticipated that an increase in speed or a decrease in speed of rotation can occur within the period in which the rotor electromagnet moves between any pair of adjacent electromagnets in the stator assembly.  These are 40 degrees apart so speed changes can be effected in a maximum of one-ninth of a revolution.

 

The rotor speed-changing action of the control head and its structure are believed to be further novel features of the invention, in that they maintain normal 120 degree firing positions during uniform speed of rotation conditions, but shift to 6.66 degree longer or shorter intervals for speed change by the novel shift mechanism in the rotor clutch assembly.

 

Accordingly, the preferred embodiment of this invention is an electric rotary engine wherein motor torque is developed by discharge of high potential from a bank of capacitors, through stator and rotor electromagnet coils when the electromagnets are in alignment.  The capacitors are charged from batteries by a switching mechanism, and are discharged across spark gaps set to achieve the discharge of the capacitor charge voltage through the electromagnet coils when the gaps and predetermined rotor and stator electromagnet pairs are in alignment.

 

Exemplary embodiments of the invention are herein illustrated and described.  These exemplary illustrations and description should not be construed as limiting the invention to the embodiments shown, because those skilled in the arts appertaining to the invention may conceive of other embodiments in the light of the description within the ambit of the appended claims.

 

 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS:

 

 

Fig.1 is an explanatory schematic diagram of a capacitor charging and discharging circuit utilised in the present invention.

 

Fig.2 is a block diagram of an exemplary engine system according to the invention.

 

 

 

Fig.3 is a perspective view of a typical engine system according to the invention, coupled to an automotive transmission.

 

 

Fig.4 is an axial sectional view taken at line 4---4 in Fig.3

 

 

 

 

Fig.5 is a sectional view taken at line 5---5 in Fig.4

 

Fig.6 and Fig.7 are fragmentary sectional views, corresponding to a portion of Fig.5, illustrating successive advanced positions of the engine rotor therein.

 

 

Fig.8 is an exploded perspective view of the rotor and stator of the engine of Fig.3 and Fig.4

 

 

 

Fig.9 is a cross-sectional view taken at line 9---9 of Fig.4

 

 

Fig.10 is a partial sectional view, similar to the view of Fig.9, illustrating a different configuration of electromagnets in another engine embodiment of the invention.

 

 

 

Fig.11 is a sectional view taken at line 11---11 in Fig.3, illustrating the control head or novel speed change controlling system of the engine.

 

 

 

Fig.12 is a sectional view, taken at line 12---12 in Fig.11, showing a clutch plate utilised in the speed change control system of Fig.11

 

 

Fig.13 is a fragmentary view, taken at line 13---13 in Fig.12

 

 

Fig.14 is a sectional view, taken at line 14---14 in Fig.11, showing a clutch plate which co-operates with the clutch plate of Fig.12

 

 

Fig.15 is a fragmentary sectional view taken at line 15---15 of Fig.13

 

 

Fig.16 is a perspective view of electromagnets utilised in the present invention.

 

 

Fig.17 is a schematic diagram showing co-operating mechanical and electrical features of the programmer portion of the invention.

 

 

Fig.18 is an electrical schematic diagram of an engine according to the invention, showing the electrical relationships of the electromagnetic components embodying a new principle of the invention, and

 

 

Fig.19 is a developed view, taken at line 19---19 of Fig.11, showing the locations of displaced spark gap elements of the speed changing mechanism of an engine according to the invention.

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

As mentioned earlier, the basic principle of operation of the engine of the invention, is the discharge of a capacitor across a spark gap and through an inductor.  When a pair of inductors is used, and the respective magnetic cores thereof are arranged opposite one another and arranged in opposing magnetic polarity, the discharge through them causes the cores to repel each other with considerable force.

 

 

Referring to the electrical schematic diagram of Fig.1, a battery 10 energises a pulse-producing vibrator mechanism 16, which may be of the magnetic type, incorporating an armature 15 moving between contacts 13 and 14, or of the transistor type (not shown) with which a high frequency bipolar pulsed output is produced in primary 17 of transformer 20.  The pulse amplitude is stepped up in secondary 19 of transformer 20.  Wave form 19a represents the bi-directional or bi-polar pulsed output.  A diode rectifier 21 produces a unidirectional pulse train, as indicated at 21a, to charge capacitor 26.  Successive unidirectional pulses of wave 21a charge capacitor 26 to high level, as indicated at 26a, until the voltage at point A rises high enough to cause a spark across the spark gap 30.  Capacitor 26 discharges via the spark gap, through the electromagnet coil 28.  A current pulse is produced which magnetises core 28a.  Simultaneously, another substantially identical charging system 32 produces a discharge through inductor 27 across spark gap 29, to magnetise core 27a.  Cores 27a and 28a are wound with coils 27 and 28 respectively, so that their magnetic polarities are the same.  As the cores 27a and 28a confront one another, they tend to fly apart when the discharge occurs through coils 27 and 28 because of repulsion of identical magnetic poles, as indicated by arrow 31.  If core 28a is fixed or stationary, and core 27a is moveable, then core 27a may have tools 33 attached to it to perform work when the capacitor discharges.

 

Referring to Fig.1 and Fig.2, a d-c electrical source or battery 10, energises pulsators 36 (including at least two vibrators 16 as previously described) when switch 11 between the battery 10 and pulsator 36 is closed, to apply relatively high frequency pulses to the primaries of transformers 20.  The secondaries of transformers 20 are step-up windings which apply bipolar pulses, such as pulses 19a (Fig.1) to the diodes in converter 38.  The rectified unidirectional pulsating output of each of the diodes in converter 38 is passed through delay coils 23 and 24, thus forming a harness 37, wound about the case of the engine, as herein after described, which is believed to provide a static floating flux field.  The outputs from delay lines 37, drive respective capacitors in banks 39, to charge the capacitors therein, to a relatively high charge potential.  A programmer and rotor and stator magnet control array 40, 41, 42, is formed by spark gaps positioned, as hereinafter described, so that at predetermined positions of the rotor during rotation of the engine, as hereinafter described, selected capacitors of the capacitor banks 39 will discharge across the spark gaps through the rotor and stator electromagnets 43 and 44.  The converters 38, programmer 40, and controls 41 and 42, form a series circuit path across the secondaries of transformers 20 to the ground, or point of reference potential, 45.  The capacitor banks 39 are discharged across the spark gaps of programmer 40 (the rotor and stator magnet controls 41 and 42).  The discharge occurs through the coils of stator and rotor electromagnets 43 and 44 to ground 45.  Stator and rotor electromagnets are similar to those shown at 27, 27a, 28 and 28a in Fig.1.

 

The discharge through the coils of stator and rotor electromagnets 43 and 44 is accompanied by a discharge overshoot or return pulse, which is applied to a secondary battery 10a to store this excess energy.  The overshoot pulse returns to battery 10a because, after discharge, the only path open to it is that to the battery 10a, since the gaps in 40, 41 and 42 have broken down, because the capacitors in banks 39 are discharged and have not yet recovered the high voltage charge from the high frequency pulsers 36 and the converter rectifier units 38.

 

In the event of a misfire in the programmer control circuits 40, 41 and 42, the capacitors are discharged through a rotor safety discharge circuit 46 and returned to batteries 10-10a, adding to their capacity.  The circuit 46 is connected between the capacitor banks 39 and batteries 10, 10a.

 

 

Referring to Fig.3, a motor or engine 49 according to the present invention is shown connected with an automotive transmission 48.  The transmission 48, represents one of many forms of loads to which the engine may be applied.  A motor housing 50, encases the operating mechanism hereinafter described.  The programmer 40 is axially mounted at one end of the housing.  Through apertures 51 and 52, a belt 53 couples to a pulley 57 (not shown in this view) and to an alternator 54 attached to housing 50.  A pulley 55 on the alternator, has two grooves, one for belt 53 to the drive pulley 58 on the shaft (not shown) of the engine 49, and the other for a belt 58 coupled to a pulley 59 on a pump 60 attached to housing 50,  A terminal box 61 on the housing, interconnects between the battery assembly 62 and motor 49 via cables 63 and 64.

 

An intake 65 for air, is coupled to pump 60 via piping 68 and 69 and from pump 60 via tubing or piping 66 and 70 to the interior of housing 50 via coupling flanges 67 and 71.  The air flow tends to cool the engine and the air may preferably be maintained at a constant temperature and humidity so that a constant spark gap discharge condition is maintained.  A clutch mechanism 80 is provided on programmer 40.

 

 

Referring to Fig.4, Fig.5 and Fig.9, rotor 81 has spider assemblies 83 and 84 with three electromagnet coil assembly sets mounted thereon, two of which are shown in Fig.4, on 85, at 85a and 85b and on 86 at 86a and 86b.  One of the third electromagnet coil assemblies, designated 87a, is shown in Fig.5, viewed from the shaft end.  As more clearly shown in the perspective view of Fig.8, a third spider assembly 88 provides added rigidity and a central support for the rotor mechanism on shaft 81.

 

 

The electromagnet sets 85a, 85b, 86a, 86b, 87a and 87b, disposed on rotor 81 and spiders 83, 84 and 88, each comprise pairs of front units 85a, 86a and 87a and pairs of rear units 85b, 86b and 87b.  Each pair consists of a major electromagnet and a minor electromagnet, as hereinafter described, which are imbedded in an insulating material 90, which insulates the electromagnet coil assemblies from one another and secures the electromagnets rigidly in place on the spider/rotor cage 81, 83, 84 and 88.

 

The interior wall 98, of housing 50, is coated with an electrically insulating material 99 in which are imbedded electromagnet coils, as hereinafter described, and the interiors of end plates 100 and 101 of the housing 50.  On the insulating surface 98 of housing 50 is mounted a series of stator electromagnet pairs 104a, identical with electromagnet pairs 85a, 86a, 87a, etc. Electromagnet pairs such as 104a or 105a are disposed every 40 degrees about the interior of housing 50 to form a stator which co-operates with the rotor 81-88.  An air gap 110 of very close tolerance is defined between the rotor and stator electromagnets and air from pump 65 flows through this gap.

 

As shown in Fig.8, the electromagnet assemblies, such as 85 through 87, of the rotor and magnet assemblies, such as 104a in the stator, are so embedded in their respective insulating plastic carriers (rotor and stator) that they are smoothly rounded in a concave contour on the rotor to permit smooth and continuous rotation of rotor 81 in stator housing 50.  The air gap 110 is uniform at all positions of any rotor element within the stator assembly, as is clearly shown in Fig.16.

 

 

The rotor 81 and spiders 83, 84 and 88 are rigidly mounted on shaft 111 journaled in bearing assemblies 112 and 113 which are of conventional type, for easy rotation of the rotor shaft 111 within housing 50.

 

Around the central outer surface of housing 50, are wound a number of turns of wire 23 and 24 to provide a static flux coil 114 which is a delay line, as previously described.  Figs. 5, 6, 7 and 9 are cross-sectional views of the rotor assembly 81-88, arranged to show the positioning and alignment of the rotor and stator electromagnet coil assemblies at successive stages of the rotation of the rotor 81-88 through a portion of a cycle of operation thereof.  For example, in Fig.5 the rotor assembly 81-88 is shown so positioned that a minor rotor electromagnet assembly 91 is aligned with a minor stator electromagnet assembly 117.

 

As shown in further detail in Fig.16, minor electromagnet assembly 117 consists of an iron core 118, grooved so that a coil of wire 119 may be wound around it.  Core 118 is the same in stator electromagnet 117 as it is in rotor electromagnet 91.

 

As a position 13.33 degrees to the right of rotor electromagnet 91, as viewed in Fig.5 and Fig.16, there is a second or major rotor electromagnet 121 which has a winding 123 about its core 122.  The electromagnets 91 and 121 are the pair 85a of Fig.4 and Fig.8.

 

 

At a position 13.33 degrees to the left of stator electromagnet 117, as viewed in Fig.5, there is a second or major stator electromagnet 120 whose core 122 is of the same configuration as core 122 of rotor electromagnet 121.  A winding 123 about core 122 of electromagnet 120 is of the same character as winding 123 on electromagnet 121.

 

Electromagnet assembly pair 85a on the rotor is identical in configuration to that of the electromagnet stator assembly pair 104a except for the position reversal of the elements 117-120 and 91-121 of the respective pairs.

 

There are none pairs of electromagnets 120-117 (104a) located at 40 degree intervals about the interior of housing 50.  The centreline of core 122 of electromagnet 120 is positioned 13.33 degrees to the left of the centreline of the core 118 of electromagnet 117.  Three pairs of electromagnets 85a, 86a and 87a are provided on rotor assembly 81-88 as shown in Fig.5.

 

Other combinations are possible, but the number of electromagnets in the rotor should always be in integral fraction of the number of electromagnets in the stator.  As shown in Fig.8, for the rotor assembly 85a and 85b, there are three of each of the front and back pairs of electromagnetic assemblies.  Similarly, as shown in Fig.4 and Fig.8, there are nine front and back pairs of electromagnets in the stator such as 104a and 104b.

 

In order to best understand the operation of the rotor 81-88 rotating within the stator housing 50 of an engine according to this invention, the positions of rotor electromagnets 91 and stator electromagnets 117 are initially exactly in line at the 13.33 degree peripheral starting position marked on the vertical centreline of Fig.5.  The winding direction of the coils of these magnets is such that a d-c current through the coils 119 will produce a particular identical magnet polarity on each of the juxtaposed surfaces 125 of magnet 117 and 126 of magnet 91 (Fig.5).  Fig.16 and Fig.6 illustrate the next step in the motion wherein the two major electromagnets, 120 in the stator and 121 in the rotor, are in alignment.

 

When the d-c discharges from the appropriate capacitors in banks 39 occur simultaneously across spark gaps through the coils 119 of electromagnets 117 and 91, at the instant of their alignment, their cores 118, will repel one another to cause rotor assembly 81-88 to rotate clockwise in the direction indicated by arrow 127.  The system does not move in the reverse direction because it has been started in the clockwise direction by the alternator motor 54 shown in Fig.3, or by some other starter means.  If started counterclockwise, the motor will continue to rotate counterclockwise.

 

As noted earlier, the discharge of any capacitor occurs over a very short interval via its associated spark gap and the resulting magnetic repulsion action imparts motion to the rotor.  The discharge event occurs when electromagnets 117 and 91 are in alignment.  As shown in Fig.5, rotor electromagnet 91a is aligned with stator electromagnet 117c, and rotor electromagnet 91b is aligned with stator electromagnet 117e at the same time that similar electromagnets 117 and 91 are aligned.  A discharge occurs through all six of these electromagnets simultaneously (that is, 117, 91, 117c, 91a, 117e and 91b).  A capacitor and a spark gap are required for each coil of each electromagnet.  Where, as in the assembly shown in Fig.8, front and back pairs are used, both the axial in-line front and back coils are energised simultaneously by the discharge from a single capacitor or from a bank of paralleled capacitors such as 25 and 26 (Fig.1).  Although Fig.4 and Fig.8 indicate the use of front and back electromagnets, it should be evident that only a single electromagnet in any stator position and a corresponding single electromagnet in the rotor position, may be utilised to accomplish the repulsion action of the rotor with respect to the stator.  As stated, each electromagnet requires a discharge from a single capacitor or capacitor bank across a spark gap for it to be energised, and the magnetic polarity of the juxtaposed magnetic core faces must be the same, in order to effect the repulsive action required to produce the rotary motion.

 

Referring to Fig.5 and Fig.6, the repulsion action causes the rotor to move 13.33 degrees clockwise, while electromagnets 91, 91a and 91b move away from electromagnets 117, 117c and 117e to bring electromagnets 121, 121a and 121b into respective alignment with electromagnets 120a, 120d and 120f. At this time, a capacitor discharge across a spark-gap into their coils 123 occurs, thus moving the rotor.  Another 13.33 degrees ahead, as shown in Fig.7, major electromagnets 121, 121a and 121b come into alignment with minor electromagnets 117a, 117d and 117f, at which time a discharge occurs to repeat the repulsion action, this action continuing as long as d-c power is applied to the system to charge the capacitor banks.

 

Fig.18 further illustrates the sequencing of the capacitor discharges across appropriate spark gap terminal pairs.  Nine single stator coils and three single rotor coils are shown with their respective interconnections with the spark gaps and capacitors with which they are associated for discharge.  When the appropriate spark gap terminals are aligned, at the points in the positioning of the rotor assembly for most effective repulsion action of juxtaposed electromagnet cores, the discharge of the appropriate charged capacitors across the associated spark gap occurs through the respective coils.  The capacitors are discharged is sets of three, through sets of three coils at each discharge position, as the rotor moves through the rotor positions.  In Fig.18, the rotor electromagnets are positioned linearly, rather than on a circular base, to show the electrical action of an electric engine according to the invention.  These motor electromagnets 201, 202 and 203 are aligned with stator electromagnets 213, 214 and 215 at 0 degrees, 120 degrees and 240 degrees respectively.  The stator electromagnets are correspondingly shown in a linear schematic as if rolled out of the stator assembly and laid side by side.  For clarity of description, the capacitors associated with the rotor operation 207, 208, 209 and 246, 247, 248, 249, 282 and 283, are arranged in vertical alignment with the respective positions of the rotor coils 201, 202 and 203 as they move from left to right, this corresponding to clockwise rotation of the rotor.  The stator coils 213, 214, 215, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, etc. and capacitor combinations are arranged side by side, again to facilitate description.

 

An insulative disc 236 (shown in Fig.17 as a disc but opened out linearly in Fig.18) has mounted thereon, three gap terminal blocks 222, 225 and 228.  Each block is rectangularly U-shaped, and each interconnects two terminals with the base of the U.  Block 222 has terminals 222a and 222b.  Block 225 has terminals 225a and 225b.  Block 228 has terminals 228c and 228d.  When insulative disc 230 is part of the rotor as indicated by mechanical linkage 290, it can be seen that terminal U 222 creates a pair of gaps with gap terminals 223 and 224 respectively.  Thus, when the voltage on capacitor 216 from charging unit 219, is of a value which will arc over the air spaces between 222a and 223, and between 222b and 224, the capacitor 216 will discharge through the coil of electromagnet 213 to ground.  Similarly, gap terminal U 225 forms a dual spark gap with gap terminals 226 and 227 to result in arc-over when the voltage on capacitor 217, charged by charging circuit 220, discharges into the coil of electromagnet 214.  Also, U-gap terminal 228 with terminals 228c and 228d, creates a spark gap with terminals 229 and 230 to discharge capacitor 218, charged by charging circuit 221, into coil 215.  At the same time, rotor coils, 201, 202 and 203 across gaps 201a - 204, 202b - 205 and 203c - 206 each receives a discharge from respective capacitors 207, 208 and 209.

 

When the electromagnet coils 213, 214 and 215 and 201, 202 and 203 are energised, the repulsion action causes the rotor assembly to move to position 2 where a new simultaneous group of discharges occurs into rotor coils 201, 202 and 203 from capacitors 246, 248 and 282 across gaps 201a - 240, 202b - 242 and 203c - 244.  Simultaneously, because gap-U-elements 222, 225 and 228 have also moved to position 2 with the rotor assembly, capacitor 261 is discharged through electromagnet coil 260, capacitor 265 is discharged through electromagnet coil 264, and capacitor 269 is discharged through electromagnet coil 268 in alignment with position 2 of the rotor electromagnet coils, thus to cause the rotor electromagnets to move to position 3 where the discharge pattern is repeated now with capacitors 247, 249 and 283 discharging through the rotor electromagnet coils 201, 202 and 203, and the capacitors 263, 267 and 281 discharging respectively through stator electromagnet coils 262, 266 and 280.

 

After each discharge, the charging circuits 219 - 221 and 272 - 277 for the stator capacitors, and 210 - 212 and 284 - 289 for the rotor capacitors, are operated continuously from a battery source as described earlier with reference to Fig.1, to constantly recharge the capacitors to which each is connected.  Those versed in the art will appreciate that, as each capacitor discharges across an associated spark gap, the resulting drop in potential across the gap renders the gap an open circuit until such time as the capacitor can recharge to the arc-over level for the gap.  This recharge occurs before a rotor element arrives at the next position in the rotation.

 

The mechanical schematic diagram of Fig.17, further clarifies the operation of the spark-gap discharge programming system.  A forward disc 236 of an electrically insulative material, has thereon the set of U-shaped gap terminal connectors previously described.  These are positioned at 0 degrees, 120 degrees and 240 degrees respectively.  In Fig.17, schematic representations of the position of the coil and capacitor arrangements at the start of a cycle are shown to correspond to the above description with reference to Fig.18.  Accordingly, the coil and capacitor combinations 213/216, 214/217 and 215/218 are shown connected with their gap terminals, respectively, 223/224, 226/227 and 229/230.  On the rotor coil and capacitor connection, three separate discs 291, 292 and 293 are shown, each with a single gap terminal.  The discs 291 - 293 are rotated so as to position their respective gap terminals 201a, 201b and 201c, at 120 degree increments, with the 0 degrees position corresponding to the 0 degrees position of U-gap terminal 222 on disc 230.

 

Representative gap terminals are shown about the peripheries of discs 230, 291 - 293 to indicate clearly how, as the discs turn in unison, the gap alignments correspond so that three rotor coils always line up with three stator coils at 120 degree intervals about the rotary path, producing an alignment every 40 degrees, there being nine stator coils.  Thus, there are three simultaneous discharges into stator coils and three into rotor coils at each 40 degree position.  Nine positions displaced 40 degrees apart provide a total of 27 discharge points for capacitors into the rotor coils and 27 discharge points for capacitors into the stator coils in one revolution of the rotor.

 

It will be understood that, as illustrated in Fig.17 and Fig.18, nine individual electromagnet coils are shown in the stator and three in the rotor, in order to show in its simplest form, how the three rotor electromagnets are stepped forward from alignment with three of the stator electromagnets, when the appropriate spark gaps are in alignment, to effect the discharge of capacitors through juxtaposed pairs of rotor/stator electromagnets.  The repulsion moves the rotor electromagnet from the stator electromagnet to the next alignment position 40 degrees further on.  In the interval, until another rotor electromagnet, 120 degrees removed, is aligned with the stator electromagnet which had just been pulsed, the associated capacitor is recharged.  Thus, the rotor moves from one position to the next, with capacitor discharges occurring each 40 degrees of rotation, a total of nine per revolution.  It should be obvious that, with other rotor/stator combinations, the number of electromagnet coincidences and spark-gap discharges will vary.  For example, with the coil pairs shown in Figs 4 through 8, a total of 27 discharges will occur.  Although there are 18 stator electromagnets and 3 rotor electromagnets, the discharge pattern is determined by the specific spark gap arrangement.

 

The rotor/stator configuration of Fig.5 and Fig.8, involving the major and minor pairs of electromagnets, such as 85a and 104a (the terms “minor” and “major” referring to the difference in size of the elements), include nine pairs of electromagnets in the stator, such as 104a, with three electromagnet pairs of the rotor, such as 85a.  Because of the 13.33 degree separation between the major and minor electromagnets in the rotor pair 85a, with the same separation of minor and major electromagnets of the stator pair 104a, the sequence of rotation and discharge described above, with respect to the illustrative example of Fig.5, involves the following:

1. A minor element 117 of stator pair 104a is aligned with the minor element 91 of rotor pair 85a.  On the discharge, this moves the rotor ahead 13.33 degrees.

2. the major rotor element 122 of the pair 85a, now is aligned with the major stator element 120b of the next stator electromagnet pair, in the stator array as shown in Fig.6.  On the discharge, the rotor moves ahead 13.33 degrees.

3. This brings the minor rotor electromagnet 91 into alignment with the major stator electromagnet 120b of pair 104d, and the major electromagnet 122 (just discharged) of pair 85a into alignment with minor electromagnet 117b of pair 104d, and the rotor spark gap elements into alignment with a different position of gap elements connected with capacitors not discharged in the previous position of the rotor.  It should be remembered at this point that it is the positioning of a rotatable spark gap array, similar to that illustrated in Fig.17 and Fig.18, which controls the time of discharge of capacitors connected to these gap terminals.  Therefore, any electromagnet can be energised twice, successively, from separate capacitors as the rotor brings appropriate gap terminals into alignment with the coil terminals of a particular electromagnet.

 

Thus, although major electromagnet 120b of pair 104d has just been energised as described above, it can now be energised again along with minor rotor electromagnet 91 in step 3, because the rotor moved to a new set of terminals of the spark gap arrays connected to capacitors which have not yet been discharged.  These capacitors now discharge through rotor electromagnet 91 and stator electromagnet 120b, causing the rotor to move ahead another 13.33 degrees, thus again aligning two minor electromagnets again, these being 117b of stator pair 104d and 91 of rotor pair 85a.  The rotor has now moved 40 degrees since step 1 above.  The sequence is now repeated indefinitely.  It is to be noted that at each 13.33 degree step, the discharges drive the rotor another 13.33 degrees.  There are 27 steps per revolution with nine stator coil pairs.  The discharge sequence is not uniform, as is shown in Table 1.  In the stator, three major electromagnets 120 degrees apart are energised twice in sequence, followed by a hiatus of one step while three minor electromagnets of the stator, 120 degrees apart, are energised during the hiatus.  In the rotor the major electromagnets are energised during a hiatus step following two minor electromagnet energisation steps.  A total of 27 energisations are this accomplished in the nine pairs of coils of the stator.

 

In Table 1, the leftmost column shows the location of each rotor arm 85, 86 and 87 at an arbitrarily selected step No. 1 position.  For example, in step 1, rotor arm 85 has a minor stator and minor rotor electromagnet in alignment for capacitors to discharge through them simultaneously at the 13.33 degree position.

 

 

Similarly, in step 1, rotor arm 86 is at the 133.33 degree position which has two minor electromagnets in alignment, ready for discharge.  Simultaneously, rotor arm 87 is at the 253.33 degree position with two minor electromagnets aligned for capacitor discharge.  The other steps of the sequence are apparent from Table 1, for each position of the three rotor arms at any step and the juxtapositions of respective stator and rotor electromagnet elements at that position.

 

In the simplified motor arrangement shown in schematic form in Fig.18, with single electromagnet configuration, the alignment is uniform and the discharge sequences follow sequentially.

 

As mentioned before, a change in speed is effected by displacing the stator spark gap terminals on the rotor (shown at 236 in Fig.17 and Fig.18) either counterclockwise or clockwise 6.66 degrees so that the discharge position of the stator electromagnets is displaced.  Referring to Figs. 11 to 15, the simultaneous discharge of selected capacitors into the displaced  electromagnets results in a deceleration if the rotor electromagnet is approaching the stator electromagnet at the time of discharge, or an acceleration if the rotor electromagnet is leaving the stator electromagnet at the time of the discharge pulse.  In each event, there is a repulsive reaction between the stator and rotor electromagnets which effects this change in speed.

 

Referring to Fig.11, clutch mechanism 304 about shaft 111 is operated electromagnetically in conventional manner, to displace the spark-gap mechanism 236 which is operated normally in appropriate matching alignment with the rotor spark-gap discs 291, 292 and 293.  Clutch 304 has a fixed drive element 311, containing an electromagnetic drive coil (not shown) and a motor element 310 which, when the electromagnetic drive coil is energised, can be operated by a direct current.  The operation of motor element 310, brings into operation, spark gap elements 224r, 223r or 223f, 224f of the system shown in Figs. 4, 5 and 8, as illustrated in Fig.19.

 

The fixed stator coil spark gap terminal pairs 223, 224 and 266, 267 are arrayed about a cylindrical frame 322 which is fabricated in insulative material.  In the illustrative example of Fig.17 and Fig.18, there are nine such spark gap terminal pairs positioned around the periphery of the cylinder frame 324.  In the engine of Figs. 4 to 8, a total of 27 such spark gap pairs are involved.  In addition, although not shown in the drawing, there are also pairs of terminals, such as 223r or 223f, 224r or 224f and 226r or 226f, 267r or 267f, displaced 6.66 degrees on either side of the pairs 223, 224 or 266, 267 and all other pairs in the spark gap array, the letters “r” and “f” denoting “retard” or “faster”.  The latter displaced pairs are used in controlling the speed of the engine rotor.  The displaced pairs not shown are involved in the operation of the clutch 304, the speed-changing control element.

 

Clutch 304 is associated with shaft 111 in that the movable element 310 draws clutch disc element 316 on shaft 111, away from clutch disc element 322 when energised by a voltage of appropriate polarity applied to its motor electromagnet 311.  Such clutch drives are well known in the art.

 

The clutch mechanism 304 of Fig.11 and Fig.19, when not energised, is in the configuration shown in Fig.11.  The energised configuration of clutch 304 is not specifically illustrated.  Upon energisation, spark-gap element 222 on disc 236 is displaced rightward, as viewed in Fig.11, by broken lines 236X, into alignment with the positions of fixed spark-gap terminals 223f, 224f and 267r, 266r.  When the disc is in position 236X, the flattened edge 332 of pin 330 in disc 325 rides on surface 350 of disc 322.  Normally, the flattened edges 351 of pins 330 are engaged against the flat edge 352 in recess 331 of disc 322.  The displacement of disc 322 on shaft 111 is effected by the action of clutch 304 against spring 314 (Fig.11).  An electric switch (not shown) of clutch mechanism 304 energises it from a d-c power source, and has two positions, one for deceleration and one for acceleration.  In either position, clutch 304 is engaged to pull clutch disc 322 from clutch disc 325, momentarily.  For the decelerate or the accelerate position, the displaced alignment of spark gap elements 222 is with the 224f, 223f and the 224r, 223r spark-gap terminal elements.  However, only the 224f, 223f spark-gap elements are switched into operation with appropriate capacitors for the accelerate position, while in the decelerate position, only the 223r and 224r spark-gap elements are switched into the circuit with their associated capacitors.

 

Of course, when insulative disc 236 is displaced by clutch 304, its gap terminals 222, 225 and 228 (Fig.14 and Fig.18) are all displaced into the alignment position of 236X so as to engage the “r” and “f” lines of fixed spark gap elements.  Although the accelerate and decelerate positions of disc 236 are the same, it is the switching into operation of the 223, 224 or 266, 267 exemplary “r” or “f” pairs of terminals which determines whether the rotor will speed up or slow down.

 

The momentary displacement of clutch disc 322 from clutch disc 325 results in rotation of disc 325 about disc 322 through an angle of 120 degrees.  The detent ball and spring mechanism 320, 321 in disc 325, positions itself between one detent dimple 328 and a succeeding one 328 at a position 120 degrees away on disc 325. 

 

As stated, flat 332 of pin 330 rides on surface 350 of disc 322, and pin 330 leaves the pin-holding groove 331/352 along ramp 333 in disc 322 during the momentary lifting of disc 322 by clutch 304.  Pin 330 falls back into the next groove 331 at a point 120 degrees further on about disc 322.  Pin 330 falls into place in groove 331 on ramp 334.  Pins 330 are rotatable in their sockets 353, so that for either clockwise or counterclockwise rotation, the flat 351 will engage the flat 352 by the particular ramp it encounters.

 

The deceleration or acceleration due to the action of clutch 304 thus occurs within a 120 degree interval of rotation of disc 325.  During this interval, disc 322 may only move a fraction of this arc.

 

There has been described earlier, an electromotive engine system wherein at least one electromagnet is in a fixed position and a second electromagnet of similar configuration is juxtaposed with it in a magnetic polarity relationship such that, when the cores of the electromagnets are energised, the juxtaposed core faces repel each other.  One core being fixed, and the second core being free to move, any attachments to the second electromagnet core will move with it.  Hence, if a plurality of fixed cores are positioned about a circular confining housing, and, within the housing, cores on a shaft are free to move, the shaft is urged rotationally each time the juxtaposed fixed and rotatable cores are in alignment and energised.  Both the fixed and the movable cores are connected to spark gap terminal elements and the associated other terminal elements of the spark gaps are connected to capacitors which are charged to high voltage from pulsed unipolar signal generators.  These capacitors are discharged through the electromagnets across the spark gaps.  By switching selected groups of capacitors into selected pairs of spark gap elements for discharge through the electromagnets, the rotor of the circular array systems is accelerated and decelerated.

 

By confining a fixed electromagnet array in a linear configuration, with a linearly movable electromagnet to which a working tool is attached, exciting the juxtaposed pairs of electromagnets by capacitor discharge, results in the generation of linear force for such tools as punch presses, or for discharging projectiles with considerable energy.

 

 

 

 

 

EDWIN GRAY: POWER SUPPLY

 

US Patent  4,595,975              June 17, 1986               Inventor: Edwin V. Gray snr.

 

EFFICIENT POWER SUPPLY SUITABLE FOR INDUCTIVE LOADS

 

 

Please note that this is a re-worded excerpt from this patent.  It describes the circuitry used with Edwin Gray’s power tube.    Please be aware Edwin wanted at all costs, to conceal any useful technology while getting patents to encourage investors, so please understand that this patent is not intended to tell you how to make a working system of this type.

 

Fig.1 is a schematic circuit diagram of the electrical driving system.

Fig.2 is an elevational sectional view of the electrical conversion element.

Fig.3 is a plan sectional view taken along line 3--3 of Fig.2.

Fig.4 is a plan sectional view taken along line 4--4 of Fig.2.

Fig.5 is a schematic circuit diagram of the alternating-current input circuit.

 

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides a more efficient driving system comprising a source of electrical voltage; a vibrator connected to the low-voltage source for forming a pulsating signal; a transformer connected to the vibrator for receiving the pulsating signal; a high-voltage source, where available, connected to a bridge-type rectifier; or the bridge-type rectifier connected to the high voltage pulse output of the transformer; a capacitor for receiving the voltage pulse output; a conversion element having first and second anodes, electrically conductive means for receiving a charge positioned about the second anode and an output terminal connected to the charge receiving means, the second anode being connected to the capacitor; a commutator connected to the source of electrical voltage and to the first anode; and an inductive load connected to the output terminal whereby a high energy discharge between the first and second anodes is transferred to the charge receiving means and then to the inductive load.


As a sub-combination, the present invention also includes a conversion element comprising a housing; a first low voltage anode mounted to the housing, the first anode adapted to be connected to a voltage source; a second high voltage anode mounted to the housing, the second anode adapted to be connected to a voltage source; electrically conductive means positioned about the second anode and spaced therefrom for receiving a charge, the charge receiving means being mounted to the housing; and an output terminal communicating with the charge receiving means, said terminal adapted to be connected to an inductive load.


The invention also includes a method for providing power to an inductive load comprising the steps of providing a voltage source, pulsating a signal from said source; increasing the voltage of said signal; rectifying said signal; storing and increasing the signal; conducting said signal to a high voltage anode; providing a low voltage to a second anode to form a high energy discharge; electrostatically coupling the discharge to a charge receiving element; conducting the discharge to an inductive load; coupling a second capacitor to the load; and coupling the second capacitor to the source.


It is an aim of the present invention to provide a system for driving an inductive load which system is substantially more efficient than any now existing.  Another object of the present invention is to provide a system for driving an inductive load which is reliable, is inexpensive and simply constructed.


The foregoing objects of the present invention together with various other objects, advantages, features and results thereof which will be evident to those skilled in the art in light of this disclosure may be achieved with the exemplary embodiment of the invention described in detail hereinafter and illustrated in the accompanying drawings.

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

While the present invention is susceptible of various modifications and alternative constructions, an embodiment is shown in the drawings and will herein be described in detail. It should be understood however that it is not the intention to limit the invention to the particular form disclosed; but on the contrary, the invention is to cover all modifications, equivalents and alternative constructions falling within the spirit and scope of the invention as expressed in the appended claims.


There is disclosed herein an electrical driving system which, on theory, will convert low voltage electric energy from a source such as an electric storage battery to a high potential, high current energy pulse that is capable of developing a working force at the inductive output of the device that is more efficient than that which is capable of being developed directly from the energy source. The improvement in efficiency is further enhanced by the capability of the device to return that portion of the initial energy developed, and not used by the inductive load in the production of mechanical energy, to the same or second energy reservoir or source for use elsewhere, or for storage.


This system accomplishes the results stated above by harnessing the “electrostatic” or “impulse” energy created by a high-intensity spark generated within a specially constructed electrical conversion switching element tube. This element utilises a low-voltage anode, a high-voltage anode, and one or more “electrostatic” or charge receiving grids. These grids are of a physical size, and appropriately positioned, as to be compatible with the size of the tube, and therefore, directly related to the amount of energy to be anticipated when the device is operating.


The low-voltage anode may incorporate a resistive device to aid in controlling the amount of current drawn from the energy source. This low-voltage anode is connected to the energy source through a mechanical commutator or a solid-state pulser that controls the timing and duration of the energy spark within the element. The high-voltage anode is connected to a high- voltage potential developed by the associated circuits. An energy discharge occurs within the element when the external control circuits permit. This short duration, high-voltage, high-current energy pulse is captured by the “electrostatic” grids within the tube, stored momentarily, then transferred to the inductive output load.


The increase in efficiency anticipated in converting the electrical energy to mechanical energy within the inductive load is attributed to the utilisation of the most optimum timing in introducing the electrical energy to the load device, for the optimum period of time.


Further enhancement of energy conservation is accomplished by capturing a significant portion of the energy generated by the inductive load when the useful energy field is collapsing. This energy is normally dissipated in load losses that are contrary to the desired energy utilisation, and have heretofore been accepted because no suitable means had been developed to harness this energy and restore it to a suitable energy storage device.


The present invention is concerned with two concepts or characteristics. The first of these characteristics is observed with the introduction of an energising cur- rent through the inductor. The inductor creates a contrary force (counter-electromotive force or CEMP) that opposes the energy introduced into the inductor. This CEMF increases throughout the time the introduced energy is increasing.


In normal applications of an alternating-current to an inductive load for mechanical applications, the useful work of the inductor is accomplished prior to terminating the application of energy. The excess energy applied is thereby wasted.


Previous attempts to provide energy inputs to an inductor of time durations limited to that period when the optimum transfer of inductive energy to mechanical energy is occurring, have been limited by the ability of any such device to handle the high current required to optimise the energy transfer.


The second characteristic is observed when the energising current is removed from the inductor, As the current is decreased, the inductor generates an EMF that opposes the removal of current or, in other words, produces an energy source at the output of the inductor that simulates the original energy source, reduced by the actual energy removed from the circuit by the mechanical load. This “regenerated”, or excess, energy has previously been lost due to a failure to provide a storage capability for this energy.


In this invention, a high-voltage, high-current, short duration energy pulse is applied to the inductive load by the conversion element. This element makes possible the use of certain of that energy impressed within an arc across a spark-gap, without the resultant deterioration of circuit elements normally associated with high energy electrical arcs.


This invention also provides for capture of a certain portion of the energy induced by the high inductive kick produced by the abrupt withdrawal of the introduced current. This abrupt withdrawal of current is attendant upon the termination of the stimulating arc. The voltage spike so created is imposed upon a capacitor that couples the attendant current to a secondary energy storage device.


A novel, but not essential, circuit arrangement provides for switching the energy source and the energy storage device. This switching may be so arranged as to actuate automatically at predetermined times. The switching may be at specified periods determined by experimentation with a particular device, or may be actuated by some control device that measures the relative energy content of the two energy reservoirs.

 


Referring now to Fig.1, the system 10 will be described in additional detail. The potential for the high- voltage anode, 12 of the conversion element 14 is developed across the capacitor 16. This voltage is produced by drawing a low current from a battery source 18 through the vibrator 20. The effect of the vibrator is to create a pulsating input to the transformer 22. The turns ratio of the transformer is chosen to optimise the volt- age applied to a bridge-type rectifier 24. The output of the rectifier is then a series of high-voltage pulses of modest current. When the available source is already of the high voltage, AC type, it may be coupled directly to the bridge-type rectifier.


By repetitious application of these output pulses from the bridge-type rectifier to the capacitor 16, a high-voltage, high-level charge is built up on the capacitor.


Control of the conversion switching element tube is maintained by a commutator 26. A series of contacts mounted radially about a shafts or a solid-state switching device sensitive to time or other variable may be used for this control element. A switching element tube type one-way energy path 28 is introduced between the commutator device and the conversion switching element tube to prevent high energy arcing at the commutator current path. When the switching element tube is closed, current from the voltage source 18 is routed through a resistive element 30 and a low voltage anode 32. This causes a high energy discharge between the anodes within the conversion switching element tube 14.


The energy content of the high energy pulse is electrostatically coupled to the conversion grids 34 of the conversion element. This electrostatic charge is applied through an output terminal 60 (Fig.2) across the load inductance 36, inducing a strong electromagnetic field about the inductive load. The intensity of this electromagnetic field is determined by the high electromotive potential developed upon the electrostatic grids and the very short time duration required to develop the energy pulse.


If the inductive load is coupled magnetically to a mechanical load, a strong initial torque is developed that may be efficiently utilised to produce physical work


Upon cessation of the energy pulse (arc) within the conversion switching element tube the inductive load is decoupled, allowing the electromagnetic field about the inductive load to collapse. The collapse of this energy field induces within the inductive load a counter EMF.  This counter EMF creates a high positive potential across a second capacitor which, in turn, is induced into the second energy storage device or battery 40 as a charging current. The amount of charging current available to the battery 40 is dependent upon the initial conditions within the circuit at the time of discharge within the conversion switching element tube and the amount of mechanical energy consumed by the workload.


A spark-gap protection device 42 is included in the circuit to protect the inductive load and the rectifier elements from unduly large discharge currents. Should the potentials within the circuit exceed predetermined values, fixed by the mechanical size and spacing of the elements within the protective device, the excess energy is dissipated (bypassed) by the protective device to the circuit common (electrical ground).


Diodes 44 and 46 bypass the excess overshoot generated when the “Energy Conversion Switching Element Tube” is triggered. A switching element U allows either energy storage source to be used as the primary energy source, while the other battery is used as the energy retrieval unit. The switch facilitates interchanging the source and the retrieval unit at optimum intervals to be determined by the utilisation of the conversion switching element tube. This switching may be accomplished manually or automatically, as determined by the choice of switching element from among a large variety readily available for the purpose.

 

 



Fig.2, Fig.3, and Fig.4 show the mechanical structure of the conversion switching element tube 14. An outer housing 50 may be of any insulative material such as glass. The anodes 12 and 22 and grids 34a and 34b are firmly secured by nonconductive spacer material 54, and 56. The resistive element 30 may be introduced into the low-voltage anode path to control the peak currents through the conversion switching element tube. The resistive element may be of a piece, or it may be built of one or more resistive elements to achieve the desired result.


The anode material may be identical for each anode, or may be of differing materials for each anode, as dictated by the most efficient utilisation of the device, as determined by appropriate research at the time of production for the intended use.  The shape and spacing of the electrostatic grids is also susceptible to variation with application (voltage, current, and energy requirements).


It is the contention of the inventor that by judicious mating of the elements of the conversion switching element tube, and the proper selection of the components of the circuit elements of the system, the desired theoretical results may be achieved. It is the inventor’s contention that this mating and selection process is well within the capabilities of intensive research and development technique.


Let it be stated here that substituting a source of electric alternating-current subject to the required cur- rent and/or voltage shaping and/or timing, either prior to being considered a primary energy source, or there- after, should not be construed to change the described utilisation or application of primary energy in any way. Such energy conversion is readily achieved by any of a multitude of well established principles. The preferred embodiment of this invention merely assumes optimum utilisation and optimum benefit from this invention when used with portable energy devices similar in principle to the wet-cell or dry-cell battery.


This invention proposes to utilise the energy contained in an internally generated high-voltage electric spike (energy pulse) to electrically energise an inductive load.: this inductive load being then capable of converting the energy so supplied into a useful electrical or mechanical output.


In operation the high-voltage, short-duration electric spike is generated by discharging the capacitor 16 across the spark-gap in the conversion switching element tube. The necessary high-voltage potential is stored on the capacitor in incremental, additive steps from the bridge-type rectifier 24.  When the energy source is a direct-current electric energy storage device, such as the battery 12, the input to the bridge rectifier is provided by the voltage step-up transformer 22, that is in turn energised from the vibrator 20, or solid-state chopper, or similar device to properly drive the transformer and rectifier circuits.


When the energy source is an alternating-current, switches 64 disconnect transformer 22 and the input to the bridge-type rectifier 24 is provided by the voltage step-up transformer 66, that is in turn energised from the vibrator 20, or solid-state chopper, or similar device to properly drive the transformer and rectifier circuits.


The repetitions output of the bridge rectifier incrementally increases the capacitor charge toward its maximum. This charge is electrically connected directly to the high-voltage anode 12 of the conversion switching element tube.  When the low-voltage anode 32 is connected to a source of current, an arc is created in the spark-gap designated 62 of the conversion switching element tube equivalent to the potential stored on the high-voltage anode, and the current available from the low-voltage anode.


Because the duration of the arc is very short, the instantaneous voltage, and instantaneous current may both be very high. The instantaneous peak apparent power is therefore, also very high. Within the conversion switching element tube, this energy is absorbed by the grids 34a and 34b mounted circumferentially about the interior of the tube.


Control of the energy spike within the conversion switching element tube is accomplished by a mechanical, or solid-state commutator, that closes the circuit path from the low-voltage anode to the current source at that moment when the delivery of energy to the output load is most auspicious. Any number of standard high-accuracy, variable setting devices are available for this purpose. When control of the repetitive rate of the system’s output is required, it is accomplished by controlling the time of connection at the low-voltage anode.


Thus there can be provided an electrical driving system having a low-voltage source coupled to a vibrator, a transformer and a bridge-type rectifier to provide a high voltage pulsating signal to a first capacitor. Where a high-voltage source is otherwise available, it may be coupled direct to a bridge-type rectifier, causing a pulsating signal to a first capacitor. The capacitor in turn is coupled to a high-voltage anode of an electrical conversion switching element tube. The element also includes a low-voltage anode which in turn is connected to a voltage source by a commutator, a switching element tube, and a variable resistor. Mounted around the high-voltage anode is a charge receiving plate which in turn is coupled to an inductive load to transmit a high-voltage discharge from the element to the load. Also coupled to the load is a second capacitor for storing the back EMF created by the collapsing electrical field of the load when the current to the load is blocked. The second capacitor in turn is coupled to the voltage source.

 

 

 

 

 

ASPDEN & ADAMS: MOTOR / GENERATOR

 

Patent GB 2,282,708        12th April 1995        Inventors: Harold Aspden and Robert Adams

 

 

ELECTRICAL MOTOR / GENERATOR

 

 

This version of the patent has been re-worded in an attempt to make it easier to read and understand.  It describes the design of a pulsed electromagnet / permanent magnet motor which is capable of a higher power output than it’s own power input.

 

ABSTRACT

An electrodynamic motor-generator has a salient pole permanent magnet rotor interacting with salient stator poles to form a machine operating on the magnetic reluctance principle. The intrinsic ferromagnetic power of the magnets provides the drive torque by bringing the poles into register whilst current pulses demagnetise the stator poles as the poles separate. In as much as less power is needed for stator demagnetisation than is fed into the reluctance drive by the thermodynamic system powering the ferromagnetic state, the machine operates regeneratively by virtue of stator winding interconnection with unequal number of rotor and stator poles. A rotor construction is disclosed (Fig.6 and Fig.7). The current pulse may be such as to cause repulsion of the rotor poles.

 

 

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to a form of electric motor which serves a generating function in that the machine can act regeneratively to develop output electrical power or can generate mechanical drive torque with unusually high efficiency in relation to electrical power input.

 

The field of invention is that of switched reluctance motors, meaning machines which have salient poles and operate by virtue of the mutual magnetic attraction and/or repulsion as between magnetised poles.

 

The invention particularly concerns a form of reluctance motor which incorporates permanent magnets to establish magnetic polarisation.

 

 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

There have been proposals in the past for machines in which the relative motion of magnets can in some way develop unusually strong force actions which are said to result in more power output than is supplied as electrical input.

 

By orthodox electrical engineering principles such suggestions have seemed to contradict accepted principles of physics, but it is becoming increasingly evident that conformity with the first law of thermodynamics allows a gain in the electromechanical power balance provided it is matched by a thermal cooling.

 

In this sense, one needs to extend the physical background of the cooling medium to include, not just the machine structure and the immediate ambient environment, but also the sub-quantum level of what is termed, in modern physics, the zero-point field. This is the field activity of the vacuum medium which exists in the space between atomic nuclei and atomic electrons and is the seat of the action which is that associated with the Planck constant. Energy is constantly being exchanged as between that activity and coextensive matter forms but normally these energy fluctuations preserve, on balance, an equilibrium condition so that this action passes unnoticed at the technology level.

 

Physicists are becoming more and more aware of the fact that, as with gravitation, so magnetism is a route by which we can gain access to the sea of energy that pervades the vacuum. Historically, the energy balance has been written in mathematical terms by assigning 'negative' potential to gravitation or magnetism. However, this is only a disguised way of saying that the vacuum field, suitably influenced by the gravitating mass of a body in the locality or by magnetism in a ferromagnet has both the capacity and an urge to shed energy.

 

Now, however, there is growing awareness of the technological energy generating potential of this field background and interest is developing in techniques for 'pumping' the coupling between matter and vacuum field to derive power from that hidden energy source. Such research may establish that this action will draw on the 2.7K cosmic background temperature of the space medium through which the Earth travels at some 400 km/s. The effect contemplated could well leave a cool 'vapour trail' in space as a machine delivering heat, or delivering a more useful electrical form of energy that will revert to heat, travels with body Earth through that space.

 

In pure physics terms, relevant background is of recent record in the August 1993 issue of Physical Review E, vol. 48, pp. 1562-1565 under the title: 'Extracting energy and heat from the vacuum', authored by D. C. Cole and H. E. Puthoff. Though the connection is not referenced in that paper, one of its author's presented experimental evidence on that theme at an April 1993 conference held in Denver USA. The plasma power generating device discussed at that conference was the subject of U. S. Patent No. 5,018,180, the inventor of record being K. R. Shoulders.

 

The invention, to be described below, operates by extracting energy from a magnetic system in a motor and the relevant scientific background to this technology can be appreciated from the teachings of E. B. Moullin, a Cambridge Professor of Electrical Engineering who was a President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers in U. K.  That prior art will be described below as part of the explanation of the operation of the invention.

 

The invention presented here concerns specific structural design features of a machine adapted for robust operation, but these also have novelty and special merit in a functional operation. What is described is quite distinct from prior art proposals, one being a novel kind of motor proposed by Gareth Jones at a 1988 symposium held in Hull, Canada under the auspices of the Planetary Association for Clean Energy. Jones suggested the adaptation of an automobile alternator which generates three-phase AC for rectification and use as a power supply for the electrics in the automobile. This alternator has a permanent magnet rotor and Jones suggested that it could be used, with high efficiency gain and torque performance, by operating it as a motor with the three-phase winding circuit excited so as to promote strong repulsion between the magnet poles and the stator poles after the poles had come into register.

 

However, the Jones machine is not one exploiting the advantages of the invention to be described, because it is not strictly a reluctance motor having salient poles on both stator and rotor. The stator poles in the

Jones machine are formed by the winding configuration in a slotted stator form, the many slots being uniformly distributed around the inner circumference of the stator and not constituting a pole system which lends itself to the magnetic flux actions to be described by reference to the E. B. Moullin experiment.

 

The Jones machine operates by generating a rotating stator field which, in a sense, pushes the rotor poles forward rather than pulling them in the manner seen in the normal synchronous motor. Accordingly, the Jones machine relies on the electric current excitation of the motor producing a field system which rotates smoothly but has a polarity pattern which is forced by the commutation control to keep behind the rotor poles in asserting a continuous repulsive drive.

 

Another prior art proposal which is distinguished from this invention is that of one of the applicants, H. Aspden, namely the subject of U.K. Patent No. 2,234,863 (counterpart U.S. Patent Serial No.4,975,608). Although this latter invention is concerned with extracting energy from the field by the same physical process as the subject invention, the technique for accessing that energy is not optimum in respect of the structure or method used. Whereas in this earlier disclosure, the switching of the reluctance drive excited the poles in their approach phase, the subject invention, in one of its aspects, offers distinct advantages by demagnetisation or reversal of magnetisation in the pole separation phase of operation.

 

There are unexpected advantages in the implementation proposed by the subject invention, inasmuch as recent research has confirmed that it requires less input power to switch off the mutual attraction across an air gap between a magnet and an electromagnet than it does to switch it on. Usually, in electromagnetism, a reversal symmetry is expected, arising from conventional teaching of the way forward and back magnetomotive forces govern the resulting flux in a magnetic circuit.

 

This will be further explained after describing the scope of the invention.

 

 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

According to one aspect of the invention, an electrodynamic motor/generator machine comprises a stator configured to provide a set of stator poles, a corresponding set of magnetising windings mounted on the stator pole set, a rotor having two sections each of which has a set of salient pole pieces, the rotor sections being axially spaced along the axis of rotation of the rotor, rotor magnetisation means disposed between the two rotor sections arranged to produce a unidirectional magnetic field which magnetically polarises the rotor poles, whereby the pole faces of one rotor section all have a north polarity and the pole faces of the other rotor section all have a south polarity and electric circuit connections between an electric current source and the stator magnetising windings arranged to regulate the operation of the machine by admitting current pulses for a duration determined according to the angular position of the rotor, which pulses have a direction tending to oppose the polarisation induced in the stator by the rotor polarisation as stator and rotor poles separate from an in-register position, whereby the action of the rotor magnetisation means provides a reluctance motor drive force to bring stator and rotor poles into register and the action of the stator magnetisation windings opposes the counterpart reluctance braking effect as the poles separate.

 

According to a feature of the invention, the circuit connecting the electric current source and the stator magnetising windings is designed to deliver current pulses which are of sufficient strength and duration to provide demagnetisation of the stator poles as the stator and rotor poles separate from an in-register position.

 

In this regard it is noted that in order to suppress the reluctance drive torque or brake torque, depending upon whether poles are converging or separating, a certain amount of electrical power must be fed to the magnetising windings on the stator. In a sense these windings are really 'demagnetising windings' because the polarity of the circuit connections admit the pulse current in the demagnetising direction.

 

However, it is more usual to refer to windings on magnetic cores as 'magnetising windings' even though they can function as primary windings or secondary windings, the former serving the magnetisation function with input power and the latter serving a demagnetising function with return of power.

 

According to another feature of the invention, the circuit connecting the electric current source and the stator magnetising windings is designed to deliver current pulses which are of sufficient strength and duration to provide a reversal of magnetic flux direction in the stator poles as the stator and rotor poles separate from an in-register position, whereby to draw on power supplied from the electric current source to provide additional forward drive torque.

 

According to a further feature of the invention, the electric current source connected to a stator magnetising winding of a first stator pole comprises, at least partially, the electrical pulses induced in the stator magnetising winding of a different second stator pole, the stator pole set configuration in relation to the rotor pole set configuration being such that the first stator pole is coming into register with a rotor pole as the second stator pole separates from its in-register position with a rotor pole.

 

This means that the magnetising windings of two stator poles are connected so that both serve a 'demagnetising' function, one in resisting the magnetic action of the mutual attraction in pulling poles into register, an action which develops a current pulse output and one in absorbing this current pulse, again by resisting the magnetic inter-pole action to demagnetise the stator pole as its associated rotor pole separates.

 

In order to facilitate the function governed by this circuit connection between stator magnetising windings, a phase difference is needed and this is introduced by designing the machine to have a different number of poles in a set of stator poles from the number of rotor poles in each rotor section. Together with the dual rotor section feature, this has the additional merit of assuring a smoother torque action and reducing magnetic flux fluctuations and leakage effects which contribute substantially to machine efficiency.

 

Thus, according to another feature of the invention, the stator configuration provides pole pieces which are common to both rotor sections in the sense that when stator and rotor poles are in-register the stator pole pieces constitute bridging members for magnetic flux closure in a magnetic circuit including that of the rotor magnetisation means disposed between the two rotor sections.

 

Preferably, the number of poles in a set of stator poles and the number of rotor poles in each section do not share a common integer factor, the number of rotor poles in one rotor section is the same as that in the other rotor section and the number of poles in a stator set and the number of poles in a rotor section differs by one, with the pole faces being of sufficient angular width to assure that the magnetic flux produced by the rotor magnetisation means can find a circular magnetic flux closure route through the bridging path of a stator pole and through corresponding rotor poles for any angular position of the rotor.

 

It is also preferable from a design viewpoint for the stator pole faces of this invention to have an angular width that is no greater than half the angular width of a rotor pole and for the rotor sections to comprise circular steel laminations in which the rotor poles are formed as large teeth at the perimeter with the rotor magnetisation means comprising a magnetic core structure the end faces of which abut two assemblies of such laminations forming the two rotor sections.

 

According to a further feature of the invention, the rotor magnetisation means comprises at least one permanent magnet located with its polarisation axis parallel with the rotor axis. The motor-generator may include an apertured metal disc that is of a non-magnetisable substance mounted on a rotor shaft and positioned intermediate the two rotor sections, each aperture providing location for a permanent magnet, whereby the centrifugal forces acting on the permanent magnet as the rotor rotates are absorbed by the stresses set up in the disc. Also, the rotor may be mounted on a shaft that is of a non-magnetisable substance, whereby to minimise magnetic leakage from the rotor magnetising means through that shaft.

 

According to another aspect of the invention, an electrodynamic motor-generator machine comprises a stator configured to provide a set of stator poles, a corresponding set of magnetising windings mounted on the stator pole set, a rotor having two sections each of which has a set of salient pole pieces, the rotor sections being axially spaced along the axis of rotation of the rotor, rotor magnetisation means incorporated in the rotor structure and arranged to polarise the rotor poles, whereby the pole faces of one rotor section all have a north polarity and