Appendix

 

TABLE OF WIRE SIZES: 

The wire sizes specified for use in some designs are American Wire Gauge so a comparison table showing the UK ‘Standard Wire Gauge’ (with lengths on a 500 gram reel of enamelled copper wire), and the ‘American Wire Gauge’ is given here:

 

AWG

Dia mm

Area

sq. mm

SWG

Dia mm

Area

sq. mm

Max

Amps

Ohms /

metre

Metres

Per 500g

Max

Hz

1

7.35

42.40

2

7.01

38.60

119

 

 

325

2

6.54

33.60

3

6.40

32.18

94

 

 

410

3

5.88

27.15

4

5.89

27.27

75

 

 

500

4

5.19

21.20

6

4.88

18.68

60

 

 

650

5

4.62

16.80

7

4.47

15.70

47

 

 

810

6

4.11

13.30

8

4.06

12.97

37

 

 

1,100

7

3.67

10.60

9

3.66

10.51

30

 

 

1,300

8

3.26

8.35

10

3.25

8.30

24

 

 

1,650

9

2.91

6.62

11

2.95

6.82

19

 

 

2,050

10

2.59

5.27

12

2.64

5.48

15

0.0042

 

2,600

11

2.30

4.15

13

2.34

4.29

12

0.0047

 

3,200

12

2.05

3.31

14

2.03

3.49

9.3

0.0053

17.5 m

4,150

13

1.83

2.63

15

1.83

2.63

7.4

0.0068

 

5,300

14

1.63

2.08

16

1.63

2.08

5.9

0.0083

27 m

6,700

15

1.45

1.65

17

1.42

1.59

4.7

0.0135

 

8,250

16

1.29

1.31

18

1.219

1.17

3.7

0.0148

48 m

11 kHz

17

1.15

1.04

 

 

 

2.9

0.0214

 

13 kHz

18

1.024

0.823

19

1.016

0.811

2.3

0.027

 

17 kHz

19

0.912

0.653

20

0.914

0.657

1.8

0.026

85 m

21 kHz

20

0.812

0.519

21

0.813

0.519

1.5

0.036

 

27 kHz

21

0.723

0.412

22

0.711

0.397

1.2

0.043

140 m

33 kHz

22

0.644

0.325

23

0.610

0.292

0.92

0.056

 

42 kHz

23

0.573

0.259

24

0.559

0.245

0.729

0.070

225 m

53 kHz

24

0.511

0.205

25

0.508

0.203

0.577

0.087

 

68 kHz

25

0.455

0.163

26

0.457

0.164

0.457

0.105

340 m

85 kHz

26

0.405

0.128

27

0.417

0.136

0.361

0.130

 

107 kHz

27

0.361

0.102

28

0.376

0.111

0.288

0.155

500 m

130 kHz

28

0.321

0.0804

30

0.315

0.0779

0.226

0.221

700 m

170 kHz

29

0.286

0.0646

32

0.274

0.0591

0.182

0.292

950 m

210 kHz

30

0.255

0.0503

33

0.254

0.0506

0.142

0.347

1125 m

270 kHz

31

0.226

0.0401

34

0.234

0.0428

0.113

0.402

1300 m

340 kHz

32

0.203

0.0324

36

0.193

0.0293

0.091

0.589

1900 m

430 kHz

33

0.180

0.0255

37

0.173

0.0234

0.072

0.767

2450 m

540 kHz

34

0.160

0.0201

38

0.152

0.0182

0.056

0.945

3000 m

690 kHz

35

0.142

0.0159

39

0.132

0.0137

0.044

1.212

3700 m

870 kHz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FRANK FECERA: PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR

 

Patent US 6,867,514 B2                   15th March 2005                     Inventor: Frank J. Fecera

 

 

PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR

 

This patent application shows the details of a permanent magnet motor.  It should be noted that while in this text, Frank states that permanent magnets store a finite amount of magnetism, in actual fact, the magnet poles form a dipole which causes a continuous flow of energy drawn from the quantum foam of our universe, and that flow continues until such time as the dipole is destroyed.  The energy which powers any permanent magnet motor comes directly from the zero-point energy field and not actually from the magnet itself.  A piece of iron can be converted into a magnet by a single nanosecond magnetic pulse.  It makes no sense that a pulse of that duration could provide months of continuous power from anything stored in the magnet itself, but it makes perfect sense if that brief pulse created a magnetic dipole which acts as a gateway for the inflow of zero-point energy from the environment.

 

ABSTRACT

A motor providing unidirectional rotational motive power is provided. The motor has a generally circular stator with a stator axis, an outer surface, and a circumferential line of demarcation at about a midpoint of the outer surface. The motor also includes one or more stator magnets attached to the outer surface of the stator. The stator magnets are arranged in a generally circular arrangement about the stator axis and generate a first magnetic field.  An armature is attached to the stator so that it rotates with it, the armature having an axis parallel to the stator axis.  One or more rotors, are spaced from the armature and coupled to it by an axle to allow each rotor to rotate around an axis, each rotor rotating in a plane generally aligned with the axis of the armature.  Each rotor includes one or more rotor magnets, with each rotor magnet generating a second magnetic field.  The second magnetic field generated by each rotor magnet interacts with the first magnetic field, to cause each rotor to rotate about the rotor axis.  A linkage assembly drive connects each rotor to the stator to cause the armature to rotate about the armature axis thereby providing the unidirectional rotational motive power of the motor.

 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to dynamo electric motor structures and more particularly to rotary and linear permanent magnet motors.  Conventional electric motors rely on the interaction of magnetic fields to produce a force which results in either rotary or linear motion.  The magnetic fields in conventional electric motors providing rotary power, are generated by passing an externally provided electric current through conductors in either a stator (i.e. stationary portion of the motor), a rotor (i.e. rotary portion) or both the stator and the rotor.  The rotary power of the motor arises from a rotating magnetic field which is created by commutating the electric current, either by a switching the current through different conductors, as in a direct current motor or by a polarity reversal of the electric current as in an alternating current motor.

 

It is well known that a class of materials known as ferromagnetic materials are also capable of generating a magnetic field having once been energised.   Ferromagnetic materials with high coercivity are known as permanent magnets.   Permanent magnets are capable of storing a finite amount of energy and retaining the ability to generate a substantial magnetic field until the stored energy is depleted.

 

There are electric motors which use permanent magnets in either the stator portion of the motor or the rotor portion of the motor.  These motors achieve a small size for the amount of power delivered by the motor because the motors avoid having current carrying conductors to produce the magnetic field which is otherwise produced by the permanent magnets.   However, these conventional permanent magnet motors still require a source of external power to produce a rotating magnetic field.

 

There have also been developed permanent magnet motors which use permanent magnets for both the stator and the rotor.   For example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,598,221 discloses a permanent magnet motor which relies on an external source of power to rotate the magnetic fields of a rotor by ninety degrees with respect to the interacting stator magnetic fields to eliminate the counterproductive magnetic repulsion and attraction between the rotor and the stator magnets.   In another example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,882,509 discloses a permanent magnet motor which relies on an external source of power to position a shield which does not permit coupling between the rotor and the stator magnets at times when attraction or repulsion would drag down the strength of the motor.

 

There are many instances where a motor action is required and no source of external power is available. Accordingly, a motor which relies solely on the energy stored in permanent magnets would be useful.

 

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Briefly stated, the present invention comprises a rotor for use in a permanent magnet motor and for providing motive power by rotation of the rotor about a rotor axis.  The rotor comprises at least one first U-shaped magnet having a rear side and generating a first magnetic field.  The rotation of the rotor about the rotor axis is caused by an interaction of a portion of the first magnetic field directly adjacent to the rear of the at least one U-shaped magnet with a stationary second magnetic field.

 

Another aspect of the present invention comprises a rotor providing motive power by a rotation of the rotor about the rotor axis and by a translation of the rotor in a direction of the rotor axis.  The rotor comprises: a first U-shaped magnet having a north pole, a south pole and a rear side, the first U-shaped magnet generating a first magnetic field; a second U-shaped magnet having a north pole and a south pole, the south pole of the second U-shaped magnet abutting the north pole of the first U-shaped magnet; and a third U-shaped magnet having a north pole and a south pole, the north pole of the third U-shaped magnet abutting the south pole of the first U-shaped magnet.  A portion of the first magnetic field generated by the first U-shaped magnet directly adjacent to the rear of the first U-shaped magnet interacts with a stationary fourth magnetic field to cause the rotor to rotate.   A second magnetic field generated by the north pole of the second U-shaped magnet and a third magnetic field generated by the south pole of the third U-shaped magnet interact with the fourth magnetic field to cause the rotor to translate in the direction of the rotor axis.

 

A further aspect of the present invention comprises a rotor including a rotor axis, and a thruster axis in a plane of the rotor and intersecting the rotor axis.  The rotor provides motive power by a rotation of the rotor about the rotor axis and by a translation of the rotor in a direction of the rotor axis.  The rotor comprises: a first U-shaped magnet having a north pole and a south pole and a rear side, the north pole and the south pole being generally aligned with the thruster axis, the first U-shaped magnet generating a first magnetic field; a first thruster magnet having a direction of magnetisation generally aligned with the thruster magnet axis, the first thruster magnet being proximate to and spaced from the north pole of the first U-shaped magnet; and a second thruster magnet having a direction of magnetisation generally aligned with the thruster magnet axis, the second thruster magnet being near to and spaced from the south pole of the first U-shaped magnet, the first U-shaped magnet being interposed between the first and the second thruster magnets.   A portion of the first magnetic field generated by the first U-shaped magnet directly adjacent to the rear side of the first U-shaped magnet interacts with a stationary fourth magnetic field to cause the rotor to rotate, a second magnetic field generated by the first thruster magnet and a third magnetic field generated by the second thruster magnet respectively interact with a stationary fifth magnetic field to cause the rotor to translate in the direction of the rotor axis.

 

Another aspect of the present invention comprises a rotor providing motive power by rotation of the rotor about a rotor axis and translation of the rotor in the direction of the rotor axis.  The rotor has at least one rotor magnet generating a first magnetic field, the first magnetic field being generated by the rotor magnet interacting with at least one stationary U-shaped magnet, the U-shaped magnet having a rear side and generating a second magnetic field. The rotational and translational motive power of the rotor is provided by an interaction of a portion of the second magnetic field directly adjacent to the rear of the U-shaped magnet with the first magnetic field.

 

A further aspect of the present invention comprises a motor providing unidirectional rotational motive power. The motor includes a generally circular stator having a stator axis, an outer surface, and a circumferential line of demarcation at about a midpoint of the outer surface; at least one stator magnet attached to the outer surface of the stator, the at least one stator magnet being arranged in a generally circular arrangement about the stator axis and generating a first magnetic field; an armature attached to the stator for rotation with it; the armature having an axis parallel to the stator axis; at least one rotor, the rotor being spaced from the armature and coupled to it by an axle to allow rotation about an axis of the rotor, the rotor rotating in a plane generally aligned with the armature axis, the rotor, including at least one magnet generating a second magnetic field, where the second magnetic field generated by the rotor magnet interacts with the first magnetic field to cause the rotor to rotate about it’s axis; and a drive linkage assembly connecting the rotor to the stator to cause the armature to rotate about it’s axis as the rotor rotates about it’s axis, thereby providing the unidirectional rotational motive power of the motor.

 

In another aspect, the present invention is directed to a motor providing unidirectional rotational motive power comprising: a generally circular stator having an axis, an outer surface, and a circumferential line of demarcation around the outer surface, the line of demarcation having a pre-determined direction around the stator axis and separating a first side of the outer surface and a second side of the outer surface, wherein at least one pair of stator magnets is attached to the outer surface generating a first magnetic field, the pair of magnets comprising a first stator magnet having a north pole and a south pole and a second stator magnet having a north pole and a south pole, the south pole of the first stator magnet being located on the first side of the outer surface and the north pole of the first stator magnet being closest to the line of demarcation, the north pole of the second stator magnet being located on the second side of the outer surface and the south pole of the second stator magnet being closest to the line of demarcation, wherein the at least one pair of stator magnets is spaced along the line of demarcation so that a first inter-magnet distance measured along the line of demarcation between the north pole of the first stator magnet and the south pole of the second stator magnet of an adjacent pair of the at least one pair of stator magnets is generally equal to a second inter-magnet distance measured along the line of demarcation between the south pole of the first stator magnet and the north pole of the second stator magnet; an armature attached to the stator, the armature having an axis parallel to the stator axis and attached to the stator for rotation therewith; and at least one rotor attached to the armature, the at least one rotor being spaced from the armature and coupled to it by an axle for rotation about an axis of the rotor, the rotor rotating in a plane generally aligned with the armature axis, the rotor comprising at least one rotor magnet, the rotor magnet generating a second magnetic field which interacts with the first magnetic field to cause the rotor to rotationally oscillate about the axis of the rotor and to generate a force in a direction of the rotor axis, thereby causing the armature to rotate in the pre-determined direction around the armature axis to provide the unidirectional rotational motive power of the motor.

 

In a further aspect, the present invention is directed to a motor providing unidirectional linear motive power comprising: a linear stator having a generally curved cross-section and a longitudinal line of demarcation perpendicular to the cross-section extending on about a midpoint of a surface of the stator between a first end and a second end of the stator, the stator including at least one magnet arranged between the first end and the second end, the magnet having a direction of magnetisation at about a right angle to the line of demarcation and generating a first magnetic field, the magnitude of the first magnetic field being generally uniform along the line of demarcation except in a pre-determined number of null regions, wherein the first magnetic field is substantially zero a rail connected to the stator, the rail having a longitudinal axis generally parallel to the line of demarcation and a helical groove with a pre-determined pitch running around a periphery of the rail; at least one rotor having a rotor axis aligned with the axis of the rail, the rotor being connected to the rail so that the rotor is free to rotate about the axis of the rail and slide along the rail, the rotor including at least one U-shaped magnet having a rear side and generating a second magnetic field, where a portion of the second magnetic field directly adjacent to the rear of the U-shaped magnet interacts with the first magnetic field to cause the rotor to rotate about the axis of the rail; a bearing assembly connecting the rotor to the helical groove, the bearing assembly converting the rotary motion of the rotor about the axis of the rail to linear motion along the rail; and a cross-link connecting the bearing assembly of a first rotor to a second rotor, thereby adding together the linear motion along the rail of the first rotor and the second rotor to provide the unidirectional linear motive power.

 

In yet another aspect, the present invention is directed to a motor providing unidirectional motive power comprising: a rail having a longitudinal axis and at least one helical groove having a pre-determined pitch running around a periphery of the rail; at least one first helical stator concentrically surrounding the rail, the first helical stator having the pre-determined pitch of the groove and a longitudinal axis generally parallel to the axis of the rail, at least one first stator magnet being attached to the first helical stator, the first stator magnet generating a first magnetic field; at least one rotor having an axis generally aligned with the axis of the rail, the rotor being connected to the rail so that the rotor is free to rotate about the axis of the rail and slide along the rail, the rotor comprising at least one rotor magnet generating a second magnetic field, the second magnetic field interacting with the first magnetic field generated by the first stator magnet to cause the rotor to rotate about the axis of the rail; and a bearing assembly connecting the rotor to the helical groove around the periphery of the rail, the bearing assembly converting the rotational motion of the rotor about the rail to unidirectional linear motion along the rail.

 

A further aspect of the present invention is directed to a motor providing unidirectional motive force comprising: a rail having a longitudinal axis and a helical groove running around the rail, the groove having a predetermined pitch; at least one first helical stator comprising a plurality of discontinuous spaced apart first ribs, each first rib partially surrounding the rail at a generally uniform distance from the rail, the first helical stator having the pre-determined pitch of the groove and a longitudinal axis generally aligned with the rail, at least one first stator magnet being attached to each rib, each first stator magnet generating a first magnetic field; at least one rotor having an axis generally aligned with the axis of the rail, the rotor being connected to the rail so that the rotor is free to rotate about the axis of the rail and to slide along the rail, the rotor comprising at least one rotor magnet generating a second magnetic field, the second magnetic field interacting with the first magnetic field generated by the first stator magnet to cause the rotor to rotate about the axis of the rail; and a bearing assembly connecting the rotor to the helical groove around the rail, the bearing assembly converting the rotary motion of the rotor about the rail to linear motion along the rail.

 

The present invention is further directed to a motor providing unidirectional motive power comprising: a rail having a longitudinal axis and a generally sinusoidal groove running around a periphery of the rail, the sinusoidal groove having a pre-determined period; at least one stator having a generally curved cross-section and a longitudinal line of demarcation perpendicular to the cross-section located at about a midpoint of a surface of the stator, the surface of the stator being disposed generally equidistant from and parallel to the axis of the rail; at least one stator magnet attached to the surface of the stator generating a first magnetic field, the stator magnet having a magnetisation which is displaced sinusoidally from the line of demarcation, the sinusoid having a pre-determined period and a pre-determined maximum amplitude and being divided into a plurality of alternating first and second sectors, with a boundary between the alternating first and second sectors occurring at the maximum amplitude of the sinusoid, the direction of magnetisation of the stator magnet being opposite in direction in the first and second segments; at least one rotor having an axis aligned with the axis of the rail, the rotor being connected to the rail so that the rotor is free to rotate about the axis of the rail and slide along the rail, the rotor including at least one U-shaped magnet having a rear side and generating a second magnetic field, the U-shaped magnet being positioned on the rotor so that the rear side of the U-shaped magnet is apposite to the first and the second segments of the stator as the rotor rotates about the rotor axis, wherein an interaction of a portion of the second magnetic field directly adjacent to the rear of the U-shaped magnet with the first magnetic field causes the rotor to rotationally oscillate about the axis of the rail; and a bearing assembly connecting the rotor to the sinusoidal groove around the rail, the bearing assembly converting the oscillatory motion of the rotor about the rail to unidirectional linear motion along the rail.

 

The present invention is also directed to a motor providing unidirectional motive power comprising: a rail having a longitudinal axis and a helical groove running around a periphery of the rail, the helical groove having a pre-determined pitch; at least one stator having a generally having a longitudinal line of demarcation located at about a midpoint of a surface of the   stator, the surface of the stator being disposed generally equidistant from and parallel to the axis of the rail; at least one stator magnet attached to the surface of the stator, the stator magnet having a direction of magnetisation which rotates about a magnetic axis parallel to the line of demarcation with a predetermined pitch, thereby generating a first magnetic field having a substantially uniform magnitude along the magnetic axis and rotates around the magnetic axis with the pre-determined pitch of the stator magnet rotation; at least one rotor having an axis aligned with the axis of the rail, the rotor being connected to the rail so that the rotor is free to rotate about the axis of the rail and slide along the rail, the rotor including at least one U-shaped magnet generating a second magnetic field, the U-shaped magnet being positioned on the rotor so that a portion of the second magnetic field directly adjacent to the rear side of the U-shaped magnet interacts with the first magnetic field of the stator magnet to cause the rotor to rotate about it’s axis; and a bearing assembly connecting the rotor to the helical groove, the bearing assembly converting the rotary motion of the rotor about the rail to unidirectional linear motion along the rail.

 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS

The foregoing summary, as well as the following detailed description of preferred embodiments of the invention, will be better understood when read in conjunction with the appended drawings. For the purpose of illustrating the invention, there are shown in the drawings embodiments which are presently preferred. It should be understood, however, that the invention is not limited to the precise arrangements and instrumentalities shown. In the drawings:

 

 

Fig.1A is a schematic perspective drawing of a first preferred embodiment of a motor providing unidirectional motive power;

 

 

 

 

Fig.1B is a schematic perspective drawing of a second preferred embodiment of the motor;

 

 

 

Fig.1C is a schematic perspective drawing of a third preferred embodiment of the motor;

 

 

 

 

Fig.2 is a schematic plan view of a rotor comprising three pair of U-shaped magnets;

 

 

Fig.3 is a schematic plan view of stator having a plurality of stator magnets generating a uniform magnetic field except in single null region, laid out flat for ease of illustration;

 

 

Fig.4 is an schematic plan view of a stator having a plurality of stator magnets which rotate about a magnetic axis, laid out flat for ease of illustration;

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.5 is an schematic plan view of a stator having a plurality of stator magnets which are sinusoidally displaced from a line of demarcation, laid out flat for ease of illustration;

 

 

 

Fig.6 is a schematic perspective view of a fourth through a seventh preferred embodiment of the motor;

 

 

 

Fig.7A is a schematic plan view of a rotor used in the fourth preferred embodiment and in an eighth preferred embodiment of the motor;

 

Fig.7B is a schematic plan view of a rotor used in a fifth preferred embodiment and in a ninth preferred embodiment of the motor;

 

Fig.7C is a schematic plan view of a rotor used in a sixth preferred embodiment and in a tenth preferred embodiment of the motor;

 

Fig.7D is a schematic plan view of a rotor used in the seventh preferred embodiment and in an eleventh preferred embodiment of the motor;

 

 

Fig.8A is a schematic plan view of a stator used in the fourth, fifth, eighth and ninth preferred embodiments of the motor;

 

 

Fig.8B is a schematic sectional view of the stator shown in Fig.8A taken along the line 8B-8B;

 

 

 

Fig.8C is a schematic plan view of a stator used in the sixth and in the tenth preferred embodiments of the motor;

 

 

 

Fig.8D is a schematic elevational view of the stator shown in Fig.8C taken along the line 8D-8D shown with the rotor shown in Fig.7C;

 

Fig.8E is a schematic elevational view of an alternative stator shown with the rotor shown in Fig.7D;

 

 

 

Fig.9 is a schematic perspective view of the eighth through an eleventh preferred embodiment of the motor;

 

 

Fig.10 is a schematic perspective view of a twelfth preferred embodiment of the motor;

 

 

 

Fig.11A is a plan view of a rotor assembly used in the eighth through the eleventh preferred embodiments;

 

 

 

Fig.11B is a plan view of a rotor assembly used in the twelfth through a sixteenth preferred embodiment;

 

 

 

Fig.12 is an end elevational view of the rotor assembly shown in Fig.11B, further including a rail mounting post;

 

 

 

Fig.13 is an elevational view of a thirteenth preferred embodiment of the motor;

 

 

 

Fig.14 is a plan view of a rotary configuration of the thirteenth preferred embodiment;

 

 

 

Fig.15A is an elevational view of a portion of a fourteenth preferred embodiment employing spaced apart ribs;

 

 

 

Fig.15B is an end elevational view of the fourteenth embodiment shown in Fig.15A;

 

 

 

Fig.16 is a top plan view of a portion of the fifteenth preferred embodiment of the motor;

 

 

 

Fig.17 is an elevational end view of the fifteenth preferred embodiment shown in Fig.16;

 

 

 

Fig.18 is a top plan view of a portion of the sixteenth preferred embodiment of the motor; and

 

 

 

Fig.19 is an elevational end view of the sixteenth preferred embodiment of the motor shown in Fig.18.

 

 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that changes could be made to the embodiments described above without departing from the broad inventive concept thereof.  It is understood, therefore, that this invention is not limited to the particular embodiments disclosed, but it is intended to cover modifications within the spirit and scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims.  It should also be understood that the articles "a" and "the" used in the claims to define an element may refer to a single element or to a plurality of elements without a limit as to the number of elements.

 

Past attempts to construct a working permanent magnet motor have met with difficulties because of the simultaneous attractive and repulsive characteristics of a permanent magnet.  A principle has been discovered where, by engaging a magnetic field at the rear of one or more U-shaped magnets mounted on a rotor with a second stationary magnetic field, a torque is created that rotates the rotor about a rotational axis of the rotor. Further, by properly shaping the second magnetic field, the rotor may be caused to also translate in the direction of the rotor axis.

 

 

Accordingly, using the aforementioned principle, and referring to Fig.7A, one aspect of the present invention is directed to a rotor 12 for use in a motor and which provides motive power by a rotation of the rotor 12 about a rotor axis 16 and by a translation of the rotor 12 in a direction of the rotor axis 16.   In one aspect, the rotor 12 comprises a first U-shaped magnet 20 in which the U-shaped magnet 20 generates a first magnetic field.   A rotation of the rotor 12 about the rotor axis 16 is caused by an interaction of a portion of the first magnetic field directly adjacent to a rear 26 of the U-shaped magnet 20 with a stationary second magnetic field.   A translation of the rotor 12 in the direction of the rotor axis 16 is caused by an interaction of the first magnetic field adjacent to a north pole 23 and a south pole 25 of the U-shaped magnet 20 with the stationary second magnetic field.   As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the design of the rotor 12 is not limited to a single U-shaped magnet 12.   A plurality of U-shaped magnets 20, arranged around a periphery of the rotor 12 is within the spirit and scope of the invention.

 

Another aspect of the present invention, shown in Fig.7B comprises a rotor 12 including a first U-shaped magnet having a north pole and a south pole generating a first magnetic field; a second U-shaped magnet 24 having a north pole and a south pole with the south pole of the second U-shaped magnet 24 abutting the north pole of the first U-shaped magnet 20; and a third U-shaped magnet 22 having a north pole and a south pole with the north pole of the third U-shaped magnet 22 abutting the south pole of the first U-shaped magnet 20.   A portion of the first magnetic field generated by the first U-shaped magnet 20 directly adjacent to the rear 26 of the first U-shaped magnet 20 interacts with a stationary fourth magnetic field to cause the rotor 12 to rotate.   A second magnetic field generated by the north pole of the second U-shaped magnet 24 and a third magnetic field generated by the south pole of the third U-shaped magnet 22 respectively interact with the fourth magnetic field to cause the rotor 12 to translate in the direction of the rotor axis 16.

 

A further aspect of the present invention, shown in Fig.7C, comprises a first U-shaped magnet 20 having a north pole and a south pole generating a first magnetic field.  The north pole and the south pole of the U-shaped magnet 20 are generally aligned with a thruster axis 34 which lies in the plane of the rotor 12 and intersects the rotor axis 16.   A first thruster magnet 36 is located proximate to and spaced from the north pole of the first U-shaped magnet with a direction of magnetisation being generally aligned with the thruster magnet axis 34.  A second thruster magnet 38 is located proximate to and spaced from the south pole of the first U-shaped magnet 20 with a direction of magnetisation also being generally aligned with the thruster magnet axis 34.  A portion of the first magnetic field generated by the first U-shaped magnet 20 directly adjacent to the rear side 26 of the first U-shaped magnet 20 interacts with a stationary fourth magnetic field to cause the rotor 12 to rotate.  A second magnetic field generated by both the north pole and the south pole of the first thruster magnet 36 and a third magnetic field generated by both the north pole and the south pole of the second thruster magnet 38 respectively interact with a fifth magnetic field to cause the rotor 12 to translate in the direction of the rotor axis 16.   In one further aspect of the rotor 12, as shown in Fig.7D, a bar magnet 43 may be substituted for the U-shaped magnet 20 and the fourth magnetic field is formed by one or more U-shaped magnets, where the bar magnet 43 interacts with a portion of the stationary fourth magnetic field adjacent to the rear of a U-shaped magnet.

 

As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the polarities of the magnets shown in Figs. 7A, 7B, 7C and 7D may be reversed and still be within the spirit and scope of the invention.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Referring now to Fig.1A, Fig.2 and Fig.3 there is shown a first preferred embodiment of a motor 10 using the rotor 12 and providing unidirectional rotational motive power.  The first preferred embodiment comprises a generally circular stator 50 having a stator axis 72 and a circumferential surface 64 mounted to a base 18; an armature 70, having an armature axis of rotation 58 coincident with the stator axis 72, attached to the stator 50 by an armature axle 57 for rotation about the armature axis of rotation 58; and five rotors 12 (only one of which is shown for clarity), the rotors 12 being spaced at intervals of about 72 degrees around the armature 70.  Each rotor 12 is spaced from the armature by an armature strut 71 and attached to the armature strut 71 by an axle, for rotation about an axis 16 of the rotor 12 in a plane generally aligned with the armature axis of rotation 58.   The motor 10 further includes a driving linkage assembly 53 connecting each rotor 12 and the stator 50 together, the linkage 53 urging the armature 70 to rotate about the armature axis of rotation 58 as each rotor 12 rotates about its respective rotor axis 16.  As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art the number of rotors 12 is not limited to the five rotors 12 disclosed in the first embodiment.  Any number of rotors 12 from one to as many as there would be space for mounting on the armature 70 is within the spirit and scope of the invention.

 

Preferably, the surface 64 of the stator 50 is curved, having a curvature conforming to the arc of the rotors 12. However, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the surface 64 need not be curved but could be planar and still be within the spirit and scope of the invention.   As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art the stator 50 is merely intended as a stationary supporting structure for stator magnets and, as such, the shape of the stator 50 is not intended to be controlling of the size and shape of the air gap between the magnets attached to the stator 50 and the magnets attached to the rotors 12.

 

Preferably, the stator 50 is made of a material (or a combination of materials) having a magnetic susceptibility less than 10-3, i.e. a material displaying paramagnetic or diamagnetic properties.   For example, the stator 50 could be made of a non-magnetic metal such as aluminium or brass.   Also, the rotor 12 could be made of a natural material such as wood, glass, a polymeric material or a combination of any of the aforementioned materials within the spirit and scope of the invention.   Further, it should be understood that the aforementioned materials are preferred for the stators and all other parts of the motor 10 that could significantly disrupt the magnetic interaction between the stator and the rotor of all of the disclosed preferred embodiments of the motor 10.

 

In the first preferred embodiment, the surface 64 of the stator 50 includes a circumferential line of demarcation 49 at about a midpoint of the surface 64 formed by an intersection with the surface 64 of a plane perpendicular to the armature axis of rotation 58.   As shown in Fig.3, the stator 50 includes a plurality of bar magnets 68 attached to the outer surface 64 along the line of demarcation 49, except in a single null region 78 where the magnitude of the first magnetic field is substantially reduced.   The bar magnets 68 have a direction of magnetisation at about a right angle to the line of demarcation 49 thereby creating a first magnetic field adjacent to the outer surface 64, the magnitude and the direction of which is substantially uniform along the circumferential line of demarcation 49 around the axis 58 of the stator 50, except within the null region 78. As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the stator axis 72 need not be coincident with the armature axis of rotation 58. Accordingly, a stator 50 arranged around the armature axis 58 at any location at which the stator axis 72 is parallel to the armature axis 58 and the surface 64 of the stator 50 faces the periphery of the rotors 12 thereby providing for the interaction between the first magnetic field and the second magnetic field around the armature axis 58, is within the spirit and scope of the invention.

 

Preferably, as further shown in Fig.3, the bar magnets are attached to the surface 64 of the stator 50 so that the direction of magnetisation of the bar magnets 68 are about perpendicular to a radial line of the rotor 12.  However, the bar magnets 68 could also be attached to the surface 64 of the stator so that the direction of magnetisation of the bar magnets 68 is aligned with a radial line of the rotor 12.   The bar magnets 68 are preferably abutting so as to form the substantially uniform first magnetic field.  However, it is not necessary for the bar magnets 68 to abut one another.   Further, it is not necessary to use a plurality of bar magnets 68 to form the first magnetic field.  A single magnet producing a uniform first magnetic field in the region in which the first magnetic field interacts with the second magnetic field of the rotors 12 would provide the required first magnetic field.  Also, the number of null regions 78 may be more than one, depending upon the desired speed of the motor, as explained below.

 

Preferably, the stator magnets 68 are permanent magnets made of a neodymium-iron-boron material.  However, as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, any type of permanent magnet material displaying ferromagnetic properties could be used for the stator magnets 68.  For instance, stator magnets 68 made of samarium cobalt, barium ferrite or AlNiCo are within the spirit and scope of the invention.  It should be understood that these permanent magnet materials or their equivalents are preferred for the stator magnets and the rotor magnets of all of the disclosed preferred embodiments of the motor 10.   Also, while the use of permanent magnets is preferred, the use of electro-magnets for some or all of the magnets is within the spirit and scope of the invention.

 

As discussed above, the stator 50 may include a pre-determined number of null regions 78 on the surface of the stator 64.  In the first preferred embodiment, the single null region 78 is formed by a shield of a ferromagnetic material, such as iron, placed adjacent to the surface 64.   However, as those skilled in the art will appreciate, the null region 78 can also be formed by an absence of the bar magnets 68 in the region coinciding with the null region 78.  The null region 78 of substantially reduced magnetic field magnitude may also be formed by an auxiliary magnetic field suitably generated by one or more permanent magnets or by one or more electromagnets powered by an electric current arranged so that the auxiliary magnetic field substantially cancels the first magnetic field in the null region 78.   In the case of the electromagnets, the electric current may be turned off in synchronism with the rotation of the rotors 12 passing through the null region 78, in order to conserve power.  Preferably, the first magnetic field is reduced to ten percent or less of the magnetic force outside of the null region.   However, the motor 10 will operate with a reduction of only fifty percent.   Accordingly, a motor 10 having a substantial reduction of the first magnetic field of fifty percent or less is within the spirit and scope of the invention.

 

 

As shown in Fig.2, the rotor 12 of the first preferred embodiment includes three pairs 32, 32', 32'' of abutted U-shaped magnets 20 spaced apart at about 120 degree intervals around the periphery of the rotor 12.  Preferably, the U-shaped magnets 20 having substantially identical magnetic properties and are arranged to have opposite poles of the abutting each other.   The pairs 32, 32', 32'' of abutted U-shaped magnets 20 are positioned so that the north pole and the south poles of each U-shaped magnet 20 face toward the axis of the rotor 16, and the rear side 26 of each U-shaped magnet 20, opposite to the north and the south pole of the U-shaped magnet 20, faces out from the axis of the rotor 16 toward the surface 64 of the stator 50.  The pairs 32, 32', 32'' of the U-shaped magnets 20 are situated on the rotor 12 so that a portion of the second magnetic field directly adjacent to the rear 26 of each U-shaped magnet 20 interacts with a first stationary magnetic field to cause the rotor 12 to rotate about its respective rotor axis 16.   Those skilled in the art will appreciate that it is not necessary to have exactly three pairs 32, 32', 32'' of U-shaped magnets 20 on the rotor 12.   For instance, the number of U-shaped magnets 20 (or groups of abutted U-shaped magnets) spaced apart around the periphery of the rotor 12 may range from merely a single U-shaped magnet 20, up to a number of magnets limited only by the physical space around the periphery of the rotor 12.   Further, the number of abutted U-shaped magnets 20 within each group of magnets 32 is not limited to two magnets but may also range from 1 up to a number of magnets limited only by the physical space around the periphery of the rotor 12.

 

Preferably, the rotor 12 is made of a material (or a combination of materials) having a magnetic susceptibility less than 10-3.   Accordingly, the rotor could be made of any of the same materials used to make the stator, such as for instance, a non-magnetic metal, wood, glass, a polymeric or a combination of any of the above as shown in Fig.1A, the rotor 12 is preferably disk shaped with the rear 26 of the U-shaped rotor magnets 20 being arranged on the periphery of the rotor 12 in such a way that the U-shaped magnets 20 pass in close proximity to the circumferential line of demarcation 49 on the outer surface 64 of the stator 50 as the rotor 12 rotates.   However, as will be clear to those skilled in the art, the structure of the rotor 12 need not be disk shaped.  The rotor 12 could be a structure of any shape capable of rotating around the rotor axis 16 and capable of supporting the U-shaped magnets 20 so that, as the rotor 12 rotates, the U-shaped magnets 20 come into close proximity with the outer surface 64 of the stator 50.   For example, a rotor 12 comprised of struts connected to a central bearing, where each strut holds one or more U-shaped magnets 20, is within the spirit and scope of the invention.

 

In the first preferred embodiment, the linkage 53 connecting each rotor 12 and the stator 50 comprises a beaded chain drive 60 which meshes with a stator sprocket 61 on the stator 50, and an eccentric rotor sprocket 59 on each rotor 12 so that, as each rotor 12 rotates about its respective rotor axis 16, the armature 70 is forced to rotate about the armature axis of rotation 58.  The eccentric rotor sprocket 59 causes the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotor 12 about the rotor axis 16 to increase above the average angular velocity of the rotor 12 as each pair 32, 32', 32''  of U-shaped magnets 20 passes through the null region 78.  As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the rotor sprocket 59 could be circular and the stator sprocket 61 eccentric and still cause the angular velocity of the rotor 12 to increase.   Further, the beaded chain 60 in combination with the stator sprocket 61 and the eccentric rotor sprocket 59 are not the only means for connecting each rotor 12 to the stator 50.   For instance, the beaded chain 60 could also be a belt.  Further, the linkage 53 could comprise a drive shaft between each rotor 12 and the stator 50, the drive shaft having a bevel gear set at each end of the shaft mating with a bevel gear on the rotor 12 and the stator 50.   An automatic gear shift mechanism would shift gears as each U-shaped magnet pair 32, 32', 32''  entered the null regions 78 to increase the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotor 12 as the pair 32, 32', 32'' of rotor magnets 20 passed through the null region 78.  Alternatively the linkage 53 could comprise a transmission system employing elliptical gears.

 

While it is preferred that the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotor 12 to increase above the average angular velocity of the rotor 12 as each pair of U-shaped magnets 20 passes through the null region 78, it is not necessary to provide the increased angular velocity of the rotor 12 to provide motive power from the motor 10.

 

Preferably, the diameters of the rotor sprocket 59 and stator sprocket 61 are selected so that the rear 26 of each U-shaped magnet 20 passes through one and only one null region 78 for each full revolution of the rotor 12 about the respective rotor axis 16 as the armature 70 rotates about the armature axis of rotation 58.  Accordingly, the revolution rate of the armature 70 is related to the revolution rate of the rotor 12 by the expression:

 

Sa  = (Nr / Ns) x Sr ............. (1)

 

Where:

Sa is the angular velocity of the armature 70 (RPM);

Nr is the number of the U-shaped magnets 20 (or groups of abutted U-shaped magnets 32) on a rotor 12;

Ns is the number of null regions 12 on the stator 50; and

Sr is the angular velocity of the rotor 12 (RPM).

 

The timing of the rotation of the rotor 12 around its respective rotor axis 16, and the armature 70 about the armature axis of rotation 58 is such that each U-shaped magnet 20 (or U-shaped magnet pair 32, 32', 32'') on each rotor 12 enters into a null region 78 at a point where the magnetic interaction between the first magnetic field and the second magnetic field is substantially reduced, thus providing a commutation of the second magnetic field.  As each rotor 12 continues to rotate about the rotor axis 16 and the armature 70 rotates about the armature axis of rotation 58, the U-shaped magnet 20 traces a slanted path through the null region 78.  As the U-shaped magnet emerges from the null region 78, the U-shaped magnet 20 encounters the strong first magnetic field, which urges the U-shaped magnet 20 to continue the rotation of the rotor 12 about the rotor axis 16.

 

As previously discussed, the first preferred embodiment of the motor 10 comprises a single null region 78 and five rotors 12, each rotor 12 having three pairs 32, 32', 32'' of abutted U-shaped magnets 20.  Preferably, the rotors 12 are uniformly spaced around the armature axis of rotation 58 and the pairs 32, 32', 32'' of U-shaped magnets 20 are uniformly spaced around the periphery of each respective rotor 12.  Further, the pairs 32, 32', 32'' of U-shaped magnets 20 on each rotor 12 are phased with respect to each other by one-fifth of a revolution of the rotor 12 (i.e. the reciprocal of the number of rotors) so that the pairs 32, 32', 32'' of U-shaped magnets 20 of all the rotors 12 enter the null region at substantially uniform intervals to provide a more or less continuous magnetic interaction between the first magnetic field of the stator 50 and the second magnetic field of the rotors 12. As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the motive power provided by the motor is proportional to the number of rotors 12 and the number of magnets 20 on each rotor 12 as well as the strength of the rotor 12 magnets 20 and the stator 50 magnets 68.   Accordingly, the number of rotors 12 and the number of pairs 32, 32', 32'' of U-shaped magnets 20 are not limited to five rotors 12 and three pairs of U-shaped magnets 32.  Similarly, the number of null regions 78 is not limited to one.   The number of U-shaped magnets 20 and the number of null regions 78 are limited only by adherence to the rule established by Equation (1).

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

Referring now to Fig.1B, Fig.2 and Fig.4 there is shown a second preferred embodiment of a motor 10 providing unidirectional rotational motive power.  The second preferred embodiment comprises a generally circular stator 50' having a stator axis 72 with magnets 68' attached to a surface 64 of the stator 50'; an armature 70 attached to the stator 50' by an armature axle 57 for rotation about an armature axis of rotation 58 coincident with the stator axis 72; and five rotors 12 (for clarity, only one of which is shown) having three pairs 32, 32', 32'' of abutted U-shaped magnets 20, the rotors 12 being spaced at intervals of about 72 degrees around the armature 70.  Each rotor 12 is spaced from the armature by a strut 71 and attached to the strut 71 by an axle for rotation in the plane of the armature axis of rotation 58 about a rotor 12 axis of rotation 16.   The motor 10 further includes a driving linkage 55 connecting each rotor 12 and the stator 50 together to cause the armature 70 to rotate about the armature axis of rotation 58 as each rotor 12 rotates about its respective rotor axis 16.

 

The second preferred embodiment is identical to the first preferred embodiment except for two differences.  First, instead of the first magnetic field being uniform in both magnitude and direction along the circumferential line of demarcation 49 (except in one or more null regions 78 as in the first preferred embodiment), the direction of the first magnetic field rotates about a magnetic axis parallel to the circumferential line of demarcation 49 with a pre-determined periodicity along the line of demarcation 49.  Preferably, the first magnetic field is formed from one or more stator magnets 68' attached to the outer surface 64 of the stator 50', each magnet 68' having a direction of magnetisation which causes the first magnetic field to rotate about the magnetic axis.  In the second preferred embodiment, as shown in Fig.4, the stator magnets 68' are equally sized bar magnets, attached to the stator 50' so that the bar magnets 68' spiral on the stator 50' with the pre-determined periodicity.  However, as would be apparent to those skilled in the art, the first magnetic field need not be formed by bar magnets but could be formed from a single magnet (or groups of magnets) such that the direction of magnetisation of the single magnet rotates around the magnetic axis.

 

The second difference between the first preferred embodiment and the second preferred embodiment is that the linkage 55 of the second preferred embodiment does not include a component for increasing the angular velocity of the rotor 12 above the average velocity of the rotor 12.   Accordingly, in the second preferred embodiment, a circular rotor sprocket 63 is used in place of the eccentric rotor socket 59, thereby providing a constant rate of rotation of the rotor 12 about the rotor axis 16 as the armature 70 rotates about the stator 50'.

 

As will be clear to those skilled in the art, the rotation of the direction of the first magnetic field around the circumferential line of demarcation 49 commutates the second magnetic field, overcoming the need for the null regions 78.  In all other respects, the operation of the second embodiment is the same as that of the first embodiment.  That is, the revolution rate of each rotor 12 is related to the revolution rate of the armature 70 by Equation (1), where the parameter Ns is the number of rotations around the line of demarcation 49 of the first magnetic field along the line of demarcation 49.  In the second preferred embodiment, as shown in Fig.4, the number of rotations of the first magnetic field is one.  Accordingly, since there are three pairs 32, 32', 32'' of U-shaped magnets 20, each of the five rotors 12 makes one-third revolution for each full revolution of the armature 70 around the armature axis 58. However, as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the motor 10 could be designed for the first magnetic field to have any number of whole periods of rotation about the armature axis 58 provided that the revolution rate of the rotors 12 was adjusted to conform to Equation (1).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Referring now to Fig.1C, Fig.2 and Fig.5 there is shown a third preferred embodiment of a motor 10 providing unidirectional rotational motive power.  The third preferred embodiment comprises a generally circular stator 50'' mounted to a base 18 and having an axis 72, with magnets 68'' attached to the surface 64 of the stator 50'', an armature 70 attached to the stator 50'' by an axle 57 for rotation about an armature axis of rotation 58 coincident with the stator axis 12, and five rotors 12 (for clarity, only one of which is shown) having three pairs 32, 32', 32'' of abutted U-shaped magnets 20, the rotors 12 being spaced at intervals of about 72 degrees around the armature 70. Each rotor 12 is spaced from the armature by an armature strut 71 and attached to the armature strut 71 by an axle for rotation about an axis 16 of the rotor 12 in a plane generally aligned with the armature axis 58 about an axis 16 of the rotor 12.  The motor 10 further includes a driving linkage 62 connecting each rotor 12 and the stator 50 together to cause the armature 70 to rotate about the armature axis of rotation 58 as each rotor 12 oscillates about its respective rotor axis 16.

 

The third preferred embodiment is identical to the first preferred embodiment except for three differences.  First, instead of the first magnetic field being uniform in both magnitude and direction around the circumferential line of demarcation 49 (except in the null zone 78), the first magnetic field is displaced by a sinusoidal pattern having a pre-determined peak amplitude and a pre-determined period along the circumferential line of demarcation 49, with the direction of the first magnetic field alternating in opposite directions along the line of demarcation 49 between each peak amplitude of the sinusoidal pattern.

 

Preferably, as shown in Fig.5 the first magnetic field is formed by a plurality of bar magnets 68'' arranged on the surface 64 of the stator 50'' so that the magnetisation of the bar magnets 68'' is displaced in the sinusoidal pattern from the line of demarcation 49 around the circumferential line of demarcation 49. The sinusoidal pattern of the bar magnets 68'' is divided into first and second sectors, the boundary of which occurs at the peaks of the sinusoidal pattern.  The direction of magnetisation of the bar magnets 68'' is opposite in direction in the first and the second sectors providing a commutation of the second magnetic field and causing the rotors 12 to reverse in rotational direction as the rotor 12 oscillates around the rotor axis 16 and rotates around the armature axis of rotation 58.

 

Preferably, the sinusoidal pattern of the magnets has a predetermined peak amplitude so that each rotor 12 oscillates approximately +/-thirty (30) degrees from a neutral position.  However, the value of the peak amplitude is not critical to the design of the motor 10.   Further, the predetermined period of the sinusoidal pattern may be selected to be any value for which the number of cycles of the sinusoidal pattern around the surface 64 of the stator 50'' is an integer value.

 

As will be apparent to those skilled in the art, the first magnetic field need not be formed by the bar magnets 68'' but could be formed from a single magnet (or groups of magnets) so that the first magnetic field would be sinusoidally displaced around the armature axis of rotation 58 and would alternate in opposite directions between each peak of the sinusoidal pattern.   Further, as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the displacement of the first magnetic field need not be precisely sinusoidal.   For instance the displacement may be in a shape of a sawtooth or in a shape having a portion with constant plus and minus amplitude values, within the spirit and scope of the invention.

 

As a result of the first magnetic field being sinusoidally displaced and alternating each one-half period, each rotor 12 oscillates through an angle corresponding to approximately the peak amplitude of the sinusoid as the rotor 12 follows the stator magnets 68''.  Accordingly, a second difference between the third embodiment and the first embodiment is in the structure of the linkage 62.   In the third preferred embodiment, shown in Fig.1C, the linkage 62 comprises a reciprocating rod 91 connecting each rotor 12 to a respective first gear 87 rotationally attached to the armature 70.   The reciprocating rod 91 is pivotally mounted to each rotor 12 and to each first gear 87 so that the oscillating motion of the rotor 12 is converted to rotary motion of the first gear 87.   Each first gear 87 is coupled to a single second gear 89, attached to the stator 50 in a fixed position.  The rotary motion of each first gear 87 causes the armature 70 to rotate about the armature axis of rotation 58 as the rotors 12 oscillate about the rotor axis 16.   As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the speed of the motor 10 is fixed by the ratio of the first gear 87 to the second gear 89 in accordance with the expression:

 

Sa = (1 / Ns) x Sr .................... (2)

 

Where:

Ss is the angular velocity of the armature 70 (RPM);

Ns is the number of first magnetic field periods around the stator 50''; and

Sr is the angular velocity of the rotor 12 (RPM).

 

Because each rotor 12 oscillates instead of continually rotating, only a single rotor magnet. (or group of magnets) on a given rotor 12 interacts with the single stator 50''.   Accordingly, a third difference between the third preferred embodiment and the first preferred embodiment arises because of the oscillatory motion of each rotor 12 whereby each rotor 12 of the third preferred embodiment has only a single pair of magnets 32.  However, as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, additional stators 50'' may be added around the periphery of the rotors 12 and additional pairs of U-shaped magnets 20 may be included on each rotor 12 to interact magnetically with each additional stator 50'', thus providing additional motive power.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Referring now to Figs. 6, 7A, 8A and 8B, there is shown a fourth preferred embodiment of the permanent magnet motor 10 for providing unidirectional rotational motive power.  The fourth preferred embodiment comprises a generally circular stator 51 having a stator axis 72, attached to a base 18.   The stator 51 includes an outer surface 64 divided into a first side 52 and a second side 54 by a circumferential line of demarcation 49, having a pre-determined direction around the stator axis 72, at about a midpoint of the outer surface 64.

 

Preferably, the surface 64 of the stator 51 is curved, having a curvature conforming to the arc of the rotors 12. However, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the surface 64 need not be curved but could be planar and still be within the spirit and scope of the invention.   As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art the stator 51 is merely intended as a stationary supporting structure for stator magnets and, as such, the shape of the stator is not intended to be controlling of the size and shape of the air gap between the magnets attached to the stator and the magnets attached to the rotors.

 

As shown in Fig.8A, one or more pairs of stator magnets 46 are attached to the outer surface 64 spaced along the line of demarcation 49.   Each pair of stator magnets 46 comprises a first stator magnet 40 having a north pole and a south pole and a second stator magnet 42 having a north pole and a south pole.  The south pole of each first stator magnet 40, is located on the first side 52 of the outer surface 64, and the north pole of the first stator magnet 40 is closest to the line of demarcation 49.  The north pole of each second stator magnet 42 is located on the second side 54 of the outer surface 64 and the south pole of each second stator magnet 42 being closest to the line of demarcation 49.  The first and the second stator magnets 40, 42 are spaced along the line of demarcation 49 so that a first inter-magnet distance measured along the line of demarcation 49 between the north pole of the first stator magnet 40 and the south pole of the second stator magnet 42 of an adjacent pair of magnets 46 is generally equal to a second inter-magnet distance measured along the line of demarcation 49' between the south pole of the first stator magnet 40 and the north pole of the second stator magnet 42.

 

In the fourth preferred embodiment, the stator magnets 40, 42 are bar magnets.  Preferably, the north pole of each first stator magnet 40 and the south pole of each second stator magnet 42 are inclined toward the pre-determined direction.    Also, the bar magnets are preferably oriented on the surface 64 of the stator 50 so that the south pole of each first magnet 40 and the north pole of each second magnet 42 are nearer to the periphery of each rotor 12 than the opposite polarity pole of each of the magnets 40, 42.   As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the stator magnets 40, 42 need not be bar magnets.   For instance, each stator magnet 40, 42 could be a U-shaped magnet, or could be made up of separate magnets, as long as the first magnetic field generated by the magnets was generally equivalent to that produced by the bar magnets.

 

In the fourth preferred embodiment, an armature 70 having an armature axis of rotation 58 coincident with the stator axis 72 is attached to the stator 51 by an armature axle 57, which armature axle 57 allowing the armature 70 to freely rotate about the stator axis 72.   Each rotor 12 is spaced from the armature 70 by an armature strut 71 and is mounted to the armature strut 71 so as to be free to rotate about the rotor axis 16. The rotor axis 16 is oriented so that the rotor 12 rotates in a plane generally aligned with the armature axis of rotation 58.  In the fourth preferred embodiment, five rotors 12 are attached to the armature 70.   Preferably, the rotors 12 are uniformly spaced around the circumference of the stator 50 with a spacing of the rotors 12 as measured at the surface 64 of the stator 51 about equal to an integer multiple of twice the inter-magnet distance.  However, as those skilled in the art will appreciate, it is not necessary to have the rotors 12 uniformly spaced.   Further, the number of rotors 12 can be as few as one and as large as size and space constraints allow.   As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the stator axis 72 need not be coincident with the armature axis of rotation 58.  Accordingly, a stator 50 arranged around the armature axis 58 at any location at which the stator axis 72 is parallel to the armature axis 58 and the surface of the stator 50 faces the periphery of the rotors 12, thereby providing for the interaction between the first magnetic field and the second magnetic field around the armature axis 58, is within the spirit and scope of the invention.

 

Referring now to Fig.7A, each rotor 12 comprises a first U-shaped magnet 20 generating a second magnetic field. The first U-shaped magnet 20 is positioned on the rotor 12 so that the north pole and the south pole of the first U-shaped magnet 20 faces toward the axis 16 of the rotor 12, and the rear side 26 of the first U-shaped magnet 20 faces the periphery of the rotor 12.   When the rear 26 of the first U-shaped magnet 20 is adjacent to the north pole of one of the first stator magnets 40 along the line of demarcation 49, a portion of the second magnetic field directly adjacent to the rear 26 of the first U-shaped magnet 20 interacts with a portion of the first magnetic field generated by the north pole of the first stator magnet 40 to cause the rotor 12 to rotate in a counterclockwise direction.  As the rotor 12 rotates in the counterclockwise direction, a portion of the second magnetic field associated with the south pole of the first U-shaped magnet 20 interacts with a portion of the first magnetic field associated with the south pole of the first stator magnet 40, giving rise to a force in the direction of the rotor axis 16, repelling the U-shaped magnet 20, and causing the rotor 12 to translate in the pre-determined direction around the stator axis.   As the rotor 12 moves away from first stator magnet 40 in the pre-direction the second magnetic field adjacent to the rear 26 of the U-shaped magnet 20 interacts with the portion of the first magnetic field associated with the south pole of the second stator magnet 42 of the pair of magnets 46, causing the rotor 12 to reverse direction and rotate in the clockwise direction.  The portion of the second magnetic field associated with the north pole of the U-shaped magnet 20 then interacts with the portion of the first magnetic field associated with the north pole of the second stator magnet 42, again giving rise to a force in the direction of the rotor axis 16, repelling the U-shaped magnet 20 and causing the rotor 12 to translate in the pre-determined direction.   An oscillation cycle is then repeated with the second magnetic field of the rotor 12 interacting with the first magnetic field of the adjacent pair of magnets 46. Accordingly, the rotor 12 rotationally oscillates about the respective rotor axis 16 and generates a force in the direction of the rotor axis 16, causing the armature 70 to rotate in the pre-determined direction around the armature axis of rotation 58 to provide the unidirectional rotational motive power of the motor.   As would be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the fourth embodiment is not limited to a single stator 51 and a single U-shaped magnet 20. Additional stators having first and second stator magnets 40, 42 arranged identically to the stator 51 to interact with corresponding U-shaped magnets spaced around the periphery of each rotor are with in the spirit and scope of the invention.

 

 

Referring now to Fig.6, Fig.7B and Fig.8A there is shown a fifth preferred embodiment of the permanent magnet motor 10 for providing unidirectional rotary motive force. The structure and operation of the fifth preferred embodiment is similar to that of the fourth preferred embodiment except that each rotor 12 further includes a second U-shaped magnet 24 having a north pole and a south pole with the south pole of the second U-shaped magnet 24 abutting the north pole of the first U-shaped magnet 20, and a third U-shaped magnet 22 having a north pole and a south pole, with the north pole of the third U-shaped magnet 22 abutting the south pole of the first U-shaped magnet 20.   As the rotor 12 rotates due to interaction of the portion of the second magnetic field adjacent to the rear of the U-shaped magnet 20 with the first magnetic field, a third magnetic field generated by the north pole of the second U-shaped magnet 24 and a fourth magnetic field generated by the south pole of the third U-shaped magnet 22 each interact with the first magnetic field generated by each stator magnet pair 46 to cause each rotor 12 to generate a force in the direction of the rotor axis 16, thereby causing the armature 70 to rotate in the pre-determined direction around the axis 58 of the stator 51 to provide the unidirectional rotational motive power of the motor.

 

In the fifth preferred embodiment, the portion of the second magnetic field adjacent to the rear 26 of the first U-shaped magnet 20 serves to rotate the rotor 12 while the second and third U-shaped magnets 24, 22 generate the magnetic fields providing the force in the direction of the rotor axis 16.   Accordingly, the fifth preferred embodiment is potentially more powerful than the fourth preferred embodiment.   As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the stator magnets 40, 42 need not be bar magnets.  For instance, each stator magnet 40, 42 could be replaced by a U-shaped magnet or could be made up of separate magnets, as long as the first magnetic field generated by the magnets was generally equivalent to that produced by the bar magnets.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Referring now to Fig.6 and Fig.8C and Fig.8D there is shown a sixth preferred embodiment of the motor 10.  The structure and operation of the sixth preferred embodiment is identical to that of the fifth preferred embodiment except that:

(1) The stator magnets 40', 42' on the surface 64 of the stator 51' are in a slightly different orientation;

(2) an additional stator magnet 41 is added to each pair of stator magnets 46 and

(3) the U-shaped magnets 22, 24 attached to each rotor 12 are replaced with bar magnets 36, 38.

 

Specifically, and referring now to Fig.8C, the direction of magnetisation of each first stator magnet 40' and each second stator magnet 42' is aligned to be generally perpendicular to the line of demarcation 49 instead of being inclined in the pre-determined direction around the armature axis of rotation 58 as in the fifth embodiment.   Also, the stator 51' also includes a third stator magnet 41 mounted on the outer surface 64 along the line of demarcation 49 mid-way between each first stator magnet 40' and each second stator magnet 42'.  As shown in Fig.8C and Fig.8D, the third stator magnet 41 is oriented so that the direction of magnetisation of the third magnet 41 is aligned with the axis 16 of the rotors 12.

 

As shown in Fig.8C and Fig.8D, the rotor 12 used in the sixth preferred embodiment includes a first U-shaped magnet 20, similar to that of the fifth preferred embodiment. However, in place of the second and the third U-shaped magnets 24, 22 used in the fifth preferred embodiments, the sixth preferred embodiment includes a first thruster bar magnet 36, spaced from and proximate to the south pole of the first U-shaped magnet 20 and generally aligned with a thruster magnet axis 34, and a second thruster bar magnet 38, spaced from and proximate to the north pole of the first U-shaped magnet 20 and also generally aligned with the thruster magnet axis 34.  The thruster axis 34 lies in the plane of the rotor 12 and intersects the rotor axis 16.  Similar to the fifth preferred embodiment, the interaction of the portion of the second magnetic field directly adjacent to the rear of the U-shaped magnet 20 with the first magnetic field provides the rotational force for the rotors 12.   As the rotor 12 rotates in the clockwise direction (viewed from the second end 30 of the stator 51'), a third magnetic field generated by both the north pole and the south pole of the second thruster magnet 36 interacts with the first stator magnet 40', again generating a force in the direction of the rotor axis 16.  Similarly, when the rotor 12 rotates in the counterclockwise direction a fourth magnetic field generated by both the north pole and the south pole of the first thruster magnet 38 interacts with second stator magnet 42', generating a force in the direction of the rotor axis 16.  The result of the force in the direction of the rotor axis 16 is to cause the armature 70 to rotate in the predetermined direction around the armature axis of rotation 58 to provide the unidirectional rotational motive power of the motor 10.

 

In the sixth preferred embodiment, the stator magnets 40', 41, 42' and the thruster magnets 36, 38 are bar magnets.   However, as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the stator magnets 40', 41 42' and the thruster magnets 36, 38 need not be bar magnets.  For instance, each stator magnet 40', 42' could be a U-shaped magnet or could be made up of separate magnets, as long as the first magnetic field generated by the magnets was generally equivalent to that produced by the bar magnets.

 

 

Referring now to Fig.6, Fig.7D and Fig.8E there is shown a seventh preferred embodiment of the motor 10.  The structure and operation of the seventh preferred embodiment is similar to the sixth preferred embodiment except that the third stator magnet 41' located on the surface 64 of the stator 51'' along the line of demarcation 49 is a U-shaped magnet 41' with the rear of the U-shaped magnet 41' facing the rotor 12 and the direction of magnetisation being perpendicular to the line of demarcation 49; and the U-shaped magnet 20 is replaced with a bar magnet 20' oriented to have the direction of magnetisation aligned with a radial line of the rotor 12.   As in the sixth preferred embodiment, each stator magnet 40', 42' could be a U-shaped magnet or could be made up of separate magnets, as long as the first magnetic field generated by the stator magnets 40', 42' was generally equivalent to that produced by the bar magnets.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Referring now to Fig.7A, Fig.8A, Fig.8B, Fig.9 and Fig.11A, there is shown an eighth preferred embodiment of the motor 10 for providing unidirectional linear motive power.  The eighth preferred embodiment comprises a linear stator 48 having a generally curved cross-section perpendicular to a longitudinal line of demarcation 49 extending on a surface 64 of the stator between a first end 28 and a second end 30 and dividing the surface 64 of the stator 48 into a first side 52 and a second side 54.  Preferably, the generally curved cross-section of the stator 48 is concave.   However, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the cross-section need not be concave but could be planar or even convex and still be within the spirit and scope of the invention.

 

The linear stator 48 is identical to the generally circular stator 51 except for the surface 64 of the stator 48 being linear in the direction of the line of demarcation 49 instead of being circular in the direction of the line of demarcation 49.

 

The eighth preferred embodiment includes the first and the second stator magnets 40, 42 (see Fig.8A), the location and orientation of which are virtually identical to the orientation and location of the stator magnets 40, 42 on the circular stator 51.   Accordingly, attached to the linear stator 48 is one or more pairs of magnets 46, each pair of stator magnets 46 generating a first magnetic field and comprising a first stator magnet 40 having a north pole and a south pole and a second stator magnet 42 having a north pole and a south pole.  The south pole of each first stator magnet 40, is located on the first side 52 of the outer surface 64, with the north pole of the first stator magnet 40 being closest to the line of demarcation 49.   The north pole of each second stator magnet 42 is located on the second side 54 of the outer surface 64 with the south pole of each second stator magnet 42 being closest to the line of demarcation 49.   The first and the second stator magnets 40, 42 are spaced along the line of demarcation 49 so that a first inter-magnet distance measured along the line of demarcation 49 between the north pole of the first stator magnet 40 and the south pole of the second stator magnet 42 of an adjacent pair of magnets 46 is generally equal to a second inter-magnet distance measured along the line of demarcation 49 between the south pole of the first stator magnet 40 and the north pole of the second stator magnet 42.

 

In the eighth preferred embodiment, the stator magnets 40, 42 are bar magnets, the north pole of each first stator magnet 40 and the south pole of each second stator magnet 42 being inclined toward the second end 30 of the linear stator 48.   Also, as shown in Fig.8A, the stator magnets 40, 42 are oriented on the surface 64 of the stator 51 so that the south pole of each first magnet 40 and the north pole of each second magnet 42 are nearer to the periphery of each rotor 12 than the opposite polarity pole of each of the stator magnets 40, 42.  As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the stator magnets 40, 42 need not be bar magnets.  For instance, each stator magnet 40, 42 could be a U-shaped magnet or could be made up of separate magnets, as long as the first magnetic field generated by the magnets was generally equivalent to that produced by the bar magnets.

 

The eighth preferred embodiment also includes rail 80 having a longitudinal axis located generally parallel to the line of demarcation 49 of the stator 48.   Five rotor assemblies 14 comprising a rotor 12 and a bearing assembly 84 are slidably attached to the rail 80.

 

 

Preferably, the bearing assembly 84, as shown in Fig.11A, includes a pair of first bearings 88 slidably mounted to the rail 80 and constrained to slide along the rail without any substantial rotation, by a boss 37 in each first bearing 88, which is keyed to a longitudinal groove 35 on the rail 80.   A second bearing 90 is connected for rotation to the pair of first bearings 88 by ball bearings.  The rotor 12 is attached to the second bearing 90.  Thus, the rotor 12 attached to each bearing assembly 84 is free to oscillate rotationally about the rail 80 and to generate a force along the rail 80 in the direction of the second end of the stator 30.

 

Preferably, the eighth preferred embodiment includes a cross-link 94 which ties each bearing assembly 84 together by connecting together the first bearings 88 of each bearing assembly 84, thereby adding together the linear motion along the rail 80 of each rotor 12.

 

Preferably, each rotor 12 comprises one or more one rotor magnets 20, each rotor magnet 20 generating a second magnetic field which interacts with the first magnetic field to cause the rotor 12 to oscillate rotationally about the axis of the rail 80 and to generate a force in the direction of the axis of the rail 80 to provide the unidirectional linear motive power of the motor.   In the eighth preferred embodiment, each rotor 12 is substantially identical to the rotor 12 described for the fourth preferred embodiment.  Accordingly, each rotor magnet comprises a first U-shaped magnet 20 having a north pole, a south pole and a rear side 26, a first portion of the second magnetic field directly adjacent to the rear 26 of the U-shaped magnet 20 interacting with each first magnetic field to cause each rotor 12 to oscillate rotationally about the rail 80.   A second portion of the second magnetic field adjacent to the north and the south poles of the first U-shaped magnet 20 interacts with the first magnetic field to cause the rotor 12 to generate a force in the direction of the axis of the rail 80 thereby providing the unidirectional linear motive power of the motor.   As would be clear to those skilled in the art, the operation of the eighth preferred embodiment is identical to that of the fourth preferred embodiment except that the motion of the cross-linked rotors 12 is linear along the rail 80 instead of being rotational about the armature axis of rotation 58.   Accordingly, for the sake of brevity, a description of the operation of the eighth preferred embodiment is not repeated.

 

Referring now to Fig.7B, Fig.8A, Fig.8B, Fig.9 and Fig.11A there is shown a ninth preferred embodiment of the motor 10 for providing unidirectional linear motive power.  As would be apparent to those skilled in the art, the structure and the operation of the ninth preferred embodiment is virtually identical to that of the fifth preferred embodiment except that the motion of the cross-linked rotors 12 is linear instead of rotational about the armature axis of rotation 58.  Accordingly, for the sake of brevity, a description of the structure and the operation of the ninth preferred embodiment is not repeated.

 

Referring now to Figs. 7C, 8C, 8D, 9 and 11A there is shown a tenth preferred embodiment of the motor 10 for providing unidirectional linear motive power.   As would be apparent to those skilled in the art, the structure and the operation of the tenth preferred embodiment is virtually identical to that of the sixth preferred embodiment except that the motion of the cross-linked rotors 12 is linear instead of rotational about the armature axis of rotation 58. Accordingly, for the sake of brevity, the operation of the tenth preferred embodiment is not repeated.

 

Referring now to Figs. 7D, 8C, 8E, 9 and 11A there is shown an eleventh preferred embodiment of the motor 10 for providing unidirectional linear motive power.  The structure and operation of the eleventh preferred embodiment is virtually identical to the seventh preferred embodiment except that the motion of the cross-lined rotors 12 is linear instead of rotational about the armature axis of rotation 58.   Accordingly, for the sake of brevity, the operation of the tenth preferred embodiment is not repeated.

 

       

 

 

 

 

Referring now to Fig.2, Fig.3, Fig.10 and Fig.11B, there is shown a twelfth preferred embodiment of the motor 10 for providing linear motive power.   As shown in Fig.10, the twelfth preferred embodiment comprises a linear stator 47 having a generally curved cross-section perpendicular to a line of demarcation 49' extending along a midpoint of the stator 47 between a first end 28 and a second end 30 of the linear stator 47, a rail 80' connected to the linear stator 47 having an axis generally parallel to the line of demarcation 49', one or more rotor assemblies 14' comprising rotors 12 connected to the rail 80' by a bearing assembly 84', and a cross-link 94' connecting together the linkages 84' of adjacent rotors 12.   Preferably, the generally curved cross section of the stator 47 is concave, having a curvature conforming to the arc of the rotors 12.   However, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the generally curved cross-section need not be concave but could be planar or even convex and still be within the spirit and scope of the invention.

 

As shown in Fig.3, the linear stator 47 includes one or more magnets 68 arranged on the surface 64 of the linear stator 47, each magnet 68 having a direction of magnetisation directed at about a right angle to the line of demarcation 49' and resulting in a first magnetic field directed generally at a right angle to the line of demarcation 49'.   The magnitude of the first magnetic field is generally uniform except in the null region 78, in which the magnitude of the first magnetic field is substantially reduced.  The linear stator 47 of the twelfth preferred embodiment is virtually identical to the circular stator 50 of the first preferred embodiment except the linear stator 50 is linear in the direction of the line of demarcation 49' instead of being circular around the armature axis of rotation 58.   Also, the arrangement of the magnets 68 on the surface 64 of the stator 47 and the structure of the null region(s) 78 is the same as for the first preferred embodiment, as shown in Fig.3 and as fully described in the discussion of the first embodiment.   Accordingly, for the sake of brevity, a more detailed description of the structure of the linear stator 47 is not repeated.

 

The rotors 12 of the twelfth preferred embodiment each have an axis of rotation 16 which is aligned with an axis of the rail 80'.   The rotors 12 are connected to the rail 80' by the bearing assembly 84' so that each rotor 12 is free to rotate about the rail 80' and to slide along the rail 80'.   Preferably, as shown in Fig.2, each rotor 12 includes three pairs of U-shaped magnets 32, 32, 32', each U-shaped magnet having a rear side 26 and generating a second magnetic field.  A portion of the second magnetic field adjacent to the rear-side 26 of each U-shaped magnet 20 interacts with the first magnetic field to cause each rotor 12 to rotate about the axis of the rail 80.  The rotors 12 of the twelfth preferred embodiment are the same as the rotors in the first preferred embodiment, as described in Fig.2 and fully discussed above.    Accordingly, for the sake of brevity, the detailed description of the rotors 12 is not repeated.

 

 

 

As shown in Fig.11B, the rail 80' has a helical groove 86 with a pre-determined pitch (i.e., turns/unit length) running around a periphery of the rail 80'.  The bearing assembly 84' connects each rotor 12 to the helical groove 86, converting the rotational motion of each rotor 12 around the rail 80' to the linear motion along the rail 80'.  As shown in Fig.11B, the bearing assembly 84' comprises a pair of first bearings 88' mounted to the rail 80' and constrained to slide along the rail 80' without any substantial rotation, and a second bearing 90', mounted to an outer surface the first bearing 88' for receiving the rotor 12.  Preferably, each first bearing 88' has a boss 37 which engages a longitudinal groove 35 so that each first bearing 88' slides on the rail 80' without rotation as the second bearing 90' rotates on the first bearings 88'.   It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, other methods for securing the first bearings 88' to the rail 80' could be employed, as for instance, by making the cross-section of the rail 80' oblate (flattened at the poles).   As in the first preferred embodiment, each rotor 12 must rotate at a rate which results in the rear of each U-shaped magnet 20 on the rotor 12 passing through one of the null regions 78 each full rotation of the rotor 12. Accordingly, the pre-determined pitch of the helical groove 86 on the rail 80' preferably equals:

 

Pg = (1 / Nr) x Pr ..................... (3)

 

Where:

Pr = the pitch of the null regions 78 (null regions/unit length);

Nr = the number of U-shaped magnets (or groups of abutted U-shaped magnets) on a rotor 12; and

Pg = the pitch of the helical groove 86 (revolutions/unit length).

 

Preferably, the portions of the helical groove 86 corresponding to each null region 78 have an instantaneous pitch which is greater than the pre-determined pitch of the groove 86 for increasing the angular velocity of the each rotor 12 as each one of the pairs 32, 32', 32'' of U-shaped magnets 20 passes through one of the null regions 78. However, as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, it is not necessary to provide the greater instantaneous pitch in order for the motor 10 to provide motive power.

 

As described above, the cross-link 94' connects the bearing assembly 84' of adjacent rotors 12 together.  As shown in Fig.10, the cross-link 94' connects the first bearings 88' of each bearing assembly 84' to the first bearing 88' of the adjacent bearing assemblies 84' so that the linear motion of all the rotor assemblies 14' are added together to provide the unidirectional linear motive power of the motor 10.

 

As previously stated, the first preferred embodiment of the motor 10 comprises a single null region 78 and five rotors 12, each rotor 12 having three pairs 32, 32', 32'' of abutted U-shaped magnets 20.   Preferably, the rotors 12 are uniformly spaced along the rail 80' and the pairs 32, 32', 32'' of U-shaped magnets 20 are uniformly spaced around the periphery of each respective rotor 12.  Further, the pairs 32, 32', 32'' of U-shaped magnets 20 are phased with respect to each rotor 12 by one-fifth of a revolution of the rotor 12 so that the pairs 32, 32', 32'' of U-shaped magnets 20 of all the rotors 12 pass through the null region 78 at a substantially uniform rate to provide a more or less continuous interaction between the first magnetic field and the second magnetic field of the rotors 12, resulting in a more or less continuous urging of the rotor assemblies 14' toward the second end of the stator 47.  As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the motive power provided by the motor 10 is proportional to the number of rotors 12 and the number of U-shaped magnets 20 on each rotor 12.  Accordingly, the number of rotors 12 and the number of pairs 32, 32', 32'' of magnets 20 of the present invention are not limited to five rotors 12 and three pairs 32 of U-shaped magnets 20.  Neither is the number of null regions limited to one. The number of U-shaped magnets 20 and null regions 78 are limited only by adherence to the rule established by Equation 3.

 

 

 

 

 

Referring now to Fig.2, Fig.11B, Fig.12 and Fig.13 there is shown a thirteenth preferred embodiment of the motor 10 comprising a rail 80' supported by rail mounting posts 76 and having a longitudinal axis 65.  A helical groove 86 having a pre-determined pitch runs around a periphery of the rail 80.

 

The thirteenth preferred embodiment also includes three first helical stators 82a, 82b, 82c (82) concentrically surrounding the rail 80' corresponding to three pairs 32, 32' 32'' of U-shaped magnets 20 mounted on each of five rotors 12.   Preferably, the first helical stators 82 have the same pitch as the pre-determined pitch of the groove 86 and a longitudinal axis generally parallel to the axis 65 of the rail 80'.   A plurality of first stator magnets 11 having a direction of magnetisation aligned with a radial line of each rotor 12 are spaced along each first helical stator 82 with the first stator magnets 11 generating a first magnetic field.

 

The thirteenth preferred embodiment further includes plurality of second helical stators 82a', 82b', 82c' (82') alternating with the first helical stators 82' along the axis 65 of the rail 80', and having the pre-determined pitch of the groove 86.   Each second helical stator 82' has mounted upon it a plurality of second stator magnets 11' having a direction of magnetisation aligned with a radial line of the rotor 12 and having a direction of magnetisation opposite in direction to the first stator magnets 11 mounted on each of the first helical stators 82.  As a consequence of the second helical stators 82' being located midway between the first helical stators 82, a point at about a midpoint between each rotor magnet pair 32, 32', 32'' is apposite to one of the second helical stators 82' as each rotor 12 rotates about the axis 65 of the rail 80' and slides along the rail 80'.

 

The thirteenth preferred embodiment also includes five rotors 12, (for clarity, only three are shown), having an axis of rotation 16 generally aligned with the longitudinal axis 65 of the rail 80'.   Each rotor 12 is connected to the rail 80' by a bearing assembly 84' so that the rotor 12 is free to rotate about the axis 65 of the rail 80' and slide along the rail 80'.   Preferably, each rotor 12 includes three pairs 32, 32', 32'' of U-shaped magnets 20 wherein each U-shaped magnet 20 generates a second magnetic field, a portion of which adjacent to a rear 26 of the pair of U-shaped magnets 20 interacts with the first magnetic field of each first stator magnet to cause each rotor 12 to rotate about the axis 65 of the rail 80'.

 

The bearing assembly 84' (shown in detail in Fig.11B and Fig.12) connects each rotor 12 to the helical groove 86 around the periphery of the rail 80.   The bearing assembly 84' is similar to the bearing assembly 84' described in the twelfth preferred embodiment except for the openings in the first bearings 88' and in the second bearing 90' which allow the bearing assembly 84' past the rail mounting posts 76 as the bearing assembly 84' moves along the rail 80'.

 

The thirteenth preferred embodiment may be constructed as either a linear motor or a rotary motor.  In the case of the linear motor, the axes of the rail 80' and of each helical stator 82 are substantially straight.  The rail 80' is supported on the base 18 by rail mounting posts 76 placed at intervals along the rail 80'. The posts 76 are situated at locations along the rail 80' at which the rotation of the rotor 12 orients the openings in the first and second bearings 88', 90' to correspond to the mounting posts 76.   Each helical stator 82a, 82b, 82c is supported on the base by stator mounting posts 75.   The rotors 12 are connected together by a cross-link 94' which connects the first bearings 88' of each bearing assembly 84' to the first bearing 88' of the bearing assembly 84' of an adjacent rotor 12.  In this manner, the rotational motion of each rotor assembly 14' is added together to provide the linear motive power of the linear motor.

 

 

The thirteenth preferred embodiment may also be constructed as a rotary motor 10 as shown in Fig.14. In this case, the axes of the rail 80' and the helical stators 82 are configured to be circular. The circularly configured motor 10 includes an armature 70 centrally located within the perimeter of the rail 80'.  The armature 70 rotates about an armature axis of rotation 58 connected for rotation within a motor base 18 to which the rail 80' is also attached by mounting posts 76 (not shown).   The pitch of the first and the second helical stators 82, 82', measured at a radius of the rail 80, preferably equals the predetermined pitch of the helical groove 86.  The armature 70 is fixedly attached to the first bearing 88 (see Fig.11B) of each bearing assembly 84' by an armature strut 71 thereby adding together the rotational motive power of each rotor assembly 14.  In order that the armature strut 71 does not interfere with the first and second helical stators 82, 82', the first and second helical stators 82, 82' are made to have an opening toward the armature axis of rotation 58.

 

Preferably, each first helical stator 82a, 82b, 82c has mounted upon it a plurality of first stator magnets 11 with each stator magnet 11 having a direction of magnetisation aligned with a radial line of the rotor 12.  Preferably, the first helical stators 82 are uniformly spaced along the longitudinal axis 65 of the rail 80' with each first helical stator 82 corresponding to one of the plurality of magnet pairs 32, 32', 32''.   Preferably, each rotor 12 is positioned on the rail 80' so that one of the rotor magnet pairs 32, 32', 32'' is apposite to one of the corresponding first helical stators 82 as the rotor 12 rotates about the axis 65 of the rail 80 and slides along the rail 80'.   However, as those skilled in the art will appreciate, the rotor magnet pairs 32, 32', 32'' need not be directly apposite to each helical stator 82 as the rotors 12 rotate in order to generate a rotational force.

 

Alternatively, as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the motor 10 can be constructed without the second helical stator 82'.   In the simplest case the motor 10 could comprise only a single first helical stator 82 and a single rotor 12 comprising a single U-shaped magnet 20 generating the second magnetic field.  The single rotor 12 is preferably positioned in the groove 86 on the rail 80' so that the U-shaped rotor magnet 20 is continually apposite to the single first helical stator 82.  Consequently, a portion of the second magnetic field directly adjacent to a rear 26 of the U-shaped magnet 20 interacts with the first magnetic field generated by each first stator magnet 11'' mounted on the helical stator 82 to cause the rotor 12 to rotate about the axis 65 of the rail 80 and to slide along the rail 80'. Preferably, when only a single first stator 82 set of first stators 82 is used, each first stator magnet 11'' has a direction of magnetisation oriented to be in the plane of the rotor 12 and generally perpendicular to a radial line of the rotor 12.  The north pole and the south pole of the first stator magnet 11'' are preferably spaced apart so that when one pole of the first stator magnet 11 is directly apposite to the rotor magnet 20, the pole of opposite polarity is equally spaced from the U-shaped magnet 20 of the rotor 12.  As one skilled in the art would appreciate, a plurality of U-shaped rotor magnets 20 and corresponding first helical stators could be used.  Further, as those skilled in the art will appreciate, other configurations of the rotor magnet 20 and the stator magnet 11 are possible, all of which rely on the novel attributes of the magnetic field adjacent to the rear 26 of a U-shaped rotor magnet 20. For example, the previously described stator magnet 11'' perpendicular to the radial line of the rotor 12 could be two separate bar magnets, spaced apart, with the magnetisation of each of the two magnets aligned with a radial line of the rotor and having opposite directions of magnetisation.

 

 

Referring now to Fig.15A and Fig.15B there is shown a fourteenth preferred embodiment of the motor 10.  The fourteenth embodiment is identical in structure to the thirteenth preferred embodiment except that the stator comprises a plurality of first ribs 77a, 77b, 77c (77) and second ribs 77a', 77b', 77c' (77') in place of the first and the second helical stators 82, 82' of the thirteenth embodiment.   By substituting ribs 77, 77' for the helical stators 82, 82', the attachment of the armature 70 to the rotors 12 is simplified.   As those skilled in the art will appreciate, the length of the ribs 77, 77' may vary from as little as 45 degrees to up to 265 degrees, with the motive power of the motor 10 being proportional to the length of the ribs.

 

Preferably, the first and the second ribs 77, 77' have a pitch and a spacing that conforms to the pre-determined pitch of the rail 80'.   Further the orientation of the first and second stator magnets 11, 11' and of the U-shaped rotor magnets 20 would be identical to the thirteenth embodiment.  Accordingly, the operation of the fourteenth embodiment is identical to that of the thirteenth embodiment and is not repeated here for the sake of brevity.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Referring now to Fig.5, Fig.16 and Fig.17 there is shown a fifteenth preferred embodiment of the motor 10 comprising a rail 80'' having a longitudinal axis 65 and a generally sinusoidal groove 85 having a pre-determined period running around a periphery of the rail 80''.

 

Preferably, the fifteenth preferred embodiment includes three generally identical stators 50'' arrayed in a circular fashion around the rail 80''.   Each stator 50'' has a surface 64 facing the rail 80'' and disposed generally equidistant from and parallel to the axis 65 of the rail 80''.   As shown in Fig.5 and Fig.17 each stator 50'' has a generally curved cross-section and a longitudinal line of demarcation 49 perpendicular to the cross-section and located about a midpoint of the surface 64.

 

A plurality of stator magnets 68'' are attached to the surface 64 of the stator 50'' generating a first magnetic field. The stator magnets 68'' are displaced on the surface 64 in a sinusoidal pattern around the line of demarcation 49. The sinusoidal pattern has a pre-determined period and a pre-determined maximum (peak) amplitude along the line of demarcation 49.   In the case where the rail 80'' and the longitudinal line of demarcation 49 of the stator 50'' are in a straight line, the period of the sinusoid is preferably equal to the period of the groove 85 on the rail 80.

 

The sinusoidal pattern is also divided into a plurality of first and second alternating sectors with a boundary between the alternating sectors occurring at each maximum (peak) amplitude of the sinusoid.  The direction of magnetisation of the stator magnets 68'' is opposite in the first and the second segments so that the direction of the first magnetic field in each first segment is opposite to the direction of the first magnetic field in each second segment.  Preferably, the direction of magnetisation of the stator magnets 68'' is generally perpendicular to a radial line of the rotor 12. Alternatively, the direction of magnetisation of the stator magnets 68'' could be generally aligned with a radial line of the rotor 12.   Further, as will be apparent to those skilled in the art, the first magnetic field need not be formed by a plurality of bar magnets but could be formed from a single magnet so that the first magnetic field would be sinusoidally displaced from the line of demarcation 49 and would alternate in opposite directions between the peaks of the sinusoid.   Further, as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the displacement of the first magnetic field need not be precisely sinusoidal. For instance the displacement may be in a shape of a sawtooth or in a shape having a portion with constant plus and minus amplitude values, within the spirit and scope of the invention.

 

Preferably, the fifteenth preferred embodiment includes five rotors 12, each rotor 12 having an axis 16 aligned with the axis of the rail 80''.   Each rotor 12 is connected to the rail 80'' by a bearing assembly 84' so that the rotor 12 is free to rotate about the axis of the rail 65 and slide along the rail 80''.  Preferably, each rotor 12 includes three U-shaped magnet pairs 32, 32' 32'', each pair comprising two U-shaped magnets 20.   Each U-shaped magnet 20 has a rear side and generates a second magnetic field.  Each of the U-shaped magnet pairs 32, 32', 32'' is positioned on each rotor 12 so that the rear side 26 of each U-shaped magnet 20 is apposite to the first and the second segments of the sinusoidal pattern as the at least one rotor assembly 14 rotates about the rotor axis 16, wherein an interaction of a portion of the second magnetic field directly adjacent to the rear 26 of each U-shaped magnet 20 with the first magnetic field of a corresponding stator 50'' causes the at least one rotor 12 to oscillate rotationally about the axis 65 of the rail 80''.   Those skilled in the art will appreciate that it is not necessary to have three pairs of U-shaped magnets 32, 32', 32''.  For instance, the number of U-shaped magnets 20 (or groups of abutted U-shaped magnets) spaced apart around the periphery of the rotor 12 may range from merely a single U-shaped magnet 20, or may range in number up to a number of magnets limited only by the physical space around the periphery of the rotor 12.   Further the number of abutted U-shaped magnets 20 in a group of magnets 32 may also range from 1 up to a number of magnets limited only by the physical space around the periphery of the rotor 12. Preferably, the number of stators 50'' equals the number of U-shaped magnet pairs 32, 32', 32''.  However, as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the number of stators 50'' is not limited to three but could be any number ranging upward from one, where the number of stators 50'' would preferably equal the number of U-shaped magnet pairs 32, 32', 32''.

 

As shown in Fig.16 the bearing assembly 84' converts the oscillatory motion of the at least one rotor 12 about the rail to unidirectional linear motion along the rail 80' by following the sinusoidal groove 85 in the rail 80' with the boss 92 (shown in Fig.11B).  A cross-link 94 connects the bearing assembly 84' of adjacent rotors 12 together, thereby adding together the linear motion of each rotor assembly 14' along the rail to provide the unidirectional linear motive power.  The structure of the bearing assembly 84' and the cross-link 94 is shown in Fig.11B and Fig.12, and the operation is identical to the linkage 84' and the cross-link 94' described for the twelfth embodiment.  Accordingly, a detailed description of the linkage 84' and the cross-link 94 is not repeated, for the sake of brevity.

 

In another aspect, the fifteenth preferred embodiment may also be configured in a circular arrangement similar to that of the fourteenth embodiment.   In the fifteenth preferred embodiment, the helical stator 82' shown in Fig.14 is replaced with one or more curved stators 50'' spaced around the rotors 12.   In this case, the period of the sinusoidal pattern of the stator magnets is adjusted in accordance with the distance of the surface 64 of the respective stator 50'' from the armature axis of rotation 58 in order that the U-shaped magnets 20 on the rotors 12 remain apposite to the first and the second segments, as the rotors 12 slide along the rail 80''.  Accordingly, a description of those elements of circular arrangement of the fifteenth embodiment which are the same as for the linear embodiment are not repeated, for the sake of brevity.

 

Referring now to Fig.4, Fig.18 and Fig.19 there is shown a sixteenth preferred embodiment of the motor 10 for providing unidirectional motive power comprising a rail 80'' having a longitudinal axis 65 and a helical groove 86 having a pre-determined pitch, running around a periphery of the rail 80.

 

Preferably, the sixteenth preferred embodiment further includes three generally identical stators 50', each stator 50' having a surface 64 disposed generally equidistant from and parallel to the axis 65 of the rail 80.  Each stator 50' has a longitudinal line of demarcation 49 located about a midpoint of the surface 64.  Preferably, a plurality of stator magnets 68' are attached to the surface of the stator 50' generating a first magnetic field.  The plurality of stator magnets 68' have a direction of magnetisation which rotates about a magnetic axis parallel to the line of demarcation 49.  In the case where the rail 80'' and the longitudinal line of demarcation 49 of the stator 50' are in a straight line, the pitch of the rotation of the stator magnets 68' is preferably equal to the pre-determined pitch of the helical groove 86 on the rail 80.

 

The sixteenth embodiment further includes five rotors 12, each rotor 12 having an axis of rotation 16 aligned with the axis 65 of the rail 80.   Each rotor 12 is connected to the rail 80 so that the rotor 12 is free to rotate about the axis 65 of the rail 80 and slide along the rail 80.  Each rotor 12 includes three pairs 32, 32', 32'' of U-shaped magnets 20 spaced around the periphery of the rotor 12, each U-shaped magnet 20 generating a second magnetic field.  The U-shaped magnets 20 are positioned on each rotor 12 so that a portion of the second magnetic field directly adjacent to the rear side 26 of the U-shaped magnet 20 interacts with the first magnetic field generated by the plurality of stator magnets 68' to cause each rotor 12 to rotate about the rotor axis 16.  Those skilled in the art will appreciate that it is not necessary to have exactly three pairs of U-shaped magnets 32, 32', 32''.  For instance, the number of U-shaped magnets 20 (or groups of abutted U-shaped magnets) spaced apart around the periphery of the rotor 12 may range from merely a single U-shaped magnet 20, or may range in number up to a number of U shaped magnets 20 limited only by the physical space around the periphery of the rotor 12.  Further the number of abutted U-shaped magnets 20 in a group of magnets 32 may also range from 1 up to a number of magnets limited only by the physical space around the periphery of the rotor 12.

 

The sixteenth embodiment also includes a bearing assembly 84' connecting each rotor 12 to the helical groove 86, the bearing assembly 84' converting the rotary motion of each rotor 12 about the rail 80' to unidirectional linear motion along the rail 80'.   A cross-link 94 connects the bearing assembly 84' of adjacent rotors 12 together, thereby adding together the linear motion of each rotor assembly 14' along the rail 80' to provide the unidirectional linear motive power.  The structure of the bearing assembly 84' and the cross-link 94 is shown in Fig.11B and Fig.12, is identical to the bearing assembly 84' and cross-link 94 described for the twelfth embodiment. Accordingly, a description of the linkage 84 and the cross-link 94 is not repeated, for the sake of brevity.

 

In another aspect of the sixteenth preferred embodiment the motor 10 may be configured in a circular arrangement similar to that of the fourteenth embodiment, as shown in Fig.14, except that the helical stator 82' shown in Fig.14 is replaced with one or more stators 50' spaced around the rotors 12.  In this case, the pitch of the rotation of the plurality of stator magnets 68' is adjusted in accordance with the distance of the surface 64 of the respective stator 50' from the armature axis of rotation 58 in order that the U-shaped magnets 20 on the rotors 12 remain aligned with the plurality of stator magnets 68' as the rotors 12 rotate about the axis 65 of the rail 80' and slide along the rail 80'.   Accordingly, a description of those elements of the circular arrangement of the sixteenth embodiment which are the same as for the straight line configuration are not repeated, for the sake of brevity.

 

It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that changes could be made to the embodiments described above without departing from the broad inventive concept thereof. It is understood, therefore, that this invention is not limited to the particular embodiments disclosed, but it is intended to cover modifications within the spirit and scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HOWARD JOHNSON: PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR

 

Patent US 4,151,431                    24th April 1979                     Inventor: Howard R. Johnson

 

PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR

 

 

 

This is a re-worded extract from this Patent.  It describes a motor powered solely by permanent magnets and which it is claimed can power an electrical generator.

 

ABSTRACT

The invention is directed to the method of utilising the unpaired electron spins in ferromagnetic and other materials as a source of magnetic fields for producing power without any electron flow as occurs in normal conductors, and to permanent magnet motors for utilising this method to produce a power source.  In the practice of the invention the unpaired electron spins occurring within permanent magnets are utilised to produce a motive power source solely through the superconducting characteristics of a permanent magnet, and the magnetic flux created by the magnets is controlled and concentrated to orientate the magnetic forces generated in such a manner to produce useful continuous work, such as the displacement of a rotor with respect to a stator.  The timing and orientation of magnetic forces at the rotor and stator components produced by the permanent magnets is accomplished by the proper geometrical relationship of these components.

 

 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION:

Conventional electric motors employ magnetic forces to produce either rotational or linear motion. Electric motors operate on the principal that when a conductor which carries a current is located in a magnetic field, a magnetic force is exerted upon it.   Normally, in a conventional electric motor, the rotor, or stator, or both, are so wired that magnetic fields created by electromagnets use attraction, repulsion, or both types of magnetic forces, to impose a force upon the armature  causing rotation, or linear displacement of the armature. Conventional electric motors may employ permanent magnets either in the armature or stator components, but to date they require the creation of an electromagnetic field to act upon the permanent magnets. Also, switching gear is needed to control the energising of the electromagnets and the orientation of the magnetic fields producing the motive power. 

 

It is my belief that the full potential of magnetic forces existing in permanent magnets has not been recognised or utilised because of incomplete information and theory with respect to atomic motion occurring within a permanent magnet. It is my belief that a presently unnamed atomic particle is associated with the electron movement of a superconducting electromagnet and the loss-less flow of currents in permanent magnets. The unpaired electron flow is similar in both situations. This small particle is believed to be opposite in charge to an electron and to be located at right angles to the moving electron.  This particle must be very small to penetrate all known elements in their various states as well as their known compounds (unless they have unpaired electrons which capture these particles as they endeavour to pass through).

        

The electrons in ferrous materials differ from those found in most elements in that they are unpaired, and being unpaired they spin around the nucleus in such a way that they respond to magnetic fields as well as creating a magnetic field themselves.  If they were paired, their magnetic fields would cancel out. However, being unpaired they create a measurable magnetic field if their spins are orientated in one direction. The spins are at right angles to their magnetic fields.

 

In niobium superconductors, at a critical state, the magnetic lines of force cease to be at right angles. This change must be due to establishing the required conditions for unpaired electronic spins instead of electron flow in the conductor, and the fact that very powerful electromagnets can be formed with superconductors illustrates the tremendous advantage of producing the magnetic field by unpaired electron spins rather than conventional electron flow.   In a superconducting metal, wherein the electrical resistance becomes greater in the metal than the proton resistance, the flow turns to electron spins and the positive particles flow parallel in the metal in the manner occurring in a permanent magnet where a powerful flow of magnetic positive particles or magnetic flux causes the unpaired electrons to spin at right angles. Under cryogenic superconduction conditions the freezing of the crystals in place makes it possible for the spins to continue, and in a permanent magnet the grain orientation of the magnetised material allows these spins, permitting them to continue and causing the flux to flow parallel to the metal.  In a superconductor, at first the electron is flowing and the positive particle is spinning; later, when critical, the reverse occurs, i.e., the electron is spinning and the positive particle is flowing at right angles.    These positive particles will thread or work their way through the electron spins present in the metal.

        

In a sense, a permanent magnet may be considered a room-temperature superconductor. It is a superconductor because the electron flow does not cease, and this electron flow can be made to do work through the magnetic field which it creates. Previously, this source of power has not been used because it was not possible to modify the electron flow to accomplish the switching functions of the magnetic field. Such switching functions are common in a conventional electric motor where electrical current is employed to align the much greater electron current in the iron pole pieces and concentrate the magnetic field at the proper places to give the thrust necessary to move the motor armature. In a conventional electric motor, switching is accomplished by the use of brushes, commutators, alternating current, or other means.

 

In order to accomplish the switching function in a permanent magnet motor, it is necessary to shield the magnetic leakage so that it will not appear as too great a loss factor at the wrong places. The best method to accomplish this is to concentrate the magnetic flux in the place where it will be the most effective. Timing and switching can be achieved in a permanent magnet motor by concentrating the flux and using the proper geometry of the motor rotor and stator to make most effective use of the magnetic fields. By the proper combination of materials, geometry and magnetic concentration, it is possible to achieve a mechanical advantage of high ratio, greater than 100 to 1, capable of producing continuous motive force.

 

To my knowledge, previous work done with permanent magnets, and motive devices utilising permanent magnets, have not achieved the result desired in the practice of the inventive concept, and it is with the proper combination of materials, geometry and magnetic concentration that the presence of the magnetic spins within a permanent magnet may be utilised as a motive force.

 

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION:

It is an object of the invention to utilise the magnetic spinning phenomenon of unpaired electrons occurring in ferromagnetic material to produce the movement of a mass in a unidirectional manner so as to permit a motor to be driven solely by the magnetic forces occurring within permanent magnets. Both linear and rotational types of motor may be produced. It is an object of the invention to provide the proper combination of materials, geometry and magnetic concentration to power a motor. Whether the motor is a linear type or a rotary type, in each instance the "stator" may consist of several permanent magnets fixed relative to each other, to create a track.  This track is linear for a linear motor and circular for a rotary motor. An armature magnet is carefully positioned above this track so that an air gap exists between it and the track. The length of the armature magnet is defined by poles of opposite polarity, and the longer axis of the armature magnet is pointed in the direction of its movement.

 

The stator magnets are mounted so that all the same poles face the armature magnet.  The armature magnet has poles which are both attracted to and repelled by the adjacent pole of the stator magnets, so both attractive and repulsive forces act upon the armature magnet to make it move.

 

The continuing motive force which acts on the armature magnet is caused by the relationship of the length of the armature magnet to the width and spacing of the stator magnets. This ratio of magnet and magnet spacings, and with an acceptable air gap spacing between the stator and armature magnets, produces a continuous force which causes the movement of the armature magnet.

 

In the practice of the invention, movement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets results from a combination of attractive and repulsive forces between the stator and armature magnets. By concentrating the magnetic fields of the stator and armature magnets the motive force imposed upon the armature magnet is intensified, and in the disclosed embodiments, the means for achieving this magnetic field concentration are shown.

 

This method comprises of a plate of high magnetic field permeability placed behind one side of the stator magnets and solidly engaged with them. The magnetic field of the armature magnet may be concentrated and directionally oriented by bowing the armature magnet, and the magnetic field may further be concentrated by shaping the pole ends of the armature magnet to concentrate the magnet field at a relatively limited surface at the armature magnet pole ends.

 

Preferably, several armature magnets are used and these are staggered relative to each other in the direction their movement. Such an offsetting or staggering of the armature magnets distributes the impulses of force imposed upon the armature magnets and results in a smoother application of forces to the armature magnet producing a smoother and more uniform movement of the armature component.

 

In the rotary embodiment of the permanent magnet motor of the invention the stator magnets are arranged in a circle, and the armature magnets rotate about the stator magnets. A mechanism is shown which can move the armature relative to the stator and this controls the magnitude of the magnetic forces, altering the speed of rotation of the motor.

 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The objects and advantages of the invention mentioned earlier, will be appreciated from the following description and accompanying drawings:

 

Fig. 1 is a schematic view of electron flow in a superconductor indicating the unpaired electron spins,

Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view of a superconductor under a critical state illustrating the electron spins,

Fig. 3 is a view of a permanent magnet illustrating the flux movement through it,

Fig. 4 is a cross-sectional view illustrating the diameter of the magnet of Fig.3,

Fig. 5 is an elevational representation of a linear motor embodiment of the permanent magnet motor of the invention illustrating one position of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets, and indicating the magnetic forces imposed upon the armature magnet,

Fig. 6 is a view similar to Fig.5 illustrating displacement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets, and the influence of magnetic forces thereon at this location,

Fig. 7 is a further elevational view similar to Fig.5 and Fig.6 illustrating further displacement of the armature magnet to the left, and the influence of the magnetic forces thereon,

Fig. 8 is a top plan view of a linear embodiment of the inventive concept illustrating a pair of armature magnets in linked relationship disposed above the stator magnets,

Fig. 9 is a diametrical, elevational, sectional view of a rotary motor embodiment in accord with the invention as taken along section IX-IX of Fig.10, and

Fig. 10 is an elevational view of the rotary motor embodiment as taken along X-X of Fig.9.

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

In order to better understand the theory of the inventive concept, reference is made to Figs. 1 through 4. In Fig.1 a superconductor 1 is illustrated having a positive particle flow as represented by arrow 2, the unpaired electrons of the ferrous conductor 1 spin at right angles to the proton flow in the conductor as represented by the spiral line and arrow 3. In accord with the theory of the invention the spinning of the ferrous unpaired electrons results from the atomic structure of ferrous materials and this spinning atomic particle is believed to be opposite in charge and located at right angles to the moving electrons. It is assumed to be very small in size capable of penetrating other elements and their compounds unless they have unpaired electrons which capture these particles as they endeavour to pass through.

 

The lack of electrical resistance of conductors at a critical superconductor state has long been recognised, and superconductors have been utilised to produce very high magnetic flux density electromagnets. Fig.2 represents a cross section of a critical superconductor and the electron spins are indicated by the arrows 3. A permanent magnet may be considered a superconductor as the electron flow therein does not cease, and is without resistance, and unpaired electric spinning particles exist which, in the practice of the invention, are utilised to produce motor force. Fig.3 illustrates a horseshoe shaped permanent magnet at 4 and the magnetic flux through it is indicated by arrows 5, the magnetic flow being from the south pole to the north pole and through the magnetic material. The accumulated electron spins occurring about the diameter of the magnet 5 are represented at 6 in Fig.4, and the spinning electron particles spin at right angles in the iron as the flux travels through the magnet material.

 

By utilising the electron spinning theory of ferrous material electrons, it is possible with the proper ferromagnetic materials, geometry and magnetic concentration to utilise the spinning electrons to produce a motive force in a continuous direction, thereby resulting in a motor capable of doing work.

 

It is appreciated that the embodiments of motors utilising the concepts of the invention may take many forms, and in the illustrated forms the basic relationships of components are illustrated in order to disclose the inventive concepts and principles.   The relationships of the plurality of magnets defining the stator 10 are best appreciated from Figs. 5 through 8. The stator magnets 12 are preferably of a rectangular configuration, Fig.8, and so magnetised that the poles exist at the large surfaces of the magnets, as will be appreciated from the N (North) and S (South) designations. The stator magnets include side edges 14 and 16 and end edges 18. The stator magnets are mounted upon a supporting plate 20, which is preferably of a metal having a high permeability to magnetic fields and magnetic flux such as that available under the trademark Netic CoNetic sold by Perfection Mica Company of Chicago, Illinois. Thus, the plate 20 will be disposed toward the south pole of the stator magnets 12, and preferably in direct engagement therewith, although a bonding material may be interposed between the magnets and the plate in order to accurately locate and fix the magnets on the plate, and position the stator magnets with respect to each other.

 

Preferably, the spacing between the stator magnets 12 slightly differs between adjacent stator magnets as such a variation in spacing varies the forces being imposed upon the armature magnet at its ends, at any given time, and thus results in a smoother movement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets. Thus, the stator magnets so positioned relative to each other define a track 22 having a longitudinal direction left to right as viewed in Figs. 5 through 8.  

 

In Figs. 5 through 7 only a single armature magnet 24 is disclosed, while in Fig.8 a pair of armature magnets are shown. For purposes of understanding the concepts of the invention the description herein will be limited to the use of single armature magnet as shown in Figs. 5 through 7.

 

The armature magnet is of an elongated configuration wherein the length extends from left to right, Fig.5, and may be of a rectangular transverse cross-sectional shape. For magnetic field concentrating and orientation purposes the magnet 24 is formed in an arcuate bowed configuration as defined by concave surfaces 26 and convex surfaces 28, and the poles are defined at the ends of the magnet as will be appreciated from Fig.5. For further magnetic field concentrating purposes the ends of the armature magnet are shaped by bevelled surfaces 30 to minimise the cross sectional area at the magnet ends 32, and the magnetic flux existing between the poles of the armature magnet are as indicated by the light dotted lines. In like manner the magnetic fields of 6 the stator magnets 12 are indicated by the light dotted lines.

 

The armature magnet 24 is maintained in a spaced relationship above the stator track 22. This spacing may be accomplished by mounting the armature magnet upon a slide, guide or track located above the stator magnets, or the armature magnet could be mounted upon a wheeled vehicle carriage or slide supported upon a non-magnetic surface or guideway disposed between the stator magnets and the armature magnet. To clarify the illustration, the means for supporting the armature magnet 24 is not illustrated and such means form no part of invention, and it is to be understood that the means supporting the armature magnet prevents the armature magnet from moving away from the stator magnets, or moving closer thereto, but permits free movement of the armature magnet to the left or right in a direction parallel to the track 22 defined by the stator magnets.

 

It will be noted that the length of the armature magnet 24 is slightly greater than the width of two of the stator magnets 12 and the spacing between them. The magnetic forces acting upon the armature magnet when in the position of Fig.5 will be repulsion forces 34 due to the proximity of like polarity forces and attraction forces at 36 because of the opposite polarity of the south pole of the armature magnet, and the north pole field of the sector magnets. The relative strength of this force is represented by the thickness of the force line.

 

The resultant of the force vectors imposed upon the armature magnet as shown in Fig.5 produce a primary force vector 38 toward the left, Fig.5, displacing the armature magnet 24 toward the left. In Fig.6 the magnetic forces acting upon the armature magnet are represented by the same reference numerals as in Fig.5. While the forces 34 constitute repulsion forces tending to move the north pole of the armature magnet away from the stator magnets, the attraction forces imposed upon the south pole of the armature magnet and some of the repulsion forces, tend to move the armature magnet further to the left, and as the resultant force 38 continues to be toward the left the armature magnet continues to be forced to the left. Fig.7 represents further displacement of the armature magnet 24 to the left with respect to the position of Fig.6, and the magnetic forces acting thereon are represented by the same reference numerals as in Fig.5 and Fig.6, and the stator magnet will continue to move to the left, and such movement continues the length of the track 22 defined by the stator magnets 12.

 

Upon the armature magnet being reversed such that the north pole is positioned at the right as viewed in Fig.5, and the south pole is positioned at the left, the direction of movement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets is toward the right, and the theory of movement is identical to that described above.

 

In Fig.8 a plurality of armature magnets 40 and 42 are illustrated which are connected by links 44. The armature magnets are of a shape and configuration identical to that of the embodiment of Fig.5, but the magnets are staggered with respect to each other in the direction of magnet movement, i.e., the direction of the track 22 defined by the stator magnets 12. By so staggering a plurality of armature magnets a smoother movement of the interconnected armature magnets is produced as compared when using a single armature magnet as there is variation in the forces acting upon each armature magnet as it moves above the track 22 due to the change in magnetic forces imposed thereon. The use of several armature magnets tends to "smooth out" the application of forces imposed upon linked armature magnets, resulting in a smoother movement of the armature magnet assembly. Of course, any number of armature magnets may be interconnected, limited only by the width of the stator magnet track 22.

 

In Fig.9 and Fig.10 a rotary embodiment embracing the inventive concepts is illustrated. In this embodiment the principle of operation is identical to that described above, but the orientation of the stator and armature magnets is such that rotation of the armature magnets is produced about an axis, rather than a linear movement being achieved.

 

In Fig.9 and Fig.10 a base is represented at 46 serving as a support for a stator member 48. The stator member 48 is made of a non-magnetic material, such as synthetic plastic, aluminium, or the like. The stator includes a cylindrical surface 50 having an axis, and a threaded bore 52 is concentrically defined in the stator. The stator includes an annular groove 54 receiving an annular sleeve 56 of high magnetic field permeability material such as Netic Co-Netic and a plurality of stator magnets 58 are affixed upon the sleeve 56 in spaced circumferential relationship as will be apparent in Fig.10. Preferably, the stator magnets 58 are formed with converging radial sides as to be of a wedge configuration having a curved inner surface engaging sleeve 56, and a convex pole surface 60.

 

The armature 62, in the illustrated embodiment, is of a dished configuration having a radial web portion, and an axially extending portion 64. The armature 62 is formed of a non-magnetic material, and an annular belt receiving groove 66 is defined therein for receiving a belt for transmitting power from the armature to a generator, or other power consuming device. Three armature magnets 68 are mounted on the armature portion 64, and such magnets are of a configuration similar to the armature magnet configuration of Figs. 5 through 7.

 

The magnets 68 are staggered with respect to each other in a circumferential direction wherein the magnets are not placed exactly 120 degrees apart but instead, a slight angular staggering of the armature magnets is desirable to "smooth out" the magnetic forces being imposed upon the armature as a result of the magnetic forces being simultaneously imposed upon each of the armature magnets. The staggering of the armature magnets 68 in a circumferential direction produces the same effect as the staggering of the armature magnets 40 and 42 as shown in Fig.8.

 

The armature 62 is mounted upon a threaded shaft 70 by anti-friction bearings 72, and the shaft 70 is threaded into the stator threaded bore 52, and may be rotated by the knob 74. In this manner rotation of the knob 74, and shaft 70, axially displaces the armature 62 with respect to the stator magnets 58, and such axial displacement will very the magnitude of the magnetic forces imposed upon the armature magnets 68 by the stator magnets thereby controlling the speed of rotation of the armature.    As will be noted from Figs. 4 to 7, 9 and 10, an air gap exists between the armature magnets and the stator magnets and the dimension of this spacing, effects the magnitude of the forces imposed upon the armature magnet or magnets. If the distance between the armature magnets and the stator magnets is reduced the forces imposed upon the armature magnets by the stator magnets are increased, and the resultant force 8 vector tending to displace the armature magnets in their path of movement increases. However, the decreasing of the spacing  between the armature and stator magnets creates a "pulsation" in the movement of the armature magnets which is objectionable, but can be, to some extent, minimised by using a plurality of armature magnets. Increasing the distance between the armature and stator magnets reduces the pulsation tendency of the armature magnet, but also reduces the magnitude of the magnetic forces imposed upon the armature magnets. Thus, the most effective spacing between the armature and stator magnets is that spacing which produces the maximum force vector in the direction of armature magnet movement, with a minimum creation of objectionable pulsation.

 

In the disclosed embodiments the high permeability plate 20 and sleeve 56 are disclosed for concentrating the magnetic field of the stator magnets, and the armature magnets are bowed and have shaped ends for magnetic field concentration purposes. While such magnetic field concentration means result in higher forces imposed upon the armature magnets for given magnet intensities, it is not intended that the inventive concepts be limited to the use of such magnetic field concentrating means.

 

As will be appreciated from the above description of the invention, the movement of the armature magnet or magnets results from the described relationship of components. The length of the armature magnets as related to the width of the stator magnets and spacing between them, the dimension of the air gap and the configuration of the magnetic field, combined, produce the desired result and motion. The inventive concepts may be practised even though these relationships may be varied within limits not yet defined and the invention is intended to encompass all dimensional relationships which achieve the desired goal of armature movement. By way of example, with respect to Figs. to 7, the following dimensions were used in an operating prototype:

 

The length of armature magnet 24 is 3.125", the stator magnets 12 are 1" wide, .25" thick and 4" long and grain oriented. The air gap between the poles of the armature magnet and the stator magnets is approximately 1.5" and the spacing between the stator magnets is approximately .5" inch.

 

In effect, the stator magnets define a magnetic field track of a single polarity transversely interrupted at spaced locations by the magnetic fields produced by the lines of force existing between the poles of the stator magnets and the unidirectional force exerted on the armature magnet is a result of the repulsion and attraction forces existing as the armature magnet traverses this magnetic field track.

 

It is to be understood that the inventive concept embraces an arrangement wherein the armature magnet component is stationary and the stator assembly is supported for movement and constitutes the moving component, and other variations of the inventive concept will be apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope thereof. As used herein the term "track" is intended to include both linear and circular arrangements of the static magnets, and the "direction" or "length" of the track is that direction parallel or concentric to the intended direction of armature magnet movement.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAROLD EWING: THE CAROUSEL ELECTRIC GENERATOR

 

US Patent 5,625,241                        29th April 1997                       Inventor: Harold E. Ewing et al.

 

CAROUSEL ELECTRIC GENERATOR

 

 

This is a reworded excerpt form this patent which shows a compact, self-powered, combined permanent magnet motor and electrical generator.  There is a little extra information at the end of this document.

 

ABSTRACT

A permanent magnet generator or motor having stationary coils positioned in a circle, a rotor on which are mounted permanent magnets grouped in sectors and positioned to move adjacent to the coils, and a carousel carrying corresponding groups of permanent magnets through the centres of the coils, the carousel movies with the rotor by virtue of its being magnetically coupled to it.

 

Inventors:

Ewing, Harold E. (Chandler, AZ, US)

Chapman, Russell R. (Mesa, AZ, US)

Porter, David R. (Mesa, AZ, US)

 

Assignee:

Energy Research Corporation (Mesa, AZ)

 

US Patent References:

3610974  Oct, 1971          Kenyon                         310/49.

4547713  Oct, 1985          Langley et al.                 318/254.

5117142  May, 1992         Von Zweygbergk            310/156.

5289072  Feb, 1994          Lange                           310/266.

5293093  Mar, 1994          Warner                          310/254.

5304883  Apr, 1994          Denk                             310/180.

 

 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

There are numerous applications for small electric generators in ratings of a few kilowatts or less.  Examples include electric power sources for emergency lighting in commercial and residential buildings, power sources for remote locations such as mountain cabins, and portable power sources for motor homes, pleasure boats, etc.

 

In all of these applications, system reliability is a primary concern.  Because the power system is likely to sit idle for long periods of time without the benefit of periodic maintenance, and because the owner-operator is often inexperienced in the maintenance and operation of such equipment, the desired level of reliability can only be achieved through system simplicity and the elimination of such components as batteries or other secondary power sources which are commonly employed for generator field excitation.

 

Another important feature for such generating equipment is miniaturisation particularly in the case of portable equipment.  It is important to be able to produce the required level of power in a relatively small generator.

 

Both of these requirements are addressed in the present invention through a novel adaptation of the permanent magnet generator or magneto in a design that lends itself to high frequency operation as a means for maximising power output per unit volume.

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART

Permanent magnet generators or magnetos have been employed widely for many years. Early applications of such generators include the supply of electric current for spark plugs in automobiles and aeroplanes. Early telephones used magnetos to obtain electrical energy for ringing. The Model T Ford automobile also used magnetos to power its electric lights.

 

The present invention differs from prior art magnetos in terms of its novel physical structure in which a multiplicity of permanent magnets and electrical windings are arranged in a fashion which permits high-speed/high-frequency operation as a means for meeting the miniaturisation requirement. In addition, the design is enhanced through the use of a rotating carousel which carries a multiplicity of field source magnets through the centres of the stationary electric windings in which the generated voltage is thereby induced.

 

 

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In accordance with the invention claimed, an improved permanent magnet electric generator is provided with a capability for delivering a relatively high level of output power from a small and compact structure. The incorporation of a rotating carousel for the transport of the primary field magnets through the electrical windings in which induction occurs enhances field strength in the locations critical to generation.

 

It is, therefore, one object of this invention to provide an improved permanent magnet generator or magneto for the generation of electrical power.  Another object of this invention is to provide in such a generator a relatively high level of electrical power from a small and compact structure.  A further object of this invention is to achieve such a high level of electrical power by virtue of the high rotational speed and high frequency operation of which the generator of the invention is capable.

 

A further object of this invention is to provide such a high frequency capability through the use of a novel field structure in which the primary permanent magnets are carried through the centres of the induction windings of the generator by a rotating carousel.

 

A still further object of this invention is to provide a means for driving the rotating carousel without the aid of mechanical coupling but rather by virtue of magnetic coupling between other mechanically driven magnets and those mounted on the carousel.

 

A still further object of this invention is to provide an enhanced capability for high speed/high frequency operation through the use of an air bearing as a support for the rotating carousel.

 

Yet another object of this invention is to provide in such an improved generator a sufficiently high magnetic field density in the locations critical to voltage generation without resort to the use of laminations or other media to channel the magnetic field.

 

Further objects an advantages of the invention will become apparent as the following description proceeds and the features of novelty which characterise the invention will be pointed out with particularity in the claims annexed to and forming a part of this specification.

 

 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The present invention may be more readily described by reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

 

 

Fig.1 is a simplified perspective view of the carousel electric generator of the invention;

 

 

Fig.2 is a cross-sectional view of Fig.1 taken along line 2--2;

 

 

 

Fig.3 is a cross-sectional view of the generator of Fig.1 and Fig.2 taken along line 3--3 of Fig.2;

 

 

 

Fig.4 is a cross-sectional view of Fig.3 taken along line 4--4;

 

Fig.5 is a partial perspective view showing the orientation of a group of permanent magnets within a twenty degree sector of the generator of the invention as viewed in the direction of arrow 5 of Fig.3;

 

 

 

Fig.6 is an illustration of the physical arrangement of electrical windings and permanent magnets within the generator of the invention as viewed in the direction of arrow 6 in Fig.1;

 

Fig.7 is a wave form showing flux linkages for a given winding as a function of rotational position of the winding relative to the permanent magnets;

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.8 is a schematic diagram showing the proper connection of the generator windings for a high current low voltage configuration of the generator;

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.9 is a schematic diagram showing a series connection of generator coils for a low current, high voltage configuration;

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.10 is a schematic diagram showing a series/parallel connection of generator windings for intermediate current and voltage operation;

 

Fig.11 is a perspective presentation of a modified carousel magnet configuration employed in a second embodiment of the invention;

 

 

 

Fig.12A and Fig.12B show upper and lower views of the carousel magnets of Fig.11;

 

 

 

Fig.13 is a cross-sectional view of the modified magnet configuration of Fig.11 taken along line 13--13 with other features of the modified carousel structure also shown;

 

 

Fig.14 is a modification of the carousel structure shown in Figs. 1-13 wherein a fourth carousel magnet is positioned at each station; and

 

 

 

Fig.15 illustrates the use of the claimed device as a pulsed direct current power source.

 

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

 

 

 

Referring more particularly to the drawings by characters of reference, Fig.1 shows the external proportions of a carousel electric generator 10 of the invention.  As shown in Fig.1, generator 10 is enclosed by a housing 11 with mounting feet 12 suitable for securing the generator to a flat surface 13.  The surface 13 is preferably horizontal, as shown in Fig.1.

 

Housing 11 has the proportions of a short cylinder. A drive shaft 14 extends axially from housing 11 through a bearing 15.  The electrical output of the generator is brought out through a cable 16.

 

 

The cross-sectional view of Fig.2 shows the active elements incorporated in one twenty degree sector of the stator and in one twenty degree sector of the rotor.

 

In the first implementation of the invention, there are eighteen identical stator sectors, each incorporating a winding or coil 17 wound about a rectangular coil frame or bobbin.  Coil 17 is held by a stator frame 18 which may also serve as an outer wall of frame 11.

 

The rotor is also divided into eighteen sectors, nine of which incorporate three permanent magnets each, including an inboard rotor magnet 19, an upper rotor magnet 21 and a lower rotor magnet 22.  All three of these magnets have their south poles facing coil 17, and all three are mounted directly on rotor frame 23 which is secured directly to drive shaft 14.

 

The other nine sectors of the rotor are empty, i.e. they are not populated with magnets.  The unpopulated sectors are alternated with the populated sectors so that adjacent populated sectors are separated by an unpopulated sector as shown in Fig.3 and Fig.6.

With reference again to Fig.2, generator 10 also incorporates a carousel 24.  The carousel comprises nine pairs of carousel magnets 25 clamped between upper and lower retainer rings 26 and 27, respectively.  The lower retainer ring 27 rests inside an air bearing channel 28 which is secured to stator 18 inside the bobbin of coil 17.  Air passages (not shown) admit air into the space between the lower surface of ring 27 and the upper or inside surface of channel 28.  This arrangement comprises an air bearing which permits carousel 24 to rotate freely within the coils 17 about rotational axis 29 of rotor frame 23.

 

Carousel 24 is also divided into 18 twenty-degree sectors, including nine populated sectors interspersed with nine unpopulated sectors in an alternating sequence.  Each of the nine populated sectors incorporates a pair of carousel magnets as described in the preceding paragraph.

 

 

The geometrical relationship between the rotor magnets, the carousel magnets and the coils, is further clarified by Fig.3, Fig.4 and Fig.5.  In each of the three figures, the centre of each populated rotor sector is shown aligned with the centre of a coil 17.  Each populated carousel sector, which is magnetically locked into position with a populated rotor sector, is thus also aligned with a coil 17.

 

 

 

In an early implementation of the invention, the dimensions and spacings of the rotor magnets 19, 21 and 22 and carousel magnets, 25A and 25B of carousel magnet pairs 25 were as shown in Fig.5.  Each of the rotor magnets 19, 21 and 22 measured one inch by two inches by one-half inch with north and south poles at opposite one-inch by two-inch faces.  Each of the carousel magnets 25A and 25B measured two inches by two inches by one-half inch with north and south poles at opposite two-inch by two-inch faces.  The magnets were obtained from Magnet Sales and Manufacturing, Culver City, Calif.  The carousel magnets were part No.35NE2812832; the rotor magnets were custom parts of equivalent strength (MMF) but half the cross section of the carousel magnets.

 

Coil supports and other stationary members located within magnetic field patterns are fabricated from Delrin or Teflon plastic or equivalent materials.  The use of aluminium or other metals introduce eddy current losses and in some cases excessive friction.

As shown in Fig.5, carousel magnets 25A and 25B stand on edge, parallel with each other, their north poles facing each other, and spaced one inch apart.   When viewed from directly above the carousel magnets, the space between the two magnets 25A and 25B appears as a one-inch by two-inch rectangle.  When the carousel magnet pair 25 is perfectly locked into position magnetically, upper rotor magnet 21 is directly above this one-inch by two-inch rectangle, lower rotor magnet 22 is directly below it, and their one-inch by two-inch faces are directly aligned with it, the south poles of the two magnets 21 and 22 facing each other.

 

In like manner, when viewed from the axis of rotation of generator 10, the space between carousel magnets 25A and 25B again appears as a one-inch by two-inch rectangle, and this rectangle is aligned with the one-inch by two-inch face of magnet 19, the south pole of magnet 19 facing the carousel magnet pair 25.

 

Rotor magnets 19, 21 and 22 are positioned as near as possible to carousel magnets 25A and 25B while still allowing passage for coil 17 over and around the carousel magnets and through the space between the carousel magnets and the rotor magnets.

 

In an electric generator, the voltage induced in the generator windings is proportional to the product of the number of turns in the winding and the rate of change of flux linkages that is produced as the winding is rotated through the magnetic field.  An examination of magnetic field patterns is therefore essential to an understanding of generator operation.

 

In generator 10, magnetic flux emanating from the north poles of carousel magnets 25A and 25B pass through the rotor magnets and then return to the south poles of the carousel magnets.  The total flux field is thus driven by the combined MMF (magnetomotive force) of the carousel and field magnets while the flux patterns are determined by the orientation of the rotor and carousel magnets.

 

 

The flux pattern between carousel magnets 25A and 25B and the upper and lower rotor magnets 21 and 22 is illustrated in Fig.4.   Magnetic flux lines 31 from the north pole of carousel magnet 25A extend to the south pole of upper rotor magnet 21, pass through magnet 21 and return as lines 31' to the south pole of magnet 25A.   Lines 33, also from the north pole of magnet 25A extend to the south pole of lower rotor magnet 22, pass through magnet 22 and return to the south pole of magnet 25A as lines 33'.   Similarly, lines 32 and 34 from the north pole of magnet 25B pass through magnets 21 and 22, respectively, and return as lines 32' and 34' to the south pole of magnet 25B.  Flux linkages produced in coil 17 by lines emanating from carousel magnet 25A are of opposite sense from those emanating from carousel magnet 25B.  Because induced voltage is a function of the rate of change in net flux linkages, it is important to recognise this difference in sense.

 

 

Fig.6 shows a similar flux pattern for flux between carousel magnets 25A and 25B and inboard rotor magnet 19.   Again the lines emanating from carousel magnet 25A and passing through rotor magnet 19 produce flux linkages in coil 17 that are opposite in sense from those produced by lines from magnet 25B.

 

The arrangement of the carousel magnets with the north poles facing each other tends to confine and channel the flux into the desired path. This arrangement replaces the function of magnetic yokes or laminations of more conventional generators.

 

The flux linkages produced by magnets 25A and 25B are opposite in sense regardless of the rotational position of coil 17 including the case where coil 17 is aligned with the carousel and rotor magnets as well as for the same coils when they are aligned with an unpopulated rotor sector.

 

Taking into account the flux patterns of Fig.4 and Fig.6 and recognising the opposing sense conditions just described, net flux linkages for a given coil 17 are deduced as shown in Fig.7.

 

 

In Fig.7, net flux linkages (coil-turns x lines) are plotted as a function of coil position in degrees.  Coil position is here defined as the position of the centreline 35 of coil 17 relative to the angular scale shown in degrees in Fig.6.  (Note that the coil is stationary and the scale is fixed to the rotor.  As the rotor turns in a clockwise direction, the relative position of coil 17 progresses from zero to ten to twenty degrees etc.).

 

At a relative coil position of ten degrees, the coil is centred between magnets 25A and 25B.  Assuming symmetrical flux patterns for the two magnets, the flux linkages from one magnet exactly cancel the flux linkages from the other so that net flux linkages are zero.  As the relative coil position moves to the right, linkages from magnet 25A decrease and those from magnet 25B increase so that net flux linkages build up from zero and passes through a maximum negative value at some point between ten and twenty degrees. After reaching the negative maximum, flux linkages decrease, passing through zero at 30 degrees (where coil 17 is at the centre of an unpopulated rotor sector) and then rising to a positive maximum at some point just beyond 60 degrees. This cyclic variation repeats as the coil is subjected successively to fields from populated and unpopulated rotor sectors.

 

As the rotor is driven rotationally, net flux linkages for all eighteen coils are altered at a rate that is determined by the flux pattern just described in combination with the rotational velocity of the rotor. Instantaneous voltage induced in coil 17 is a function of the slope of the curve shown in Fig.7 and rotor velocity, and voltage polarity changes as the slope of the curve alternates between positive and negative.

 

It is important to note here that a coil positioned at ten degrees is exposed to a negative slope while the adjacent coil is exposed to a positive slope.  The polarities of the voltages induced in the two adjacent coils are therefore opposite.  For series or parallel connections of odd and even-numbered coils, this polarity discrepancy can be corrected by installing the odd and even numbered coils oppositely (odds rotated end for end relative to evens) or by reversing start and finish connections of odd relative to even numbered coils. Either of these measures will render all coil voltages additive as needed for series or parallel connections. Unless the field patterns for populated and unpopulated sectors are very nearly symmetrical, however, the voltages induced in odd and even numbered coils will have different waveforms. This difference will not be corrected by the coil reversals or reverse connections discussed in the previous paragraph. Unless the voltage waveforms are very nearly the same, circulating currents will flow between even and odd-numbered coils.  These circulating currents will reduce generator efficiency. 

 

 

To prevent such circulating currents and the attendant loss in operating efficiency for non symmetrical field patterns and unmatched voltage waveforms, the series-parallel connections of Fig.8 may be employed in a high-current, low-voltage configuration of the generator.  If the eighteen coils are numbered in sequence from one to eighteen according to position about the stator, all even-numbered coils are connected in parallel, all odd-numbered coils are connected in parallel, and the two parallel coil groups are connected in series as shown with reversed polarity for one group so that voltages will be in phase relative to output cable 16.

 

 

 

For a low-current, high voltage configuration, the series connection of all coils may be employed as shown in Fig.9.  In this case, it is only necessary to correct the polarity difference between even and odd numbered coils.   As mentioned earlier, this can be accomplished by means of opposite start and finish connections for odd and even coils or by installing alternate coils reversed, end for end.

 

 

For intermediate current and voltage configurations, various series-parallel connections may be employed. Fig.10, for example, shows three groups of six coils each connected in series.  Circulating currents will be avoided so long as even-numbered coils are not connected in parallel with odd-numbered coils.  Parallel connection of series-connected odd/even pairs as shown is permissible because the waveforms of the series pairs should be very neatly matched.

 

 

In another embodiment of the invention, the two large (two-inch by two-inch) carousel magnets are replaced by three smaller magnets as shown in Fig.11, Fig.12 and Fig.13.  The three carousel magnets comprise an inboard carousel magnet 39, an upper carousel magnet 41 and a lower carousel magnet 42 arranged in a U-shaped configuration that matches the U-shaped configuration of the rotor magnets 19, 21 and 22.  As in the case of the first embodiment, the rotor and carousel magnets are present only in alternate sectors of the generator.

 

 

The ends of the carousel magnets are bevelled to permit a more compact arrangement of the three magnets. As shown in Fig.12, each magnet measures one inch by two inches by one half inch thick.  The south pole occupies the bevelled one-inch by two-inch face and the north pole is at the opposite face.

 

 

The modified carousel structure 24' as shown in Fig.13 comprises an upper carousel bearing plate 43, a lower carousel bearing plate 44, an outer cylindrical wall 45 and an inner cylindrical wall 46. The upper and lower bearing plates 43 and 44 mate with the upper and lower bearing members 47 and 48, respectively, which are stationary and secured inside the forms of the coils 17.   Bearing plates 43 and 44 are shaped to provide air channels 49 which serve as air bearings for rotational support of the carousel 24'.  The bearing plates are also slotted to receive the upper and lower edges 51 of cylindrical walls 45 and 46.

 

The modified carousel structure 24' offers a number of advantages over the first embodiment.  The matched magnet configuration of the carousel and the rotor provides tighter and more secure coupling between the carousel and the rotor.  The smaller carousel magnets also provide a significant reduction in carousel weight. This was found beneficial relative to the smooth and efficient rotational support of the carousel.

 

 

The modification of the carousel structure as described in the foregoing paragraphs can be taken one step further with the addition of a fourth carousel magnet 52 at each station as shown in Fig.14.  The four carousel magnets 39, 41, 42 and 52 now form a square frame with each of the magnet faces (north poles) facing a corresponding inside face of the coil 17.   Carousel magnets for this modification may again be as shown in Fig.12. An additional rotor magnet 53 may also be added as shown, in alignment with carousel magnet 52. These additional modifications further enhance the field pattern and the degree of coupling between the rotor and the carousel.

 

The carousel electric generator of the invention is particularly well suited to high speed, high frequency operation where the high speed compensates for lower flux densities than might be achieved with a magnetic medium for routing the field through the generator coils.  For many applications, such as emergency lighting, the high frequency is also advantageous.  Fluorescent lighting, for example, is more efficient in terms of lumens per watt and the ballasts are smaller at high frequencies.

 

While the present invention has been directed toward the provision of a compact generator for specialised generator applications, it is also possible to operate the device as a motor by applying an appropriate alternating voltage source to cable 16 and coupling drive shaft 14 to a load.

 

 

It is also possible to operate the device of the invention as a motor using a pulsed direct-current power source.   A control system 55 for providing such operation is illustrated in Fig.15.   Incorporated in the control system 55 are a rotor position sensor S, a programmable logic controller 56, a power control circuit 57 and a potentiometer P.

 

Based on signals received from sensor S, controller 56 determines the appropriate timing for coil excitation to assure maximum torque and smooth operation.  This entails the determination of the optimum positions of the rotor and the carousel at the initiation and at the termination of coil excitation.  For smooth operation and maximum torque, the force developed by the interacting fields of the magnets and the excited coils should be unidirectional to the maximum possible extent.

 

Typically, the coil is excited for only 17.5 degrees or less during each 40 degrees of rotor rotation.

 

The output signal 58 of controller 56 is a binary signal (high or low) that is interpreted as an ON and OFF command for coil excitation.

 

The power control circuit incorporates a solid state switch in the form of a power transistor or a MOSFET.  It responds to the control signal 58 by turning the solid state switch ON and OFF to initiate and terminate coil excitation.  Instantaneous voltage amplitude supplied to the coils during excitation is controlled by means of potentiometer P.   Motor speed and torque are thus responsive to potentiometer adjustments.

 

The device is also adaptable for operation as a motor using a commutator and brushes for control of coil excitation.  In this case, the commutator and brushes replace the programmable logic controller and the power control circuit as the means for providing pulsed DC excitation.  This approach is less flexible but perhaps more efficient than the programmable control system described earlier.

 

It will now be recognised that a novel and useful generator has been provided in accordance with the stated objects of the invention, and while but a few embodiments of the invention have been illustrated and described it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention or from the scope of the appended claims.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PAVEL IMRIS: OPTICAL GENERATOR

 

US Patent 3,781,601               25th December 1973                Inventor: Pavel Imris

 

OPTICAL GENERATOR OF AN ELECTROSTATIC FIELD HAVING LONGITUDINAL OSCILLATION AT LIGHT FREQUENCIES FOR USE IN AN ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

 

 

Please note that this is a re-worded excerpt from this patent.  It describes a gas-filled tube which allows many standard 40-watt fluorescent tubes to be powered using less than 1-watt of power each.

 

ABSTRACT

An Optical generator of an electrostatic field at light frequencies for use in an electrical circuit, the generator having a pair of spaced-apart electrodes in a gas-filled tube of quartz glass or similar material with at least one capacitor cap or plate adjacent to one electrode and a dielectric filled container enclosing the tube, the generator substantially increasing the electrical efficiency of the electrical circuit.

 

 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to improved electrical circuits, and more particularly to circuits utilising an optical generator of an electrostatic field at light frequencies.

 

The measure of the efficiency of an electrical circuit may broadly be defined as the ratio of the output energy in the desired form (such as light in a lighting circuit) to the input electrical energy.  Up to now, the efficiency of many circuits has not been very high.  For example, in a lighting circuit using 40 watt fluorescent lamps, only about 8.8 watts of the input energy per lamp is actually converted to visible light, thus representing an efficiency of only about 22%.  The remaining 31.2 watts is dissipated primarily in the form of heat.

 

It has been suggested that with lighting circuits having fluorescent lamps, increasing the frequency of the applied current will raise the overall circuit efficiency.  While at an operating frequency of 60 Hz, the efficiency is 22%, if the frequency is raised to 1 Mhz, the circuit efficiency would only rise to some 25.5%.  Also, if the input frequency were raised to 10 Ghz, the overall circuit efficiency would only be 35%.

 

 

SUMMARY OF THE PRESENT INVENTION

The present invention utilises an optical electrostatic generator which is effective  for producing high frequencies in the visible light range of about 1014 to 1023 Hz.  The operation and theory of the optical electrostatic generator has been described and discussed in my co-pending application serial No. 5,248, filed on 23rd January 1970.  As stated in my co-pending application, the present optical electrostatic generator does not perform in accordance with the accepted norms and standards of ordinary electromagnetic frequencies.

 

The optical electrostatic generator as utilised in the present invention can generate a wide range of frequencies between several Hertz and those in the light frequency.  Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide improved electrical energy circuits utilising my optical electrostatic generator, whereby the output energy in the desired form will be substantially more efficient than possible to date, using standard circuit techniques and equipment.  It is a further object of the present invention to provide such a circuit for use in fluorescent  lighting or other lighting circuits.  It is also an object of the present invention to provide a circuit with may be used in conjunction with electrostatic precipitators for dust and particle collection and removal, as well as many other purposes.

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Fig.1 is a schematic  layout showing an optical electrostatic generator of the present invention, utilised in a lighting circuit for fluorescent lamps:

 

 

 

 

Fig.2 is a schematic layout of a high-voltage circuit incorporating an optical electrostatic generator:

 

 

 

Fig.2A is a sectional view through a portion of the generator and

 

Fig.3 is a schematic sectional view showing an optical electrostatic generator in accordance with the present invention, particularly for use in alternating current circuits, although it may also be used in direct current circuits:

 

 

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE ILLUSTRATED EMBODIMENTS

Referring to the drawings and to Fig.1 in particular, a low voltage circuit utilising an optical electrostatic generator is shown.  As shown in Fig.1, a source of alternating current electrical energy 10, is connected to a lighting circuit.  Connected to one tap of the power source 10 is a rectifier 12 for utilisation when direct current is required.  The illustrated circuit is provided with a switch 14 which may be opened or closed depending on whether AC or DC power is used.  Switch 14 is opened and a switch 16 is closed when AC is used.  With switch 14 closed and switch 16 open, the circuit operates as a DC circuit.

 

 

Extending from switches 14 and 16 is conductor 18 which is connected to an optical electrostatic generator 20.  Conductor 18 is passed through an insulator 22 and connected to an electrode 24.  Spaced from electrode 24 is a second electrode 25.  Enclosing electrodes 24 and 25, which preferably are made of tungsten or similar material, is a quartz glass tube 26 which is filled with an ionisable gas 28 such as xenon or any other suitable ionisable gas such as argon, krypton, neon, nitrogen or hydrogen, as well as the vapour of metals such as mercury or sodium.

 

Surrounding each end of tube 26 and adjacent to electrodes 24 and 25, are capacitor plates 30 and 32 in the form of caps.  A conductor is connected to electrode 25 and passed through a second insulator 34.  Surrounding the tube, electrodes and capacitor caps is a metal envelope in the form of a thin sheet of copper or other metal such as aluminium.  Envelope 36 is spaced from the conductors leading into and out of the generator by means of  insulators 22 and 34.  Envelope 36 is filled with a dielectric material such as transformer oil, highly purified distilled water, nitro-benzene or any other suitable liquid dielectric.  In addition, the dielectric may be a solid such as ceramic material with relatively small molecules.

 

A conductor 40 is connected to electrode 25, passed through insulator 24 and then connected to a series of fluorescent lamps 42 which are connected in series.  It is the lamps 42 which will be the measure of the efficiency of the circuit containing the optical electrostatic generator 20.  A conductor 44 completes the circuit from the fluorescent lamps to the tap of the source of electrical energy 10.  In addition, the circuit is connected to a ground 46 by another conductor 48.  Envelope 36 is also grounded by lead 50 and in the illustrated diagram, lead 50 is connected to the conductor 44.

 

The capacitor caps or plates 30 and 32, form a relative capacitor with the discharge tube.  When a high voltage is applied to the electrode of the discharge tube, the ions of gas are excited and brought to a higher potential than their environment, i.e. the envelope and the dielectric surrounding it.  At this point, the ionised gas in effect becomes one plate of a relative capacitor in co-operation with the capacitor caps or plates 30 and 32.

 

When this relative capacitor is discharged, the electric current does not decrease as would normally be expected.  Instead, it remains substantially constant due to the relationship between the relative capacitor and an absolute capacitor which is formed between the ionised gas and the spaced metal envelope 36.  An oscillation effect occurs in the relative capacitor, but the electrical condition in the absolute capacitor remains substantially constant.

 

As also described in the co-pending application serial No. 5,248, there is an oscillation effect between the ionised gas in the discharge lamp and the metallic envelope 36 will be present if the capacitor caps are eliminated, but the efficiency of the electrostatic generator will be substantially decreased.

 

The face of the electrode can be any desired shape.  However, a conical point of 600 has been found to be satisfactory and it is believed to have an influence on the efficiency of the generator.

 

In addition, the type of gas selected for use in tube 26, as well as the pressure of the gas in the tube, also affect the efficiency of the generator, and in turn, the efficiency of the electrical circuit.

 

To demonstrate the increased efficiency of an electrical circuit utilising the optical electrostatic generator of the present invention as well as the relationship between gas pressure and electrical efficiency, a circuit similar to that shown in Fig.1 may be used with 100 standard 40 watt, cool-white fluorescent lamps connected in series.  The optical electrostatic generator includes a quartz glass tube filled with xenon, with a series of different tubes being used because of the different gas pressures being tested.

 

Table 1 shows the data to be obtained relating to the optical electrostatic generator.  Table 2 shows the lamp performance and efficiency for each of the tests shown in Table 1.  The following is a description of the data in each of the columns of Tables 1 and 2.

 

Column

Description

B

Gas used in discharge tube

C

Gas pressure in tube (in torrs)

D

Field strength across the tube (measured in volts per cm. of length between the electrodes)

E

Current density (measured in microamps per sq. mm. of tube cross-sectional area)

F

Current (measured in amps)

G

Power across the tube (calculated in watts per cm. of length between the electrodes)

H

Voltage per lamp (measured in volts)

K

Current (measured in amps)

L

Resistance (calculated in ohms)

M

Input power per lamp (calculated in watts)

N

Light output (measured in lumens)

 

Table 1

 

 

 

Optical

Generator

Section

 

 

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Test No.

Type of discharge lamp

Pressure of Xenon

Field strength across lamp

Current density

Current

Power str. across lamp

 

 

(Torr)

(V/cm)

(A/sq.mm)

(A)

(W/cm.)

1

Mo elec

-

-

-

-

-

2

Xe

0.01

11.8

353

0.1818

2.14

3

Xe

0.10

19.6

353

0.1818

3.57

4

Xe

1.00

31.4

353

0.1818

5.72

5

Xe

10.00

47.2

353

0.1818

8.58

6

Xe

20.00

55.1

353

0.1818

10.02

7

Xe

30.00

62.9

353

0.1818

11.45

8

Xe

40.00

66.9

353

0.1818

12.16

9

Xe

60.00

70.8

353

0.1818

12.88

10

Xe

80.00

76.7

353

0.1818

13.95

11

Xe

100.00

78.7

353

0.1818

14.31

12

Xe

200.00

90.5

353

0.1818

16.46

13

Xe

300.00

100.4

353

0.1818

18.25

14

Xe

400.00

106.3

353

0.1818

19.32

15

Xe

500.00

110.2

353

0.1818

20.04

16

Xe

600.00

118.1

353

0.1818

21.47

17

Xe

700.00

120.0

353

0.1818

21.83

18

Xe

800.00

122.8

353

0.1818

22.33

19

Xe

900.00

125.9

353

0.1818

22.90

20

Xe

1,000.00

127.9

353

0.1818

23.26

21

Xe

2,000.00

149.6

353

0.1818

27.19

22

Xe

3,000.00

161.4

353

0.1818

29.35

23

Xe

4,000.00

173.2

353

0.1818

31.49

24

Xe

5,000.00

179.1

353

0.1818

32.56

 

 

 

Table 2

 

 

 

Fluorescent

Lamp

Section

 

A

H

K

L

M

N

Test No.

Voltage

Current

Resistance

Input Energy

Light Output

 

(Volts)

(Amps)

(Ohms)

(Watts)

(Lumen)

1

220

0.1818

1,210

40.00

3,200

2

218

0.1818

1,199

39.63

3,200

3

215

0.1818

1,182

39.08

3,200

4

210

0.1818

1,155

38.17

3,200

5

200

0.1818

1,100

36.36

3,200

6

195

0.1818

1,072

35.45

3,200

7

190

0.1818

1,045

34.54

3,200

8

182

0.1818

1,001

33.08

3,200

9

175

0.1818

962

31.81

3,200

10

162

0.1818

891

29.45

3,200

11

155

0.1818

852

28.17

3,200

12

130

0.1818

715

23.63

3,200

13

112

0.1818

616

20.36

3,200

14

100

0.1818

550

18.18

3,200

15

85

0.1818

467

15.45

3,200

16

75

0.1818

412

13.63

3,200

17

67

0.1818

368

12.18

3,200

18

60

0.1818

330

10.90

3,200

19

53

0.1818

291

9.63

3,200

20

50

0.1818

275

9.09

3,200

21

23

0.1818

126

4.18

3,200

22

13

0.1818

71

2.35

3,200

23

8

0.1818

44

1.45

3,200

24

5

0.1818

27

0.90

3,200

 

 

The design of a tube construction for use in the optical electrostatic generator of the type used in Fig.1, may be accomplished by considering the radius of the tube, the length between the electrodes in the tube and the power across the tube.

 

If R is the minimum inside radius of the tube in centimetres, L the minimum length in centimetres between the electrodes, and W the power in watts across the lamp, the following formula can be obtained from Table 1:

 

R = (Current [A] / Current Density [A/sq.mm] ) / pi

 

L = 8R

 

W = L[V/cm] x A

 

For example, for Test No. 18 in Table 1:

The current is 0.1818 A,

The current density 0.000353 A/sq.mm and

The Voltage Distribution is 122.8 V/cm; therefore

 

R = (0.1818 / 0.000353)2 /3.14 = 12.80 mm.

 

L = 8 x R = 8 * 12.8 = 102.4 mm (10.2 cm.)

 

W = 10.2 x 122.8 x 0.1818 = 227.7 VA or 227.7 watts

 

The percent efficiency of operation of the fluorescent lamps in Test No. 18 can be calculated from the following equation:

 

% Efficiency = (Output Energy/Input energy) x 100

 

Across a single fluorescent lamp, the voltage is 60 volts and the current is 0.1818 amps therefore the input energy to the lamp 42 is 10.90 Watts.  The output of the fluorescent lamp is 3,200 lumens which represents 8.8 Watts power of light energy.  Thus, the one fluorescent lamp is operating at 80.7% efficiency under these conditions.

 

However, when the optical generator is the same as described for Test No. 18 and there are 100 fluorescent lamps in series in the circuit, the total power input is 227.7 watts for the optical generator and 1,090 watts for 100 fluorescent lamps, or a total of 1,318 watts.  The total power input normally required to operate the 100 fluorescent lamps in a normal circuit would be 100 x 40 = 4,000 watts.  So by using the optical generator in the circuit, about 2,680 watts of energy is saved.

 

Table 1 is an example of the functioning of this invention for a particular fluorescent lamp (40 watt cool white).  However, similar data can be obtained for other lighting applications, by those skilled in the art.

 

 

In Fig.2, a circuit is shown which uses an optical electrostatic generator 20a, similar to generator 20 of Fig.1.  In generator 20, only one capacitor cap 32a is used and it is preferably of triangular cross-sectional design.  In addition, the second electrode 25a is connected directly back into the return conductor 52, similar to the arrangement shown in my co-pending application serial No. 5,248, filed 23rd January 1970.

 

This arrangement is preferably for very high voltage circuits and the generator is particularly suited for DC usage.

 

In Fig.2, common elements have received the same numbers which were used in Fig.1.

 

 

In Fig.3, still another embodiment of an optical electrostatic generator 20b is shown.  This generator is particularly suited for use with AC circuits.  In this embodiment, the capacitor plates 30b and 32b have flanges 54 and 56 which extend outwards towards the envelope 36.  While the utilisation of the optical electrostatic generator has been described in use in a fluorescent lighting circuit, it is to be understood that many other types of circuits may be used.  For example, the high-voltage embodiment may be used in a variety of circuits such as flash lamps, high-speed controls, laser beams and high-energy pulses.  The generator is also particularly usable in a circuit including electrostatic particle precipitation in air pollution control devices, chemical synthesis in electrical discharge systems such as ozone generators and charging means for high-voltage generators of the Van de Graff type, as well as particle accelerators.  To those skilled in the art, many other uses and circuits will be apparent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAROLD COLMAN & RONALD SEDDON-GILLESPIE: 70-YEAR BATTERY

 

Patent  GB 763,062        5th December 1956     Inventors: Harold Colman and Ronald Seddon-Gillespie

 

 

APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING AN ELECTRIC CURRENT

 

 

This patent shows the details of a lightweight device which can produce electricity using a self-powered electromagnet and chemical salts.  The working life of the device before needing a recharge is estimated at some seventy years.  The operation is controlled by a transmitter which bombards the chemical sample with 300 MHz radio waves.  This produces radioactive emissions from the chemical mixture for a period of one hour maximum, so the transmitter needs to be run for fifteen to thirty seconds once every hour.  The chemical mixture is shielded by a lead screen to prevent harmful radiation reaching the user.  The output from the tiny device described is estimated to be some 10 amps at 100 to 110 volts DC.

 

 

DESCRIPTION

This invention relates to a new apparatus for producing electric current the apparatus being in the form of a completely novel secondary battery.  The object of this invention is to provide apparatus of the above kind which is considerably lighter in weight than, and has an infinitely greater life than a known battery or similar characteristics and which can be re-activated as and when required in a minimum of time.

 

According to the present invention we provide apparatus comprising a generator unit which includes a magnet, a means for suspending a chemical mixture in the magnetic field, the mixture being composed of elements whose nuclei becomes unstable as a result of bombardment by short waves so that the elements become radio-active and release electrical energy, the mixture being mounted between, and in contact with, a pair of different metals such as copper and zinc, a capacitor mounted between those metals, a terminal electrically connected to each of the metals, means for conveying the waves to the mixture and a lead shield surrounding the mixture to prevent harmful radiation from the mixture.

 

The mixture is preferably composed of the elements Cadmium, Phosphorus and Cobalt having Atomic Weights of 112, 31 and 59 respectively.  The mixture, which may be of powdered form, is mounted in a tube of non-conducting, high heat resistivity material and is compressed between granulated zinc at one end of the tube and granulated copper at the other end, the ends of the tube being closed by brass caps and the tube being carried in a suitable cradle so that it is located between the poles of the magnet.  The magnet is preferably an electro-magnet and is energised by the current produced by the unit.

 

The means for conveying the waves to the mixture may be a pair of antennae which are exactly similar to the antennae of the transmitter unit for producing the waves, each antenna projecting from and being secured to the brass cap at each end of the tube.

 

The transmitter unit which is used for activating the generator unit may be of any conventional type operating on ultra-shortwave and is preferably crystal controlled at the desired frequency.

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

 

 

Fig.1 is a side elevation of one form of the apparatus.

 

 

 

Fig.2 is a view is an end elevation

 

 

 

Fig.3 is a schematic circuit diagram.

 

In the form of our invention illustrated, the generator unit comprises a base 10 upon which the various components are mounted.  This base 10, having projecting upwards from it a pair of arms 11, which form a cradle housing 12 for a quartz tube 13, the cradle 12 preferably being made of spring material so that the tube 13 is firmly, yet removably held in position.  The arms 11 are positioned relative to the poles 14 of an electromagnet 15 so that the tube 13 is located immediately between the poles of the magnet so as to be in the strongest magnetic field created by the electromagnet.  The magnet serves to control the alpha and beta rays emitted by the cartridge when it is in operation.

 

The ends of the quartz tube 13 are each provided with a brass cap 16, and these caps 16 are adapted to engage within the spring cradles 12 and the coils 17 associated with the magnet being so arranged that if the base 10 of the unit is in a horizontal plane, the poles 14 of the magnet are in a substantially vertical plane.

 

Also connected across the cradles is a lead capacitor 18 which may conveniently be housed in the base 10 of the unit and connected in parallel with this capacitor 18 is a suitable high frequency inductance coil 19.  The unit is provided with a lead shield 20 so as to prevent harmful radiation from the quartz tube as will be described later.

 

The quartz tube 13 has mounted in it, at one end, a quantity of granulated copper which is in electrical contact with the brass cap 16 at that end of the tube.  Also mounted within the tube and in contact with the granulated copper is a chemical mixture which is in powdered form and which is capable of releasing electrical energy and which becomes radioactive when subjected to bombardment by ultra-short radio waves.

 

Mounted in the other end of the tube, and in contact with the other end of the powdered chemical mixture is a quantity of granulated zinc which is itself in contact with the brass cap on this end of the tube, the arrangement being that the chemical mixture is compressed between the granulated copper and the granulated zinc.

 

Projecting outwards from each brass cap 16, and electrically connected to them, is an antenna 21.  Each antenna 21 corresponding exactly in dimension, shape and electrical characteristics to the antenna associated with a transmitter unit which is to produce the ultra shortwaves mentioned earlier.

 

The electromagnet 15 is conveniently carried by a centrally positioned pillar 22 which is secured to the base 10.  At the upper end of pillar 22 there is a cross-bar 23, which has the high frequency coil 19 attached to one end of it.  The other end of the cross-bar 23 is bent around into the curved shape as shown at 24 and is adapted to bear against a curved portion 25 of the base 26 of the electromagnet 15.  A suitable locking device is provided for holding the curved portions 24 and 25 in the desired angular position, so that the position of the poles 14 of the electromagnet can be adjusted about the axis of the quartz tube 13.

 

The transmitter unit is of any suitable conventional type for producing ultra shortwaves and may be crystal controlled to ensure that it operates at the desired frequency with the necessity of tuning.  If the transmitter is only required to operate over a short range, it may conveniently be battery powered but if it is to operate over a greater range, then it may be operated from a suitable electrical supply such as the mains.  If the transmitter is to be tuned, then the tuning may be operated by a dial provided with a micrometer vernier scale so that the necessary tuning accuracy may be achieved.

 

The mixture which is contained within the quartz tube is composed of the elements Cadmium, Phosphorus and Cobalt, having atomic weights 112, 31 and 59 respectively.  Conveniently, these elements may be present in the following compounds, and where the tube is to contain thirty milligrams of the mixture, the compounds and their proportions by weight are:

 

1 Part of Co (No3) 2 6H2O

2 Parts of CdCl2

3 Parts of 3Ca (Po3) 2 + 10C.

 

The cartridge which consists of the tube 13 with the chemical mixture in it is preferably composed of a number of small cells built up in series.  In other words, considering the cartridge from one end to the other, at one end and in contact with the brass cap, there would be a layer of powdered copper, then a layer of the chemical mixture, then a layer of powdered zinc, a layer of powdered copper, etc. with a layer of powdered zinc in contact with the brass cap at the other end of the cartridge.  With a cartridge some forty five millimetres long and five millimetres diameter, some fourteen cells may be included.

 

The cradles 12 in which the brass caps 16 engage, may themselves form terminals from which the output of the unit may be taken.  Alternatively, a pair of terminals 27 may be connected across the cradles 12, these terminals 27 being themselves provided with suitable antennae 28, which correspond exactly in dimensions, shape and electrical characteristics to the antennae associated with the transmitter, these antennae 28, replacing the antennae 21.

 

In operation with the quartz tube containing the above mixture located between the granulated copper and the granulated zinc and with the tube itself in position between the poles of the magnet, the transmitter is switched on and the ultra shortwaves coming from it are received by the antennae mounted at each end of the tube and in contact with the copper and zinc respectively, the waves being thus passed through the copper and zinc and through the mixture so that the mixture is bombarded by the short waves and the Cadmium, Phosphorus and Cobalt associated with the mixture become radioactive and release electrical energy which is transmitted to the granulated copper and granulated zinc, causing a current to flow between them in a similar manner to the current flow produced by a thermo couple.  It has been established that with a mixture having the above composition, the optimum release of energy is obtained when the transmitter is operating at a frequency of 300 MHz.

 

The provision of a quartz tube is necessary for the mixture evolves a considerable amount of heat while it is reacting to the bombardment of the short waves.  It is found that the tube will only last for one hour and that the tube will become discharged after an hours operation, that is to say, the radioactiveness of the tube will only last for one hour and it is therefore necessary, if the unit is to be run continuously, for the transmitter to be operated for a period of some fifteen to thirty seconds duration once every hour.

 

With a quartz tube having an overall length of some forty five millimetres and an inside diameter of five millimetres and containing thirty milligrams of the chemical mixture, the estimated energy which will be given off from the tube for a discharge of one hour, is 10 amps at between 100 and 110 volts.  To enable the tube to give off this discharge, it is only necessary to operate the transmitter at the desired frequency for a period of some fifteen to thirty seconds duration.

 

The current which is given off by the tube during its discharge is in the form of direct current.  During the discharge from the tube, harmful radiations are emitted in the form of gamma rays, alpha rays and beta rays and it is therefore necessary to mount the unit within a lead shield to prevent the harmful radiations from affecting personnel and objects in the vicinity of the unit.  The alpha and beta rays which are emitted from the cartridge when it is in operation are controlled by the magnet.

 

When the unit is connected up to some apparatus which is to be powered by it, it is necessary to provide suitable fuses to guard against the cartridge being short-circuited which could cause the cartridge to explode.

 

The estimated weight of such a unit including the necessary shielding, per kilowatt hour output, is approximately 25% of any known standard type of accumulator which is in use today and it is estimated that the life of the chemical mixture is probably in the region of seventy to eighty years when under constant use.

 

It will thus be seen that we have provided a novel form of apparatus for producing an electric current, which is considerably lighter than the standard type of accumulator at present known, and which has an infinitely greater life than the standard type of accumulator, and which can be recharged or reactivated as and when desired and from a remote position depending on the power output of the transmitter.  Such form of battery has many applications.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

JONG-SOK AN: NO-LOAD GENERATOR

 

Patent US 6,208,061               27th March 2001                 Inventor: Jong-Sok An

 

NO-LOAD GENERATOR

 

 

Electrical power is frequently generated by spinning the shaft of a generator which has some arrangement of coils and magnets contained within it.  The problem is that when current is drawn from the take-off coils of a typical generator, it becomes much more difficult to spin the generator shaft.  The cunning design shown in this patent overcomes this problem with a simple design in which the effort required to turn the shaft is not altered by the current drawn from the generator.

 

 

ABSTRACT

A generator of the present invention is formed of ring permanent magnet trains 2 and 2' attached and fixed on to two orbits 1 and 1' about a rotational axis 3, magnetic induction primary cores 4 and 4' attached and fixed above outer peripheral surfaces of the ring permanent magnet trains 2 and 2' at a predetermined distance from the outer peripheral surfaces, magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5' attached and fixed on to the magnetic induction primary cores 4 and 4' and each having two coupling, holes 6 and 6' formed therein, tertiary cores 8 and 8' inserted for coupling respectively into two coupling holes 6 and 6' of each of the associated magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5' opposite to each other, and responsive coils 7 and 7'.  The ring permanent magnetic trains 2 and 2' are formed of 8 sets of magnets with alternating N and S poles, and magnets associated with each other in the axial direction have opposite polarities respectively and form a pair.

 

 

DESCRIPTION

 

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to generators, and particularly to a load-free generator which can maximise the generator efficiency by erasing or eliminating the secondary repulsive load exerted on the rotor during electric power generation.

 

 

BACKGROUND ART

The generator is a machine which converts mechanical energy obtained from sources of various types of energy such as physical, chemical or nuclear power energy, for example, into electric energy. Generators based on linear motion have recently been developed while most generators are structured as rotational type generators. Generation of electromotive force by electromagnetic induction is a common principle to generators regardless of their size or whether the generator is AC or DC generator.

 

The generator requires a strong magnet such as permanent magnet and electromagnet for generating magnetic field as well as a conductor for generating the electromotive force, and the generator is structured to enable one of them to rotate relative to the other. Depending on which of the magnet and the conductor rotates, generators can be classified into rotating-field type generators in which the magnetic field rotates and rotating-armature type generators in which the conductor rotates.

 

Although the permanent magnet can be used for generating the magnetic field, the electromagnet is generally employed which is formed of a magnetic field coil wound around a core to allow direct current to flow through them. Even if a strong magnet is used to enhance the rotational speed, usually the electromotive force produced from one conductor is not so great. Thus, in a generally employed system, a large number of conductors are provided in the generator and the electromotive forces generated from respective conductare serially added up so as to achieve a high electric power.

 

As discussed above, a usual generator produces electricity by mechanically rotating a magnet (or permanent magnet) or a conductor (electromagnet, electrically responsive coil and the like) while reverse current generated at this time by magnetic induction (electromagnetic induction) and flowing through the coil causes magnetic force which pulls the rotor so that the rotor itself is subjected to unnecessary load which reaches at least twice the electric power production.

 

 

Fig.6 illustrates that the load as discussed above is exerted on a rotor in a rotating-field type generator mentioned above.

 

Referring to Fig.6, a permanent magnet train 104 is arranged about an axis of rotation 106 such that N poles and S poles are alternately located on the outer peripheral surface of the train. At a certain distance outward from the outer periphery of permanent magnet train 104, a magnetic induction core 100 is arranged and a coil 102 is wound around magnetic induction core 100.

 

As permanent magnet train 104 rotates, the magnetic field produced in the coil by permanent magnet train 104 changes to cause induced current to flow through coil 102. This induced current allows coil 102 to generate a magnetic field 110 which causes a repulsive force exerted on permanent magnet train 104 in the direction which interferes the rotation of the magnet train.

 

For example, in the example shown in Fig.6, the S pole of magnetic field 110 faces permanent magnet train 104. The S pole of permanent magnet train 104 approaches coil 102 because of rotation of permanent magnet train 104, resulting in the repulsive force as described above.

 

If reverse current flows in a responsive coil of an armature wound around a magnetic induction core of a generator so that the resulting load hinders the rotor from rotating, reverse magnetic field of the armature responsive coil becomes stronger in proportion to the electricity output and accordingly a load corresponding to at least twice the instantaneous consumption could occur.

 

If electric power of 100W is used, for example, reverse magnetic field of at least 200W is generated so that an enormous amount of load affects the rotor to interfere the rotation of the rotor.

 

All of the conventional generators are subjected to not only a mechanical primary load, i.e. the load when the electric power is not consumed but a secondary load due to reverse current which is proportional to electric power consumption and consequently subjected to a load of at least twice the instantaneous consumption.

 

Such an amount of the load is a main factor of reduction of the electric power production efficiency, and solution of the problem above has been needed.

 

 

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION

One object of the present invention is to provide a generator capable of generating electric power with high efficiency by cancelling out the secondary load except the mechanical load of the generator, i.e. cancelling out the load which is generated due to reverse current of a responsive coil of an armature wound around a magnetic induction core, so as to entirely prevent the secondary load from being exerted.

 

In short, the present invention is applied to a load-free generator including a rotational axis, a first ring magnet train, a second ring magnet train, a first plurality of first magnetic induction primary cores, a first plurality of second magnetic induction primary cores, a first responsive coil, and a second responsive coil.

 

The first ring magnet train has N poles and S poles successively arranged on an outer periphery of a first rotational orbit about the rotational axis. The second ring magnet train has magnets successively arranged on an outer periphery of a second rotational orbit about the rotational axis at a predetermined distance from the first rotational orbit such that the polarities of the magnets on the second rotational orbit are opposite to the polarities at opposite locations on the first rotational orbit respectively. The first plurality of first magnetic induction primary cores are fixed along a first peripheral surface of the first ring magnet train at a predetermined distance from the first peripheral surface. The first plurality of second magnetic induction primary cores are fixed along a second peripheral surface of the second ring magnet train at a predetermined distance from the second peripheral surface. A first plurality of first coupling magnetic induction cores and a first plurality of second coupling magnetic induction cores are provided in pairs to form a closed magnetic circuit between the first and second magnetic induction primary cores opposite to each other in the direction of the rotational axis. The first responsive coil is wound around the first coupling magnetic induction core. The second responsive coil is wound around the second coupling magnetic induction core, the direction of winding of the second responsive coil being reversed relative to the first responsive coil.

 

Preferably, in the load-free generator of the invention, the first ring magnet train includes a permanent magnet train arranged along the outer periphery of the first rotational orbit, and the second ring magnet train includes a permanent magnet train arranged along the outer periphery of the second rotational orbit.

 

Still preferably, the load-free generator of the present invention further includes a first plurality of first magnetic induction secondary cores provided on respective outer peripheries of the first magnetic induction primary cores and each having first and second coupling holes, and a first plurality of second magnetic induction secondary cores provided on respective outer peripheries of the second magnetic induction primary cores and each having third and fourth coupling holes. The first coupling magnetic induction cores are inserted into the first and third coupling holes to couple the first and second magnetic induction secondary cores, and the second coupling magnetic induction cores are inserted into the second and fourth coupling holes to couple the first and second magnetic induction secondary cores.

 

Alternatively, the load-free generator of the present invention preferably has a first plurality of first responsive coils arranged in the rotational direction about the rotational aids that are connected zigzag to each other and a first plurality of second responsive coils arranged in the rotational direction about the rotational axis that are connected zigzag to each other.

 

Alternatively, in the load-free generator of the present invention, preferably the first plurality is equal to 8, and the 8 first responsive coils arranged in the rotational direction about the rotational axis are connected zigzag to each other, and the 8 second responsive coils arranged in the rotational direction about the rotational axis are connected zigzag to each other.

 

Accordingly, a main advantage of the present invention is that two responsive coils wound respectively in opposite directions around a paired iron cores are connected to cancel reverse magnetic forces generated by reverse currents (induced currents) flowing through the two responsive coils, so that the secondary load which interferes the rotation of the rotor is totally prevented and thus a load-free generator can be provided which is subjected to just a load which is equal to or less than mechanical load when electric power production is not done, i.e. the rotational load even when the generator is operated to the maximum.

 

Another advantage of the present invention is that the reverse magnetic force, as found in the conventional generators, due to reverse current occurring when the rotor rotates is not generated, and accordingly load of energy except the primary gravity of the rotor and dynamic energy of the rotor is eliminated to increase the amount of electricity output relative to the conventional electric power generation system and thus enhance the electric power production and economic efficiency.

 

 

 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

 

Fig.1 is a cross sectional view of a rotating-field type generator according to an embodiment of the present invention illustrating an arrangement a permanent magnet, magnetic induction cores and coils.

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.2 is a partial schematic view illustrating a magnetic array of the permanent magnet rotor and an arrangement of one of magnetically responsive coils placed around that rotor in an embodiment of the present invention.

 

Fig.3 illustrates a structure of the magnetically responsive coils and cores in the embodiment of the present invention.

 

 

Fig.4 is an enlarged plan view of magnetically sensitive cores and coil portions of the load-free generator of the present invention illustrating magnetic flow therethrough.

 

 

Fig.5 is an exploded view about a central axis showing the interconnection of magnetic field coils which are respectively wound around tertiary cores surrounding the permanent magnet rotor in FIG. 1 according to the present invention.

 

 

 

Fig.6 illustrates generation of the secondary load in a conventional generator.

 

 

 

 

BEST MODES FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION

The structure and operation of a load-free generator according to the present invention are now described in conjunction with the drawings.

 

Fig.1 illustrates a cross sectional structure of the load-free generator of the invention perpendicular to a rotational axis 3.

 

Fig.2 partially illustrates a cross sectional structure of the load-free generator of the invention in parallel to rotational axis 3.  Specifically, in Fig.2, only one of eight sets of magnetic induction primary cores 4 and 4' arranged around rotational axis 3 as described below is representatively shown.

Referring to Fig.1 and Fig.2, the structure of the load-free generator of the invention is now described. Permanent magnet trains 2 and 2' in ring forms are attached and fixed to respective left and right orbits 1 and 1' provided relative to rotational axis 3 with a certain interval between them.  Permanent magnet trains 2 and 2' are fixed onto left and right orbits 1 and 1' respectively such that the polarities on the outer peripheral surface of each magnet train relative to the rotational axis are alternately N poles and S poles. The permanent magnet trains are rotatable about the axis. Further, the facing polarities of respective permanent magnet train 2 and permanent magnet train 2' relative to the direction of rotational axis 3 are arranged to be opposite.

 

As shown in Fig.2, rotational axis 3 and a case 9 are joined by a bearing 10 at a certain distance from the permanent magnet trains 2 and 2'.

 

At a predetermined distance from permanent magnet trains 2 and 2', magnetic induction primary cores 4 and 4' with respective coils wound around them are fixed to case 9.

 

In addition, magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5' each having two coupling holes 6 and 6' formed therein are structured by stacking and coupling a plurality of thin cores attached and fixed to magnetic induction primary cores 4 and 4' respectively and the secondary cores are attached and fixed to case 9.

 

Magnetic induction tertiary cores 8 and 8' are inserted respectively into coupling holes 6 and 6' of magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5' so as to couple magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5' of each other.

 

Responsive coils 7 and 7' are wound in opposite directions to each other around respective magnetic induction cores 8 and 8'.

 

Fig.3 illustrates a structure formed of magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5', magnetic induction cores 8 and 8' and responsive coils 7 and 7' viewed in the direction perpendicular to rotational axis 3.

 

As explained above, the directions of windings of responsive coils 7 and 7' are respectively opposite to each other around magnetic induction cores 8 and 8' which couple magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5'.

 

In the structure described in conjunction with Fig.1, Fig.2 and Fig.3, when rotational axis 3 of the generator rotates, permanent magnetic trains 2 and 2' accordingly rotate to generate magnetically sensitive currents (electromagnetically induced current) in responsive coils 7 and 7' and the current thus produced can be drawn out for use.

 

As shown in Fig.3, the coils are wound about magnetic induction cores 8 and 8' respectively in the opposite directions in the generator of the present invention, and the directions of the magnetic fields generated by the flow of the induced currents are arranged such that the N pole and S pole alternately occurs around rotational axis 3.

 

 

Fig.4 illustrates magnetic fields induced in a set of magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5', magnetic induction cores 8 and 8' and responsive coils 7 and 7'.

 

At iron strips on both ends of respective magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5', a reverse current magnetic field is generated by responsive coil 7 upon the rotation of N and S poles of permanent magnet trains 2 and 2' is in the direction of MA shown in Fig.4, for example, while a reverse current magnetic field generated by responsive coil 7 is in the direction of MB in Fig.4.  Consequently, the reverse magnetic fields generated by the flow of currents cancel each other. The cores are formed of a plurality of iron strips in order to eliminate heat generated by eddy currents.

 

The magnetic field of the rotor thus has no dependence on the flow of currents, the load caused by the induced magnetisation phenomenon disappears, and energy of movement necessary for rotation against the mechanical primary load of the rotor itself is applied to the rotor.

 

At this time, a magnetic circuit including magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5' and magnetic induction tertiary cores 8 and 8' should be shaped into ".quadrature." form. If the circuit does not structured as ".quadrature." form, a part of the reverse magnetic field functions as electrical force which hinders the rotational force of the rotor.

 

Further, permanent magnet trains 2 and 2' of the rotor are arranged to have opposite poles to each other on the left and right sides as shown in Fig.2 so as to constitute the flow of magnetic flux.  Each rotor has alternately arranged magnets, for example, eight poles are provided to enhance the generator efficiency.

 

More detailed description of the operational principle is given now. When the rotor in Fig.1 rotates once, S and N poles of permanent magnets 2 and 2' attached to the periphery of the rotor successively supply magnetic fields to induction primary cores 4 above, and magnetic field is accordingly generated in a path from one orbit of the rotor along induction primary core 4, induction secondary core 5, induction tertiary core 8, induction secondary core 5', induction primary core 4' to the other orbit of the rotor as shown in Fig.2.

 

Accordingly, current flows in the coils affected by this electric field to generate electric power. For example, if the generated power is used as generated output for switching on an electric light or for using it as motive energy, the current flowing through the coils generates the reverse magnetic fields. However, this reverse magnetic fields do not influence permanent magnets 2 and 2' attached to the rotor in Fig.2 since the reverse magnetic fields of the same magnitude respectively of S and N or N and S on both ends of magnetic induction secondary cores 5 and 5' cancel out each other as shown in Fig.4. Because of this, the rotor is in a no-load state in which any resistance except the weight of the rotor itself and dynamic resistance is not exerted on the rotor.

 

Fig.5 illustrates a manner of connecting magnetically responsive coils 7 and 7' wound around magnetic induction tertiary cores 8 and 8' with eight poles.

 

Referring to Fig.5, according to a method of connecting magnetically responsive coils 7 and 7' , line 1a1 of responsive coil 7' (one drawn-out line of the wire coiled around a first magnetic induction core 8) is connected to line 1a2' (one drawn-out line of the wire coiled around a second magnetic induction core 8), and then line 1a2 (the other drawn-out line of the wire coiled around a second magnetic induction core 8) is connected to line 1a3', and subsequently lines 1a and 1a' are connected successively in zigzag manner to allow current to flow.  Further, responsive coil 7 is arranged to connect lines represented by 1b1 in zigzag manner such that lines 1b and 1b' are successively connected.  In this way, lines 1b, 1b' and lines 1a and 1a' of respective magnetically responsive coils 7 and 7' are connected.  As a whole, total four electric wires are drawn out for use.