Juan Aguero’s Water-Fuel Engine

 

Patent Application EP0405919    1st February 1991     Inventor: Juan C. Aguero

 

WATER-PROPELLED INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE SYSTEM

 

 

Please note that this is a re-worded excerpt from this patent application. It describes a method which it is claimed is capable of operating an internal combustion engine from a mixture of steam and hydrogen gas.

 

ABSTRACT

This is an energy-transforming system for driving, for instance, an internal combustion engine which uses hydrogen gas as its fuel. The gas is obtained by electrolysing water on board and is then injected into the combustion chambers. The electrolysis is carried out in an electrolytic tank 15, energised with electric current generated by the engine.  The hydrogen passes from a reservoir 23, via collector cylinder 29, to carburettor device 39.  The hydrogen is then fed into the engine together with dry saturated steam and at least part of the hydrogen may be heated 51 prior to admission.  A cooler and more controlled combustion is achieved with the steam and furthermore relatively lesser amounts of hydrogen are required.  This is probably caused by the steam acting as a temperature moderator during admission and combustion of the hydrogen and additionally expanding during the expansion stroke.

 


FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention refers to energy-converter systems, in particular related to an internal combustion engine fuelled by hydrogen gas, i.e. wherein the main propellant admitted to the combustion chambers is hydrogen.  More particularly still, the present invention refers to method and means for obtaining hydrogen gas in an efficient and reasonably economical manner, and for supplying the gas to the combustion chambers under conditions for controlled ignition and optimum energy conversion.  The present invention also refers to means and method for running an internal-combustion engine system from an available, cheap and non-contaminant hydrogen containing matter such as water as a fuel supply.

 
In general, the invention may find application in any system employing internal combustion principles, ranging from large installations such as electricity works to relatively smaller automobile systems like locomotives, lorries, motor-cars, ships and motor-boats.  In the ensuing description, the invention is generally disclosed for application in the automotive field, however its adaptation and application in other fields may also be considered to be within the purview of the present invention.



BACKGROUND
Dwindling natural resources, dangerous contamination levels, increasing prices and unreliable dependence on other countries are making it increasingly necessary to search an alternative to fossil fuels like oil (hydrocarbons) and oil derivatives as the primary energy source in automobiles.  To date, none of the attempted alternatives appears to have proved its worth as a substitute for petrol, either because of inherent drawbacks as to contamination, safety, cost, etc. or because man has not yet been able to find a practical way of applying the alternative energy forms to domestic motor cars.


For instance, electricity is a good alternative in the ecological sense, both chemically and acoustically, however it appears to be the least efficient form of energy known, which together with the high cost of manufacture of electric motors and the severe storage limitations insofar capacity and size have stopped it from coming into the market at least for the time being.  The same is generally true even when solar energy is concerned.


Nuclear power is efficient, available and relatively cheap, but extremely perilous.  Synthetic fuels may certainly be the answer in the future, however it appears that none practical enough have been developed. Use of gases such as methane or propane, or of alcohol distilled from sugar cane, has also been tried, but for one reason or another its marketing has been limited to small regions.  Methanol for instance is a promising synthetic fuel, but it is extremely difficult to ignite in cold weather and has a low energy content (about half that of petrol).


The use of hydrogen gas as a substitute for petrol has been experimented lately. The chemistry investigator Derek P. Gregory is cited as believing that hydrogen is the ideal fuel in not just one sense. Hydrogen combustion produces steam as its only residue, a decisive advantage over contaminating conventional fuels such as petrol and coal.  Unfortunately, hydrogen hardly exists on earth in its natural free form but only combined in chemical compounds, from which it must be extracted using complicated, expensive and often hazardous industrial processes.  In addition, if this obstacle were overcome, it would still be necessary to transport and store the hydrogen in service stations and moreover find a safe and practical way of loading and storing it in motor vehicles.  Mercedes-Benz for one is experimenting with a vehicle equipped with a special tank for storing hydrogen gas and means for supplying the gas to the injection system, instead of the conventional petrol tank and circuit, without however yet achieving a satisfactory degree of safety and cost-efficiency.  The use of dry hydrogen gas as a propellant has heretofore been found to produce a generally uncontrolled ignition, a large temperature excursion upwards which proved too destructive for the chamber walls.  The engine life was limited to less than 10,000 km (about 6,000 miles).



DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION

The invention is based on the discovery of an energy-converter system to run an internal combustion engine and particularly is based on the discovery of a method and means for reliably, economically, safely and cleanly fuel an internal combustion engine with hydrogen, and obtaining the hydrogen in a usable form to this end from a cheap and plentifully available substance such as water. The hydrogen may be generated in optimum conditions to be fed into the engine.


According to the invention, hydrogen is obtained on board from a readily available hydrogenous source such as ionised water which is subjected to electrolysis, from whence the hydrogen is injected in each cylinder of the engine on the admission stroke.  The hydrogen gas is mixed with water vapour (steam at atmospheric temperature) and surrounding air, and when this mixture is ignited within the combustion chamber, the steam (vapour) seems to act as a temperature moderator first and then assist in the expansion stroke.  Preferably, the steam is dry saturated steam which, as a moderator, limits the maximum temperature of the combustion, thus helping to preserve the cylinder, valve and piston elements; and in assisting the expansion, the steam expands fast to contribute extra pressure on the piston head, increasing the mechanical output power of the engine.  In other words, the inclusion of steam in the hydrogen propellant as suggested by the present invention moderates the negative effects of hydrogen and enhances the positive effects thereof in the combustion cycle.


As a result of this discovery, the amount of hydrogen required to drive the engine is lower than was heretofore expected, hence the electrolysis need not produce more than 10 cc/sec (for example, for a 1,400 cc engine). Thus the amount of electricity required for the electrolysis, a stumbling block in earlier attempts, is lower, so much so, that on-board hydrogen production is now feasible.


The invention includes an apparatus comprising a first system for generating hydrogen and a second system for conditioning and supplying the hydrogen to the admission valves on the cylinder caps. The hydrogen-generating system basically consists of an electrolysis device which receives electrolitically adapted (i.e. at least partially ionised) water or some other suitable hydrogenous substance.  An electric power supply is connected to the electrodes of the electrolysis device for generating the hydrogen, and the electricity requirements and the device dimensions are designed for a maximum hydrogen output rate of about 10 cc/sec for a typical automotive application.


The second system comprises means such as a vacuum pump or the like to draw out the hydrogen from the first system, means for supplying the hydrogen gas to the admission valves, means for conditioning the moisture content of the hydrogen, carburettor means or the like for mixing the hydrogen with atmospheric air or some other combustion enabling substance, and means to control and maintain a specified gas pressure valve or range for the hydrogen supplied to the mixing means.


The apparatus was tested and worked surprisingly well. It was discovered that this seemed to be the result of the steam content in the electrolytic hydrogen gas overcoming the pitfalls encountered in the prior art systems which injected relatively dry gas into the cylinder chambers, or at the most with a relatively small proportion of humidity coming from the air itself.


In the preferred embodiment, the electrolysis system is driven with a pulsed DC power signal of up to 80 Amps at between 75 and 100 Volts.  The electrolyte is distilled water salted with sodium chloride with a concentration of about 30 grams of salt per litre of water, to 150 grams of salt in 10 litres of water.  Other concentrations are possible depending on the kind of engine, fuel and electricity consumption etc. The maximum rate of hydrogen production required for a typical domestic car engine has been estimated at 10 cc/sec.  This hydrogen is drawn out by a pump generating a pressure head of around 2 Kg/cm2 to feed the generated steam-containing hydrogen to a receptacle provided with means for removing the undesired excess of moisture from the gas.  The gas is thus mixed with the desired content of steam when it enters the carburettor or mixing device.


In the event that the generated hydrogen does not have enough steam content, dry saturated steam may be added to the hydrogen as it proceeds to the engine.  This may done conveniently, before it enters the carburettor and is mixed with the intake air.  Part of the gas may be shunted via a heat-exchanger serpentine connected to the exhaust manifold.   This heats some of the gas before it is injected into the base of the carburettor.  This heated gas injection operates like a supercharger.  The main unheated hydrogen stream is piped directly into the venturi system of the carburettor, where it mixes with air drawn in by the admission stroke vacuum.



BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Fig.1 is a schematic layout of the first and second systems and shows the electrolysis device for obtaining hydrogen, and the circuit means for injecting the steam-laden hydrogen into the combustion chambers of a car engine, according to one embodiment of this invention.

 


Figure 2 is an elevational view of the electrolysis device of figure 1.

 

 

 

DETAILED ACCOUNT OF AN EMBODIMENT

Fig.1 shows a system 11 for obtaining hydrogen front water piped from a reservoir or tank (not illustrated) to an inlet 13 of an electrolysis cell 15.  The water is salted by adding sodium chloride to ionise it and enable electrolysis when electric power is applied to a pair of terminals 17.  As disclosed in more detail later, the power applied to the terminals 17 is in the form of a DC pulse signal of 65 Amps at 87 Volts, generated via a suitable converter from, in the event that the present system is applied to an automobile, the standard automotive 12 Volt DC level.  The device 15 has various outlets, one of which is the hydrogen gas outlet 19 which is connected through a solenoid valve 21 to an accumulator or reservoir cylinder 23.  Other outlets of the electrolysis device 15 are for removing electrolysis effluents such as sodium hydroxide and chlorine gas, to which further reference is made below.


A vacuum pump 25 or similar, extracts gas from the reservoir 23 and channels it through a hydrogen circuit system 27.  Thus the reservoir 23 acts as a pressure buffer of a systems interface between the electrolysis device 15 and the pump 25.  The reservoir 23 may be a 2,000 cc capacity, stainless-steel cylinder with the valve 21 metering the passage of gas through it, so that the reservoir is initially filled with about 1,500 cc of hydrogen at normal pressure and temperature (NPT) conditions. To this end, the cylinder 23 may be provided with a gauge 28V which controls the state of valve 21 electronically.  Valve 21 may be a Jefferson Model SPS solenoid valve, available from OTASI, Santa Rosa 556, Córdoba, Argentina.    Vacuum pump 25 is a diaphragm pump with a pulley drive and it is coupled by means of a transmission belt to the engine's crankshaft output.   Such a device 25 may be a Bosch model available in Germany.  The pulley drive is decoupled by an electromagnetic clutch when the pressure read by a gauge 28P screwed into the outlet side of pump 25 exceeds 2Kg/sq. cm.


Pump 25 sends hydrogen through tubing 26, which also includes a by-pass 24 provided for inspection and safety purposes together with a two-way valve 28, and into a second cylinder 29 which contains means 31 which cause a turbulence or a labyrinthine movement in the gas, in order to condense the heavy mixture, schematically shown as droplets 32, present in the gas stream. The condensed mixture collects in the form of distilled water 33 at the bottom of cylinder 29.  Near the top of the cylinder, there is an outlet 35 through which hydrogen gas, laden with a good amount of steam, is transported to mixer 37.  Also at the top of collector cylinder 29, there is a temperature sensor 38 which is connected to an electronic digital thermometer circuit (not shown).


Mixer 37 comprises a carburettor device 39 for mixing hydrogen with air prior to feeding the mixture to the combustion chambers.  The hydrogen is piped through a 3/8" diameter tube 41 from dryer cylinder 29 and then into the venturi section 43 of the carburettor 39 through a pair of 5/16" diameter tubes or hydrogen injecting nozzles 45. The venturi section 43 is a section of the intake air passage which narrows to increase the air speed at the point where hydrogen is drawn out for mixing.  The venturi intake 42 may be covered by a mesh 46.  However, it appears that no air filter is needed for the mixer to operate well. The carburettor device 39 may be a simplified form of a conventional carburettor, since the propellant, i.e. hydrogen gas, is fed directly to the venturi 43.  A butterfly valve, or the like, connected to an accelerator pedal (not illustrated) of the motor-car, controls the air intake rate and therefore the speed of the engine. This mixer device 39 is mounted as is a conventional carburettor, such that its outlet at the bottom communicates with the admission valves in the cylinder caps.


At the bottom part of the carburettor there is a supplementary hydrogen intake 47 connected to another 3/8" diameter pipe 49 which shunts part of the hydrogen through a heater 51.  This heater comprises a serpentine tube 51 of a chromium/cobalt alloy, mounted in close heat-exchange relationship with the body of the exhaust manifold 50 (schematically illustrated) in order to add a portion of heated gas to the fuel mixture before it is drawn into the combustion chambers through the corresponding admission valves on the cylinder caps.  This pre-admission heating step, takes the hydrogen mixture to a near critical temperature for detonation. It has been found that this improves performance (e.g. the engine smoothness) at some speed ranges, and it works like a supercharger.


In practice, the engine of the present invention has shown a high efficiency when using three-electrode sparking plugs and an electronic ignition system (not illustrated).


Fig.2 shows the electrolysis cell 15 outlined in Fig.1 in more detail.  It is comprised of a rectangular prism reservoir 53 with a pair of spaced-apart vertical electrodes 55.  The reservoir may measure, for instance, 24 cm long by 20 cm wide and 28 cm high.  Both the anode and cathode 55 may each comprise double electrodes of carbon having a spacing between the electrodes 55 of the same polarity of about 10 cm. Alternatively, the anode 55A may be a ring made of carbon while the cathode 55C is an iron-mesh cylindrical electrode.  Each electrode 55 has a terminal 57 at the top for inputting electric power as mentioned earlier.  At each outer side of the electrodes 55 there is a porous membrane 59 made from a sheet of amianto (asbestos) for holding the water solution 61 in whilst at the same time letting the electrolysis products, i.e. hydrogen and oxygen, pass through.  Thus, the hydrogen gas passes through the membrane 59 into a gas collector chamber 56 and exits out through pipe 19 to fuel the combustion engine.  The hydrogen pipe 19 may have a proportioning valve 62 for regulating the flow of hydrogen.  The oxygen on the other hand may be vented out into the atmosphere through an outlet 63.


There is a heater element 64, immersed in the salted water 61 fed through a resistor connected to a 12 Volt DC supply.   This heats the water to about 85 degrees C (185 degrees F) to enhance the galvanic action of the electrolysis current on the aqueous solution 61.  A thermostat with a solid state silicon thermal sensor may be used to control the water temperature via a threshold comparator driving a relay which controls the current in the heater element 64.


The electrolysis of the heated salted water solution 61 further produces, as effluents, chlorine gas (Cl2) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH).  The chlorine gas may be vented through an opening 65 at the top of the reservoir 53 or else stored in an appropriate disposal tank (not shown).  The sodium hydroxide precipitates and may be removed periodically through tap 67 at the bottom of the electrolysis cell.


It is important to note that the practice of the present invention requires practically no modifications in the engine itself.  That is, existing petrol engines may be used with hardly any adjustments.  Ignition is initiated at the dead top of the compression stroke or with a 1.5 degree lag at the most, and it has been found convenient to widen the gaps of the admission and exhaust valve pushers and use tri-electrode spark plugs.  However it is advisable to use some rust-resistant compound such as plastics for the exhaust pipe and silencer, bearing in mind that the combustion residue is hot steam.


Fig.1 also shows schematically, the electric power supply 71 connected to the terminals 17 of the cube 15.   Electrical current is obtained at 12 volt DC from the car battery/alternator system 73 and processed by an inverter device 75 for generating DC pulses of 65 Amps at 87 Volts. Pulse energisation of the electrolysis appears to maximise the ratio of hydrogen output rate to electric power input.

 

 

CLAIMS
1. A method of providing propellant to an internal combustion engine wherein combustion is fuelled on the basis of hydrogen gas admitted into at least one combustion chamber of the engine during the intake stroke, characterised in that the hydrogen is injected into the combustion chamber together with vapour.


2. The method of claim 1, characterised in that the surrounding air enters the combustion chamber, together with the hydrogen and vapour.


3. The method of claim 2, characterised in that the hydrogen gas is obtained from water which is continuously subjected to electrolysis energised by the engine.


4. The method of claim 2 or 3, characterised in that the hydrogen is generated at a rate of not more than 10 cc/sec.


5. The method of any of the preceding claims, characterised in that the engine drives a motor-car.


6. The method of any of preceding claims, characterised in that the vapour is added to the hydrogen prior to entering the combustion chamber.


7. The method of any of claims 1 to 5, characterised in that the vapour is contained in the hydrogen when generated.


8. The method of any of the preceding claims, characterised in that the vapour is dry saturated steam.


9. A method of driving a internal combustion engine with water as its primary source of energy, characterised by the steps of subjecting the water to hydrolysis thereby producing gaseous hydrogen, and
controllably supplying the hydrogen produced by the hydrolysis to the engine combustion chambers during the admission stroke of each cylinder together with a proportion of steam.


10. The method of claim 9, characterised in that the steam is dry saturated steam.


11. The method of any of claims 9 or 10, characterised in that the hydrolysis driven by electric power to produce not more than 10 cc/sec of the hydrogen gas.


12. The method of any of claims 9 to 11, characterised in that the engine drives a motor-car including a water tank as its main propellant supply.


13. The method of any of claims 9 to 12, characterised in that at least part of the hydrogen is heated before injecting it into the chamber.


14. The method of any claims of 9 to 13, characterised in that steam is obtained together with the hydrogen gas from the electrolysis and then subjected to a drying cycle up to a predetermined point of saturation before being passed into the chambers.


15. The method of claim 11, characterised in that the hydrolysis means is supplied with about 5 kW pulsed electrical power.


16.A method of injecting propellant into an hydrogen-driven internal combustion engine cylinder during the admission stroke thereof, characterised in that dry steam is passed into said cylinder during the intake stroke to moderate temperature generation of the hydrogen ignition and enhance expansion after ignition has begun to increase the power of the pistons.


17. A method of obtaining hydrogen capable of being used to fuel an internal combustion engine, characterised by dissociating hydrogen gas from a hydrogenous compound, and admitting the hydrogen gas into each cylinder of said engine together with an amount of dry steam.


18. The method of claim 17, characterised in that the hydrogen gas is admitted to the engine cylinders at a rate of not more than 10 cc/sec.


19. The method of claim 17 or 18, characterised in that the compound is slightly salted water and the steam is saturated steam.


20. A system for obtaining and providing hydrogen propellant to an internal combustion engine including at least one cylinder containing a piston which is subjected to successive combustion cycles and injection means for admitting fuel into the cylinder on the intake or admission stroke of the cycle, characterised by comprising: fuel source means for containing a hydrogenous compound, electrolysis means (15) having at least one pair of electrodes (55) for receiving electric power and intake means (13) connected to the source for supplying the compound to the electrolysis means, a means (27, 37) for extracting hydrogen gas from one of the electrodes and supplying it to the cylinder injection means, and control means (25, 28, 29) for controlling the supply of hydrogen gas to the cylinder injection means whereby the rate of gas consumption in the engine is not more than 10 cc/sec.


21. The system of claim 20, characterised in that the means supplying hydrogen gas to the cylinder injection means further include means (37) for mixing said hydrogen gas with steam.


22. The system of claim 20 or 21, characterised in that the compound is water and the source means includes a water tank, the water including salt to facilitate electrolysis.


23. The system of claim 20, 21 or 22, characterised in that the control means include means (29) for removing the excessive moisture from the hydrogen gas extracted from the hydrolysis means.


24. The system of any of claims 20 to 23, characterised in that the electrolysis means is energised by the engine.


25. An internal combustion engine operating on hydrogen and having a water tank as its primary source of combustion fuel, a cylinder block containing at least one cylinder chamber, each chamber, having an associated piston, fuel intake means, ignition means, and exhaust means, and crankshaft means coupled to be driven by the pistons for providing mechanical output power from the engine, and characterised by further comprising: electrolysis means (15) connected to the water tank for electrolysing water to obtain hydrogen, electrical means (17) connected to supply electric power to at least one pair of electrodes (55) of the electrolysis means for carrying out the electrolysis of the water, and hydrogen circuit means (27) for extracting the hydrogen gas from the electrolysis means and passing it onto said intake means in a manner enabling controlled ignition and expansion of the fuel in the chamber.


26. The engine of claim 25, characterised in that said hydrogen circuit means passes hydrogen gas to the intake means at a rate of not more than 10 cc/sec.


27. The engine of claim 25 or 26, characterised by further comprising means for adding steam into each chamber before ignition of the hydrogen.


28. The engine of claim 27, characterised in that the steam adder means comprises means (25) for extracting steam from the electrolysis means, and means (29) for subjecting said steam to a drying process up to a pre-determined point.


29. The engine of any of claims 25 to 28, characterised by further comprising means (49, 51) for heating at least part of the hydrogen gas before it is passed into the chambers.


30. The engine of claim 29, characterised in that said heating means is a serpentine (51) inserted in a shunt (49) of the hydrogen circuit means and mounted in heat-exchange relationship on a manifold exhaust of the engine.


31. The engine of any of claims 25 to 30, characterised in that said electrical means include pulse generator means for supplying electrical pulses to said at least one pair of electrodes.


32. The engine of claim 31, characterised in that said pulse generator means supplies electrical DC pulses of between 50 and 75 Amps at between 60 and 100 Volts.


33. The engine of any of claims 25 to 32, characterised in that said hydrogen circuit means includes drying means (33) for removing excess moisture from the hydrogen extracted from the electrolysis means.


34. The engine of any of claims 25 to 33, characterised in that said crankshaft means drives a water-fuelled automobile.


35. The engine of any of claims 25 to 34, characterised in that the electrolysis means is driven by electricity derived from the engine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The HHO Fuel System of Stephen Horvath

 

US Patent 3,980,053        14th September 1976          Inventor: Stephen Horvath

 

FUEL SUPPLY APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

 

 

Please note that this is a re-worded excerpt from this patent.  It describes the water-splitting procedure of Stephen Horvath.

 


ABSTRACT

A fuel supply apparatus generates hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis of water. There is provided an electrolytic cell which has a circular anode surrounded by a cathode with a porous membrane between them.  The anode is fluted and the cathode is slotted to provide anode and cathode areas of substantially equal surface area.  A pulsed electrical current is provided between the anode and cathode for the efficient generation of hydrogen and oxygen.

 

The electrolytic cell is equipped with a float, which detects the level of electrolyte within the cell, and water is added to the cell as needed to replace the water lost through the electrolysis process. The hydrogen and oxygen are collected in chambers which are an integral part of the electrolytic cell, and these two gases are supplied to a mixing chamber where they are mixed in the ratio of two parts hydrogen to one part oxygen. This mixture of hydrogen and oxygen flows to another mixing chamber wherein it is mixed with air from the atmosphere.

 

The system is disclosed as being installed in an car, and a dual control system, which is actuated by the car throttle, first meters the hydrogen and oxygen mixture into the chamber wherein it is combined with air and then meters the combined mixture into the car engine. The heat of combustion of a pure hydrogen and oxygen mixture is greater than that of a gasoline and air mixture of comparable volume, and air is therefore mixed with the hydrogen and oxygen to produce a composite mixture which has a heat of combustion approximating that of a normal gas-air mixture. This composite mixture of air, hydrogen and oxygen then can be supplied directly to a conventional internal combustion engine without overheating and without creation of a vacuum in the system.

 

 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to internal combustion engines. More particularly it is concerned with a fuel supply apparatus by means of which an internal combustion engine can be run on a fuel comprised of hydrogen and oxygen gases generated on demand by electrolysis of water.


In electrolysis a potential difference is applied between an anode and a cathode in contact with an electrolytic conductor to produce an electric current through the electrolytic conductor. Many molten salts and hydroxides are electrolytic conductors but usually the conductor is a solution of a substance which dissociates in the solution to form ions. The term "electrolyte" will be used herein to refer to a substance which dissociates into ions, at least to some extent, when dissolved in a suitable solvent. The resulting solution will be referred to as an "electrolyte solution".


Faraday's Laws of Electrolysis provide that in any electrolysis process the mass of substance liberated at an anode or cathode is in accordance with the formula


m = z q


where m is the mass of substance liberated in grams, z is the electrochemical equivalent of the substance, and q is the quantity of electricity passed, in coulombs. An important consequence of Faraday's Laws is that the rate of decomposition of an electrolyte is dependent on current and is independent of voltage. For example, in a conventional electrolysis process in which a constant current I amps flows to t seconds, q = It and the mass of material deposited or dissolved will depend on I regardless of voltage, provided that the voltage exceeds the minimum necessary for the electrolysis to proceed. For most electrolytes, the minimum voltage is very low.


There have been previous proposals to run internal combustion engines on a fuel comprised of hydrogen gas. Examples of such proposals are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 1,275,481, 2,183,674 and 3,471,274 and British specifications Nos., 353,570 and 364,179. It has further been proposed to derive the hydrogen from electrolysis of water, as exemplified by U.S. Pat. No. 1,380,183. However, none of the prior art constructions is capable of producing hydrogen at a rate such that it can be fed directly to internal combustion engines without intermediate storage. The present invention enables a fuel comprised of hydrogen and oxygen gases to be generated by electrolysis of water at such a rate that it can sustain operation of an internal combustion engine. It achieves this result by use of an improved electrolysis process of the type generally proposed in the parent application hereof.


As disclosed in my aforesaid parent application the prior art also shows electrolytic reactions employing DC or rectified AC which necessarily will have a ripple component; an example of the former being shown for instance in Kilgus U.S. Pat. No. 2,016,442 and an example of the latter being shown in Emich al. U.S. Pat. No. 3,485,742. It will be noted that the Kilgus Patent also discloses the application of a magnetic field to his electrolyte, which field is said to increase the production of gas at the two electrodes.



SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The apparatus of the invention applies a pulsating current to an electrolytic solution of an electrolyte in water. Specifically, it enables high pulses of quite high current value and appropriately low voltage to be generated in the electrolyte solution by a direct input supply to produce a yield of electrolysis products such that these products may be fed directly to the internal combustion engine. The pulsating current generated by the apparatus of the present invention is to be distinguished from normal variations which occur in rectification of AC current and as hereinafter employed the term pulsed current will be taken to mean current having a duty cycle of less than 0.5.


It is a specific object of this invention to provide a fuel supply apparatus for an internal combustion engine by which hydrogen and oxygen gases generated by electrolysis of water are mixed together and fed directly to the internal combustion engine.


A still further object of the invention is to provide, for use with an internal combustion engine having inlet means to receive a combustible fuel, fuel supply apparatus comprising:


a vessel to hold an electrolyte solution of electrolyte dissolved in water;


an anode and a cathode to contact the electrolyte solution within the vessel;


electrical supply means to apply between said diode and said cathode pulses of electrical energy to induce a pulsating current in the electrolyte solution thereby to generate by electrolysis hydrogen gas at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode;


gas collection and delivery means to collect the hydrogen and oxygen gases and to direct them to the engine inlet means; and


water admission means for admission of water to said vessel to make up loss due to electrolysis.


In order that the invention may be more fully explained one particular example of an car internal combustion engine fitted with fuel supply apparatus in accordance with the invention will now be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.

 


BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Fig.1 is a plan view of part of the car with its engine bay exposed to show the layout of the fuel supply apparatus and the manner in which it is connected to the car engine;

 


Fig.2 is a circuit diagram of the fuel supply apparatus;

 


Fig.3 is a plan view of a housing which carries electrical components of the fuel supply apparatus;

 


Fig.4 is an elevation view of the housing shown in Fig.3;

 


Fig.5 is a cross-section on the line 5--5 in Fig.3;

 


Fig.6 is a cross-section on the line 6--6 in Fig.3;


Fig.7 is a cross-section on the line 7--7 in Fig.5;

 


Fig.8 is a perspective view of a diode heat sink included in the components illustrated in Fig.5 and Fig.7;


Fig.9 illustrates a transformer coil assembly included in the electrical components mounted within the housing;

 


Fig.10 is a cross-section on the line 10--10 in Fig.4;


Fig.11 is a cross-section on the line 11--11 in Fig.5;

 


Fig.12 is a cross-section through a terminal block mounted in the floor of the housing;

 


Fig.13 is a plan view of an electrolytic cell incorporated in the fuel supply apparatus;

 


Fig.14 is a cross-section on the line 14--14 in Fig.13;

 


Fig.15 is a cross-section generally on the line 15--15 in Fig.14;

 


Fig.16 is a cross-section on the line 16--16 in Fig.14;

 


Fig.17 is a cross-section on the line 17--17 in Fig.13;

 


Fig.18 is a cross-section on the line 18--18 of Fig.13;

 

Fig.19 is a vertical cross-section through a gas valve taken generally on line 19--19 in Fig.13;

 


Fig.20 is a perspective view of a membrane assembly disposed in the electrolytic cell;


Fig.21 is a cross-section through part of the membrane assembly;


Fig.22 is a perspective view of a float disposed in the electrolytic cell;

 


Fig.23 is an enlargement of part of Fig.14;


Fig.24 is an enlarged cross-section on the line 24--24 in Fig.16;


Fig.25 is a perspective view of a water inlet valve member included in the components shown in Fig.24;

 


Fig.26 is a cross-section on line 26--26 in Fig.16;


Fig.27 is an exploded and partly broken view of a cathode and cathode collar fitted to the upper end of the cathode;


Fig.28 is an enlarged cross-section showing some of the components of Fig.15;

 


Fig.29 is a perspective view of a valve cover member;


Fig.30 shows a gas mixing and delivery unit of the apparatus generally in side elevation but with an air filter assembly included in the unit shown in section;

 


Fig.31 is a vertical cross-section through the gas mixing and delivery unit with the air filter assembly removed;


Fig.32 is a cross-section on the line 32--32 in Fig.31;

 


Fig.33 is a perspective view of a valve and jet nozzle assembly incorporated in the gas mixing and delivery unit;


Fig.34 is a cross-section generally on the line 34--34 in Fig.31;


Fig.35 is a cross-section through a solenoid assembly;

 


Fig.36 is a cross-section on the line 36--36 in Fig.32;


Fig.37 is a rear elevation of part of the gas mixing and delivery unit;

 


Fig.38 is a cross-section on the line 38--38 in Fig.34;


Fig.39 is a plan view of the lower section of the gas mixing and delivery unit, which is broken away from the upper section along the interface 39--39 of Fig.30;

 


Fig.40 is a cross-section on the line 40--40 in Fig.32; and


Fig.41 is a plan of a lower body part of the gas mixing and delivery unit.

 



 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

Fig.1 shows an assembly denoted generally as 31 having an engine bay 32 in which an internal combustion engine 33 is mounted behind a radiator 34.  Engine 33 is a conventional engine and, as illustrated, it may have two banks of cylinders in "V" formation. Specifically, it may be a V8 engine.  It is generally of conventional construction and Fig.1 shows the usual cooling fan 34, fan belt 36 and generator or alternator 37.


In accordance with the invention the engine does not run on the usual petroleum fuel but is equipped with fuel supply apparatus which supplies it with a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gases generated as products of a water electrolysis process carried out in the fuel supply apparatus. The major components of the fuel supply apparatus are an electrolytic cell denoted generally as 41 and a gas mixing and delivery unit 38 to mix the hydrogen and oxygen gases generated within the cell 41 and to deliver them to engine 33.  The electrolytic cell 41 receives water through a water delivery line 39 to make up the electrolyte solution within it.   It has an anode and a cathode which contact the electrolyte solution, and in operation of the apparatus pulses of electrical energy are applied between the anode and cathode to produce pulses of high current flow through the electrolyte solution.  Some of the electrical components necessary to produce the pulses of electrical energy applied between the anode and cathode are carried in a housing 40 mounted on one side of engine bay 32.  The car battery 30 is mounted at the other side of the engine bay.


Before the physical construction of the fuel delivery apparatus is described in detail the general principles of its operation will firstly be described with reference to the electrical circuit diagram of Fig.2.


In the illustrated circuit terminals 44, 45, 46 are all connected to the positive terminal of the car battery 30 and terminal 47 is connected to the negative terminal of that battery.  Switch 48 is the usual ignition switch of the car and closure of this switch provides current to the coil 49 of a relay 51.  The moving contact 52 of relay 51 receives current at 12 volts from terminal 45, and when the relay is operated by closure of ignition switch 48 current is supplied through this contact to line 53 so that line 53 may be considered as receiving a positive input and line 54 from terminal 47 may be considered as a common negative for the circuit. Closure of ignition switch 48 also supplies current to one side of the coil 55 of a solenoid 56. The other side of solenoid coil 55 is earthed by a connection to the car body within the engine bay.  As will be explained below solenoid 56 must be energised to open a valve which controls supply of hydrogen and oxygen gases to the engine and the valve closes to cut off that supply as soon as ignition switch 48 is opened.


The function of relay 51 is to connect circuit line 53 directly to the positive terminal of the car battery so that it receives a positive signal directly rather than through the ignition switch and wiring.


The circuit comprises pulse generator circuitry which includes unijunction transistor Q1 with associated resistors R1, R2 and R3 and capacitors C2 and C3. This circuitry produces pulses which are used to trigger an NPN silicon power transistor Q2 which in turn provides via a capacitor C4 triggering pulses for a thyristor T1.


Resistor R1 and capacitor C2 are connected in series in a line 57 extending to one of the fixed contacts of a relay 58.  The coil 59 of relay 58 is connected between line 53 and a line 61 which extends from the moving contact of the relay to the common negative line 54 via a normally closed pressure operated switch 62.  The pressure control line 63 of switch 62 is connected in a manner to be described below to a gas collection chamber of electrolytic cell 41 in order to provide a control connection whereby switch 62 is opened when the gas in the collection chamber reaches a certain pressure.  However, provided that switch 62 remains closed, relay 58 will operate when ignition switch 48 is closed to provide a connection between lines 57 and 61 thereby to connect capacitor C2 to the common negative line 54. The main purpose of relay 58 is to provide a slight delay in this connection between the capacitor C2 and the common negative line 54 when the circuit is first energised.  This will delay the generation of triggering pulses to thyristor T1 until a required electrical condition has been achieved in the transformer circuitry to be described below.  Relay 58 is hermetically sealed and has a balanced armature so that it can operate in any position and can withstand substantial shock or vibration when the car is in use.


When the connection between capacitor C2 and line 54 is made via relay 58, unijunction transistor Q1 will act as an oscillator to provide positive output pulses in line 64 at a pulse rate which is controlled by the ratio of R1:C1 and at a pulse strength determined by the ratio of R2:R3.  These pulses will charge the capacitor C3.  Electrolytic capacitor C1 is connected directly between the common positive line 53 and the common negative line 54 to filter the circuitry from all static noise.


Resistor R1 and capacitor C2 are chosen such that at the input to transistor Q1 the pulses will be of saw tooth form. This will control the form of the pulses generated in the subsequent circuitry and the saw tooth pulse form is chosen since it is believed that it produces the most satisfactory operation of the pulsing circuitry.   It should be stressed, however, that other pulse forms, such as square wave pulses, could be used.  Capacitor C3 discharges through a resistor R4 to provide triggering signals for transistor Q2. Resistor R4 is connected to the common negative line 54 to serve as a gate current limiting device for transistor Q2.


The triggering signals produced by transistor Q2 via the network of capacitor C3 and a resistor R4 will be in the form of positive pulses of sharply spiked form. The collector of transistor Q2 is connected to the positive supply line 53 through resistor R6 while the emitter of that transistor is connected to the common negative line 54 through resistor R5. These resistors R5 and R6 control the strength of current pulses applied to a capacitor C4, which discharges through a resistor R7 to the common negative line 54, thereby to apply triggering signals to the gate of thyristor T1.  The gate of thyristor T1 receives a negative bias from the common negative line via resistor R7 which thus serves to prevent triggering of the thyristor by inrush currents.


The triggering pulses applied to the gate of thyristor T1 will be very sharp spikes occurring at the same frequency as the saw tooth wave form pulses established by unijunction transistor Q1.  It is preferred that this frequency be of the order of 10,000 pulses per minute and details of specific circuit components which will achieve this result are listed below. Transistor Q2 serves as an interface between unijunction transistor Q1 and thyristor T1, preventing back flow of emf from the gate of the thyristor which might otherwise interfere with the operation of transistor Q1.  Because of the high voltages being handled by the thyristor and the high back emf applied to transistor Q2, the latter transistor must be mounted on a heat sink.


The cathode of thyristor T1 is connected via a line 65 to the common negative line 54 and the anode is connected via a line 66 to the centre of the secondary coil 67 of a first stage transformer TR1. The two ends of transformer coil 67 are connected via diodes D1 and D2 and a line 68 to the common negative line 54 to provide full wave rectification of the transformer output.


First stage transformer T1 has three primary coils 71, 72, 73 wound together with secondary coil 67 about a core 74. This transformer may be of conventional half cup construction with a ferrite core. The secondary coil may be wound on to a coil former disposed about the core and primary coils 71 and 73 may be wound in bifilar fashion over the secondary coil.  The other primary coil 72 may then be wound over the coils 71, 73.  Primary coils 71 and 73 are connected at one side by a line 75 to the uniform positive potential of circuit line 53 and at their other sides by lines 79, 81 to the collectors of transistors Q3, Q4.  The emitters of transistors Q3, Q4 are connected permanently via a line 82 to the common negative line 54.  A capacitor C6 is connected between lines 79, 81 to act as a filter preventing any potential difference between the collectors of transistors Q3, Q4.


The two ends of primary coil 72 are connected by lines 83, 84 to the bases of transistors Q3, Q4. This coil is centre tapped by a line 85 connected via resistor R9 to the positive line 53 and via resistor R10 to the common negative line 54.


When power is first applied to the circuit transistors Q3 and Q4 will be in their non-conducting states and there will be no current in primary coils 71, 73.  However, the positive current in line 53 will provide via resistor R9 a triggering signal applied to the centre tap of coil 72 and this signal operates to trigger alternate high frequency oscillation of transistors Q3, Q4 which will result in rapid alternating pulses in primary coils 71, 73.  The triggering signal applied to the centre tap of coil 72 is controlled by the resistor network provided by resistors R9 and R10 such that its magnitude is not sufficient to enable it to trigger Q3 and Q4 simultaneously but is sufficient to trigger one of those transistors. Therefore only one of the transistors is fired by the initial triggering signal to cause a current to flow through the respective primary coil 71 or 73. The signal required to hold the transistor in the conducting state is much less than that required to trigger it initially, so that when the transistor becomes conductive some of the signal applied to the centre tap of coil 72 will be diverted to the non-conducting transistor to trigger it.  When the second transistor is thus fired to become conductive, current will flow through the other of the primary coils 71, 73, and since the emitters of the two transistors are directly connected together, the positive output of the second transistor will cause the first-fired transistor to be shut off. When the current drawn by the collector of the second-fired resistor drops, part of the signal on the centre tap of coil 72 is diverted back to the collector of the first transistor which is re-fired. It will be seen that the cycle will then repeat indefinitely so that transistors Q3, Q4 are alternately fired and shut off in very rapid sequence. Thus current pulses flow in alternate sequence through primary coils 71, 73 at a very high frequency, this frequency being constant and independent of changes in input voltage to the circuit. The rapidly alternating pulses in primary coils 71 and 73, which will continue for so long as ignition switch 48 remains closed, will generate higher voltage signals at the same frequency in the transformer secondary coil 67.


A dump capacitor C5 bridged by a resistor R8 is connected by a line 86 to the line 66 from the secondary coil of transformer TR1 and provides the output from that transformer which is fed via line 87 to a second stage transformer TR2.


When thyristor T1 is triggered to become conductive the full charge of dump capacitor C5 is released to second stage transformer TR2.  At the same time the first stage of transformer TR1 ceases to function because of this momentary short circuit placed across it and consequently thyristor T1 releases, i.e. becomes non-conductive.  This permits charge to be built up again in dump capacitor C5 for release when the thyristor is next triggered by a signal from transistor Q2.  Thus during each of the intervals when the thyristor is in its non-conducting state the rapidly alternating pulses in primary coils 71, 73 of transformer TR1 produced by the continuously oscillating transistors Q3, Q4 produce, via the transformer coupling, relatively high voltage output pulses which build up a high charge in capacitor C5, and this charge is released suddenly when the thyristor is triggered. In a typical apparatus using a 12 volt DC supply battery pulses of the order of 22 amps at 300 volts may be produced in line 87.


As previously mentioned relay 58 is provided in the circuit to provide a delay in the connection of capacitor C2 to the common negative line 54.  This delay, although very short, is sufficient to enable transistors Q3, Q4 to start oscillating to cause transformer TR1 to build up a charge in dumping capacitor C5 before the first triggering signal is applied to thyristor T1 to cause discharge of the capacitor.


Transformer TR2 is a step-down transformer which produces pulses of very high current flow at low voltage. It is built into the anode of electrolytic cell 41 and comprises a primary coil 88 and a secondary coil 89 wound about a core 91. Secondary coil 89 is formed of heavy wire in order to handle the large current induced in it and its ends are connected directly to the anode 42 and cathode 43 of the electrolytic cell 41 in a manner to be described below.


In a typical apparatus, the output from the first stage transformer TR1 would be 300 volt pulses of the order of 22 amps at 10,000 pulses per minute and a duty cycle of slightly less than 0.006. This can be achieved from a uniform 12 volt and 40 amps DC supply using the following circuit components:

 

Components:
R1 2.7 k ohms 1/2 watt 2% resistor

R2 220 ohms 1/2 watt 2% resistor
R3 100 ohms 1/2 watt 2% resistor
R4 22 k ohms 1/2 watt 2% resistor
R5 100 ohms 1/2 watt 2% resistor
R6 220 ohms 1/2 watt 2% resistor
R7 1 k ohms 1/2 watt 2% resistor
R8 10 m ohms 1 watt 5% resistor
R9 100 ohms 5 watt 10% resistor
R10 5.6 ohms 1 watt 5% resistor

C1 2200 mF 16v electrolytic capacitor
C2 2.2 mF 100v 10% capacitor
C3 2.2 mF 100v 10% capacitor
C4 1 mF 100v 10% capacitor
C5 1 mF 1000v ducon paper capacitor 5S10A
C6 0.002 mF 160v capacitor

Q1 2n 2647 PN unijunction transistor
Q2 2N 3055 NPN silicon power transistor
Q3 2n 3055 NPN silicon power transistor
Q4 2n 3055 NPN silicon power transistor
T1 btw 30-800 rm fast turn-off thyristor
D1 a 14 p diode
D2 a 14 p diode

L1 indicator lamp
Sv1 continuously rated solenoid
Rl1 pw5ls hermetically sealed relay
Ps1 p658a-10051 pressure operated micro switch

Tr1 half cup transformer cores 36/22-341
Coil former 4322-021-30390 wound to provide a turns ratio between secondary and primary of 18:1
Secondary coil 67 = 380 turns
Primary coil 71 = 9 turns
Primary coil 73 = 9 turns
Primary coil 72 = 4 turns

The installation of the above circuit components is illustrated in Fig.3 to Fig.13.  They are mounted within and on a housing which is denoted generally as 101 and which is fastened to a side wall of the car engine bay 32 via a mounting bracket 102.  Housing 101, which may be formed as an aluminium casting, has a front wall 103, top and bottom walls 104, 105 and side walls 106, 107.  All of these walls have external cooling fins. The back of housing 101 is closed by a printed circuit board 108 which is held clamped in position by a peripheral frame 109 formed of an insulated plastics material clamped between the circuit board and mounting bracket 102. An insulating sheet 111 of cork is held between the frame 109 and mounting bracket 102.


Printed circuit board 108 carries all of the above-listed circuit components except for capacitor C5 and transistors Q3 and Q4.  Fig.5 illustrates the position in which transistor Q2 and the coil assembly 112 of transformer TR1 are mounted on the printed circuit board.  Transistor Q2 must withstand considerable heat generation and it is therefore mounted on a specially designed heat sink 113 clamped to circuit board 108 by clamping screws 114 and nuts 115.   As most clearly illustrated in Fig.7 and Fig.8, heat sink 113 has a flat base plate portion 116 which is generally diamond shaped and a series of rod like cooling fins 117 project to one side of the base plate around its periphery.  It has a pair of countersunk holes 118 of the clamping screws and a similar pair of holes 119 to receive the connector pins 121 which connect transistor Q2 to the printed circuit board.  Holes 118, 119 are lined with nylon bushes 122 and a Formica sheet 123 is fitted between the transistor and the heat sink so that the sink is electrically insulated from the transistor.


The coil assembly 112 of transformer TR1 (See Fig.9) is comprised of a casing 124 which contains transformer coils and the associated core and former and is closed by a plastic closing plate 125.  Plate 125 is held in position by a clamping stud 126 and is fitted with electrical connector pins 127 which are simply pushed through holes in circuit board 108 and are soldered to appropriate copper conductor strips 128 on the outer face of the board.


For clarity the other circuit components mounted on printed circuit board 108 are not illustrated in the drawings. These are standard small size components and the manner in which they may be fitted to the circuit board is entirely conventional.


Capacitor C5 is mounted within casing 101.   More specifically it is clamped in position between a flange 131 which stands up from the floor 105 of the casing and a clamping pad 132 engaged by a clamping screw 133, which is mounted in a threaded hole in casing side wall 106 and is set in position by a lock screw 134.   Flange 131 has two holes 135 (See Fig.6) in which the terminal bosses 136 of capacitor C5 are located.  The terminal pins 137 projecting from bosses 136 are connected to the terminal board 108 by wires (not shown) and appropriate connector pins which are extended through holes in the circuit board and soldered to the appropriate conductor strips on the other face of that board.


Transistors Q3 and Q4 are mounted on the front wall 103 of casing 101 so that the finned casing serves as an extended heat sink for these two transistors.  They are mounted on the casing wall and electrically connected to the printed circuit board in identical fashion and this is illustrated by Fig.10 which shows the mounting of transistor Q3.  As shown in that figure the transistor is clamped in position by clamping screws 138 and nuts 139 which also serve to provide electrical connections to the appropriate conductors of the printed circuit board via conductor wires 141.  The third connection from the emitter of the transistor to the common negative conductor of the printed circuit is made by conductor 142.  Screws 130 and conductor 142 extend through three holes in the casing front wall 103 and these holes are lined with electrically insulating nylon bushes 143, 144.  A Formica sheet 145 is sandwiched between casing plate 103 and the transistor which is therefore electrically insulated from the casing.  Two washers 146 are placed beneath the ends of conductor wires 141.


Pressure operated microswitch 52 is mounted on a bracket 147 projecting inwardly from front wall 103 of casing 101 adjacent the top wall 104 of the casing and the pressure sensing unit 148 for this switch is installed in an opening 149 through top wall 104.   As most clearly seen in Fig.11, pressure sensing unit 148 is comprised of two generally cylindrical body members 150, 151 between which a flexible diaphragm 152 is clamped to provide a diaphragm chamber 153. The gas pressure of sensing tube 63 is applied to chamber 153 via a small diameter passage 154 in body member 150 and a larger passage 155 in a cap member 156.  The cap member and body members are fastened together and clamped to the casing top plate 104 by means of clamping screws 157.  Sensing tube 63 is connected to the passage 155 in cap member 156 by a tapered thread connector 158 and the interface between cap member 156 and body member 150 is sealed by an O-ring 159.


The lower end of body member 151 of pressure sensing unit 148 has an internally screw threaded opening which receives a screw 161 which at its lower end is formed as an externally toothed adjusting wheel 162.   A switch actuating plunger 163 extends through a central bore in adjusting wheel 162 so that it engages at one end flexible diaphragm 152 and at the other end the actuator member 164 of microswitch 62.  The end of plunger 163 which engages the diaphragm has a flange 165 to serve as a pressure pad and a helical compression spring 167 encircles plunger 163 to act between flange 165 and the adjusting wheel 162 to bias the plunger upwardly against the action of the gas pressure acting on diaphragm 152 in chamber 153.  The pressure at which diaphragm 152 will force plunger 163 down against the action of spring 167 to cause actuation of switch 62 may be varied by rotating screw 161 and the setting of this screw may be held by a setting screw 168 mounted in a threaded hole in the upper part of casing front wall 103 and projecting inwardly to fit between successive teeth of adjusting wheel 162. After correct setting of screw 161 is achieved set screw 168 will be locked in position by locking screw 169 which is then sealed by a permanent seal 170 to prevent tampering.  Microswitch 62 is also electrically connected to the appropriate conductors of the printed circuit board via wires within the housing and connector pins.


Electrical connections are made between the conductors of printed circuit board 108 and the internal wiring of the circuit via a terminal block 150 (Fig.12) set in an opening of housing floor 105 by screws 160 and fitted with terminal plates 140.


The physical construction of electrolytic cell 41 and the second stage transformer TR2 is illustrated in Fig.13 to Fig.29.  The cell comprises an outer casing 171 having a tubular peripheral wall 172 and top and bottom closures 173, 174.  Bottom closure 174 is comprised of a domed cover 175 and an electrically insulated disc 176 which are held to the bottom of peripheral wall 172 by circumferentially spaced clamping studs 177.  Top closure 173 is comprised of a pair of top plates 178, 179 disposed face to face and held by circumferentially spaced clamping studs 181 screwed into tapped holes in the upper end of peripheral wall 172.  The peripheral wall of the casing is provided with cooling fins 180.


The anode 42 of the cell is of generally tubular formation. It is disposed vertically within the outer casing and is clamped between upper and lower insulators 182, 183.  Upper insulator 182 has a central boss portion 184 and an annular peripheral flange 185 portion the outer rim of which is clamped between upper closure plate 179 and the upper end of peripheral wall 172.   Lower insulator 183 has a central boss portion 186, an annular flange portion 187 surrounding the boss portion and an outer tubular portion 188 standing up from the outer margin of flange portion 187.  Insulators 182, 183 are moulded from an electrically insulating material which is also alkali resistant.  Polytetrafluoroethylene is one suitable material.


When held together by the upper and lower closures, insulators 182, 183 form an enclosure within which anode 42 and the second stage transformer TR2 are disposed.   Anode 42 is of generally tubular formation and it is simply clamped between insulators 182, 183 with its cylindrical inner periphery located on the boss portions 184, 186 of those insulators. It forms a transformer chamber which is closed by the boss portions of the two insulators and which is filled with a suitable transformer oil.  O-ring seals 190 are fitted between the central bosses of the insulator plates and the anode to prevent loss of oil from the transformer chamber.


The transformer core 91 is formed as a laminated mild steel bar of square section. It extends vertically between the insulator boss portions 184, 186 and its ends are located within recesses in those boss portions. The primary transformer winding 88 is wound on a first tubular former 401 fitted directly onto core 91 whereas the secondary winding 89 is wound on a second tubular former 402 so as to be spaced outwardly from the primary winding within the oil filled transformer chamber.


The cathode 43 in the form of a longitudinally slotted tube which is embedded in the peripheral wall portion 183, this being achieved by moulding the insulator around the cathode. The cathode has eight equally spaced longitudinal slots 191 so that it is essentially comprised of eight cathode strips 192 disposed between the slots and connected together at top and bottom only, the slots being filled with the insulating material of insulator 183.


Both the anode and cathode are made of nickel plated mild steel. The outer periphery of the anode is machined to form eight circumferentially spaced flutes 193 which have arcuate roots meeting at sharp crests or ridges 194 defined between the flutes. The eight anode crests 194 are radially aligned centrally of the cathode strips 192 and the perimeter of the anode measured along its external surface is equal to the combined widths of the cathode strips measured at the internal surfaces of these strips, so that over the major part of their lengths the anode and cathode have equal effective areas. This equalisation of areas generally have not been available in prior art cylindrical anode/cathode arrangements.


As most clearly seen in Fig.27 the upper end of anode 42 is relieved and fitted with an annular collar 200 the outer periphery of which is shaped to form an extension of the outer peripheral surface of the fluted anode. This collar is formed of an electrically insulated plastics material such as polyvinyl chloride or teflon. A locating pin 205 extends through collar 200 to project upwardly into an opening in upper insulating plate 182 and to extend down into a hole 210 in the cathode.  The collar is thus located in correct annular alignment relative to the anode and the anode is correctly aligned relative to the cathode.


The annular space 195 between the anode and cathode serves as the electrolyte solution chamber. Initially this chamber is filled approximately 75% full with an electrolyte solution of 25% potassium hydroxide in distilled water. As the electrolysis reaction progresses hydrogen and oxygen gases collect in the upper part of this chamber and water is admitted to maintain the level of electrolyte solution in the chamber. Insulating collar 200 shields the cathode in the upper region of the chamber where hydrogen and oxygen gases collect to prevent any possibility of arcing through these gases between the anode and cathode.


Electrolyte chamber 195 is divided by a tubular membrane 196 formed by nylon woven mesh material 408 stretched over a tubular former 197 formed of very thin sheet steel.  As most clearly illustrated in Fig.20 and Fig.21 former 197 has upper and lower rim portions 198, 199 connected by circumferentially spaced strip portions 201. The nylon mesh material 408 may be simply folded around the upper and lower insulators 182, 183 so that the former is electrically isolated from all other components of the cell.  Material 408 has a mesh size which is so small that the mesh openings will not pass bubbles of greater than 0.004 inch diameter and the material can therefore serve as a barrier against mixing of hydrogen and oxygen generated at the cathode and anode respectively while permitting the electrolytic flow of current between the electrodes. The upper rim portion 198 of the membrane former 197 is deep enough to constitute a solid barrier through the depth of the gas collection chamber above the electrolyte solution level so that there will be no mixing of hydrogen and oxygen within the upper part of the chamber.


Fresh water is admitted into the outer section of chamber 195 via an inlet nozzle 211 formed in upper closure plate 178. The electrolyte solution passes from the outer to the inner sections of chamber 195 through the mesh membrane 408.


Nozzle 211 has a flow passage 212 extending to an electrolyte inlet valve 213 controlled by a float 214 in chamber 195.  Valve 213 comprises a bushing 215 mounted within an opening extending down through upper closure plate 179 and the peripheral flange 185 of upper insulator 182 and providing a valve seat which co-operates with valve needle 216.  Needle 216 rests on a pad 217 on the upper end of float 214 so that when the electrolyte solution is at the required level the float lifts the needle hard against the valve seat.  The float slides vertically on a pair of square section slide rods 218 extending between the upper and lower insulators 182 and 183. These rods, which may be formed of polytetrafluoroethylene extend through appropriate holes 107 through the float.


The depth of float 214 is chosen such that the electrolyte solution fills only approximately 75% of the chamber 195, leaving the upper part of the chamber as a gas space which can accommodate expansion of the generated gas due to heating within the cell.


As electrolysis of the electrolyte solution within chamber 195 proceeds, hydrogen gas is produced at the cathode and oxygen gas is produced at the anode.  These gases bubble upwardly into the upper part of chamber 195 where they remain separated in the inner and outer compartments defined by membrane and it should be noted that the electrolyte solution enters that part of the chamber which is filled with oxygen rather than hydrogen so there is no chance of leakage of hydrogen back through the electrolyte inlet nozzle.


The abutting faces of upper closure plates 178, 179 have matching annular grooves forming within the upper closure inner and outer gas collection passages 221, 222. Outer passage 222 is circular and it communicates with the hydrogen compartment of chamber 195 via eight ports 223 extending down through top closure plate 179 and the peripheral flange of upper insulator 182 adjacent the cathode strips 192.  Hydrogen gas flows upwardly through ports 223 into passage 222 and thence upwardly through a one-way valve 224 (Fig.19) into a reservoir 225 provided by a plastic housing 226 bolted to top closure plate 178 via a centre stud 229 and sealed by a gasket 227.  The lower part of housing 114 is charged with water.  Stud 229 is hollow and its lower end has a transverse port 228 so that, on removal of a sealing cap 229 from its upper end it can be used as a filter down which to pour water into the reservoir 225.  Cap 229 fits over a nut 231 which provides the clamping action on plastic housing 226 and resilient gaskets 232, 233 and 234 are fitted between the nut and cover, between the cap and the nut and between the cap and the upper end of stud 229.


One-way valve 224 comprises a bushing 236 which projects down into the annular hydrogen passage 221 and has a valve head member 237 screw fitted to its upper end to provide clamping action on top closure plate 178 between the head member and a flange 238 at the bottom end bushing 236.  Bushing 236 has a central bore 239, the upper end of which receives the diamond cross-section stem of a valve member 240, which also comprises a valve plate portion 242 biased against the upper end of the bushing by compression spring 243.  Valve member 240 is lifted against the action of spring 243 by the pressure of hydrogen gas within passage 221 to allow the gas to pass into the interior of valve head 237 and then out through ports 220 in that member into reservoir 225.


Hydrogen is withdrawn from reservoir 225 via a stainless steel crooked tube 241 which connects with a passage 409.  Passage 409 extends to a port 250 which extends down through the top and bottom closure plates 178, 179 and top insulator 182 into a hydrogen duct 244 extending vertically within the casting of casing 171.  Duct 244 is of triangular cross-section.  As will be explained below, the hydrogen passes from this duct into a mixing chamber defined in the gas mixing and delivery unit 38 which is bolted to casing 171.


Oxygen is withdrawn from chamber 195 via the inner annular passage 221 in the top closure. Passage 221 is not circular but has a scalloped configuration to extend around the water inlet. Oxygen enters it through eight ports 245 extended through top closure plate 179 and the annular flange portion of upper insulator 182. The oxygen flows upwardly from passage 222 through a one-way valve 246 and into a reservoir 260 provided by a plastic housing 247. The arrangement is similar to that for withdrawal of hydrogen and will not be described in great detail.  Suffice to say that the bottom of the chamber is charged with water and the oxygen is withdrawn through a crooked tube 248, an outlet passage 249 in top closure plate 178, and a port which extends down through closure plates 178, 179 and top insulator 182 into a triangular cross-section oxygen duct 251 extending vertically within casing 171 disposed opposite hydrogen duct 244.  The oxygen is also delivered to the gas mixing chamber of the mixing and delivery unit 38.


The pressure sensing tube 63 for switch 62 is connected via a tapered thread connector 410 and a passage 411 in the top closure plate 178 directly to the annular hydrogen passage 222.  If the pressure within the passage rises above a predetermined level, switch 62 is operated to disconnect capacitor C2 from the common negative line 54. This removes the negative signal from capacitor C2 which is necessary to maintain continuous operation of the pulse generating circuitry for generating the triggering pulses on thyristor T1 and these triggering pulses therefore cease.  The transformer TR1 continues to remain in operation to charge dumping capacitor C5 but because thyristor T1 cannot be triggered dumping capacitor C5 will simply remain charged until the hydrogen pressure in passage 222, and therefore in chamber 195 falls below the predetermined level and triggering pulses are applied once more to thyristor T1.  Pressure actuated switch 62 thus controls the rate of gas production according to the rate at which it is withdrawn. The stiffness of the control springs for gas escape valves 224, 246 must of course be chosen to allow escape of the hydrogen and oxygen in the proportions in which they are produced by electrolysis, i.e. in the ratios 2:1 by volume.


Reservoirs 225, 260 are provided as a safety precaution. If a sudden back-pressure were developed in the delivery pipes this could only shatter the plastic housings 226, 247 and could not be transmitted back into the electrolytic cell. Switch 62 would then operate to stop further generation of gases within the cell.


The electrical connections of secondary transformer coil 89 to the anode and the cathode are shown in Fig.14.  One end of coil 89 is extended as a wire 252 which extends into a blind hole in the inner face of the anode where it is gripped by a grub screw 253 screwed into a threaded hole extended vertically into the anode underneath collar 200.   A tapered nylon plug 254 is fitted above screw 253 to seal against loss of oil from the interior of the anode. The other end of coil 89 is extended as a wire 255 to pass down through a brass bush 256 in the bottom insulator 183 and then horizontally to leave casing 171 between bottom insulating disc 176 and insulator 183.


As most clearly shown in Fig.23, brass bush 256 has a head flange 257 and is fitted at its lower end with a nut 258 whereby it is firmly clamped in position. Gaskets 259, 261 are disposed beneath head flange 257 and above nut 258 respectively.


At the location where wire 255 is extended horizontally to leave the casing the upper face of disc 176 and the lower face of insulator 183 are grooved to receive and clamp onto the wire.  Disc 176 and insulator 183 are also extended radially outwardly at this location to form tabs which extend out beneath casing 171 and ensure proper insulation of the wire through to the outer periphery of the casing.


Outside the casing, wire 255 is connected to a cathode terminal bolt 262. Terminal bolt 262 has a head which is received in a socket in separate head piece 263 shaped to suit the cylindrically curved inner periphery of the cathode and nickel plated to resist chemical attack by the electrolyte solution.  The stem of the terminal bolt extends through openings in the cathode and peripheral wall portion 188 of insulator 183 and air insulating bush fitted in an aligned opening in the casing wall 172.  The head piece 263 of the terminal bolt is drawn against the inner periphery of the cathode by tightening of a clamping nut 265 and the end of wire 255 has an eye which is clamped between nut 265 and a washer 266 by tightening a terminal end nut 267.   A washer 268 is provided between nut 265 and brush 264 and a sealing O-ring 269 is fitted in an annular groove in the bolt stem to engage the inner periphery of the bush in order to prevent escape of electrolyte solution. The terminal connection is covered by a cover plate 271 held in place by fixing screws 272.


The two ends of the primary transformer coil 88 are connected to strip conductors 273, 274 which extend upwardly through the central portion of upper insulator 183. The upper ends of conductors 273, 274 project upwardly as pins within a socket 275 formed in the top of upper insulator 183. The top of socket 275 is closed by a cover 276 which is held by a centre stud 277 and through which wires 278, 279 from the external circuit are extended and connected to conductors 273, 274 by push-on connectors 281, 282.


The transformer connections shown in Fig.14 are in accordance with the circuit of Fig.2, i.e. the ends of secondary coil 89 are connected directly between the anode and the cathode. Transformer TR2 is a step-down transformer and, assuming an input of pulses of 22 amps at 300 volts and a coil ratio between the primary and secondary of 10:1 the output applied between the anode and the cathode will be pulses of 200 amps at a low voltage of the order of 3 volts. The voltage is well in excess of that required for electrolysis to proceed and the very high current achieved produces a high rate of yield of hydrogen and oxygen. The rapid discharge of energy which produces the large current flow will be accompanied by a release of heat. This energy is not entirely lost in that the consequent heating of the electrolyte solution increases the mobility of the ions which tends to increase the rate of electrolysis.


The configuration of the anode and cathode arrangement of electrolytic cell 41 is of significant importance. The fluted external periphery of the anode causes a concentration of current flow which produces a better gas yield over a given electrode area. This particular configuration also causes the surface area of the anode to be extended and permits an arrangement in which the anode and cathode have equal surface areas which is most desirable in order to minimise electrical losses. It is also desirable that the anode and cathode surfaces at which gas is produced be roughened, for example by sand-blasting. This promotes separation of the gas bubbles from the electrode surfaces and avoids the possibility of overvoltages.


The arrangement of the secondary transformer in which the central anode is surrounded by the cathode is also of great importance. The anode, being constructed of a magnetic material, is acted on by the magnetic field of transformer TR2 to become, during the period of energisation of that transformer, a strong conductor of magnetic flux. This in turn creates a strong magnetic field in the inter-electrode space between the anode and the cathode. It is believed that this magnetic field increases the mobility of the ions in solution thereby improving the efficiency of the cell.


The heat generated by transformer TR2 is conducted via the anode to the electrolyte solution and increases the mobility of the ions within the electrolyte solution as above mentioned. The cooling fins 180 are provided on casing 171 to assist in dissipation of excess generated heat. The location of the transformer within the anode also enables the connections of the secondary coil 89 to the anode and cathode to be made of short, well protected conductors.


As mentioned above the hydrogen and oxygen gas generated in electrolytic cell 41 and collected in ducts 244, 251 is delivered to a gas mixing chamber of the mixing and delivery unit 38.  More specifically, these gases are delivered from ducts 244, 251 via escape valves 283, 284 (Fig.15) which are held in position over discharge ports 285, 286 from the ducts by means of a leaf spring 287.  The outer ends of spring 287 engage the valves 283, 284 and the centre part of the spring is bowed inwardly by a clamping stud 288 screwed into a tapped hole in a boss 289 formed in the cell casing 171.


Valve 283 is detailed in Fig.28 and Fig.29 and valve 284 is of identical construction.  Valve 283 includes an inner valve body 291 having a cap portion 292 and an annular end ring portion 293 which holds an annular valve seat 294.  A valve disc 295 is biased against the valve seat by a valve spring 296 reacting against the cap portion 292.  An outer valve cover 297 fits around the inner member 291 and is engaged by spring 287 to force the inner member firmly into a socket in the wall of the cell casing so to cover the hydrogen discharge port 285.  The end ring portion 293 of the inner body member beds on a gasket 298 within the socket.


During normal operation of the apparatus valves 283, 284 act as simple one-way valves by movements of their spring loaded valve plates.  However, if an excessive gas pressure should arise within the electrolytic cell these valves will be forced back against the action of holding spring 287 to provide pressure relief. The escaping excess gas then flows to atmosphere via the mixing and delivery unit 38 as described below.  The pressure at which valves 283, 284 will lift away to provide pressure relief may be adjusted by appropriate setting of stud 288, which setting is held by a nut 299.


The construction of the gas mixing and delivery unit 38 is shown in Fig.30 and Fig.40.  It comprises an upper body portion 301 which carries an air filter assembly 302, an intermediate body portion 303, which is bolted to the casing of electrolytic cell 41 by six studs 304, and successive lower body portions 305, 300, the latter of which is bolted to the inlet manifold of the engine by four studs 306.


The bolted connection between intermediate body portion 303 and the casing of the electrolytic cell is sealed by a gasket 307. This connection surrounds valves 283, 284 which deliver hydrogen and oxygen gases directly into a mixing chamber 308 (Fig.34) defined by body portion 303.  The gases are allowed to mix together within this chamber and the resulting hydrogen and oxygen mixture passes along small diameter horizontal passageway 309 within body portion 303 which passageway is traversed by a rotary valve member 311.  Valve member 311 is conically tapered and is held within a correspondingly tapered valve housing by a spring 312 (Fig.38) reacting against a bush 313 which is screwed into body portion 303 and serves as a mounting for the rotary valve stem 314.  Valve member 311 has a diametral valve port 315 and can be rotated to vary the extent to which this port is aligned with passageway 309 thereby to vary the effective cross-section for flow through that passageway.  As will be explained below, the rotational positions of the valve member is controlled in relation to the engine speed.


Passage 309 extends to the lower end of a larger diameter vertical passageway 316 which extends upwardly to a solenoid freed valve 310 incorporated in a valve and jet assembly denoted generally as 317.


Assembly 317 comprises a main body 321 (Fig.32) closed at the top by a cap 322 when the assembly is clamped to body portion 303 by two clamping studs 323 to form a gas chamber 324 from which gas is to be drawn through jet nozzles 318 into two vertical bores or throats 319 (Fig.31) in body portion 303.  The underside of body 321 has a tapped opening into which is fitted an externally screw threaded valve seat 325 of valve 310.  A valve member 326 is biased down against seat 325 by a spring 327 which reacts against cap 322.  Spring 327 encircles a cylindrical stem 328 of valve member 326 which stem projects upwardly through an opening in cap 322 so that it may be acted on by solenoid 56 which is mounted immediately above the valve in upper body portion 301.


Solenoid 56 is comprised of an outer insulating casing 366 which has two mounting flanges 367. This casing houses the copper windings constituting coil 55. These are wound on a plastic bobbin 369 disposed about a central mild steel core 371.  The core has a bottom flange 372 and the bobbin and coils are held clamped in the casing through insulating closure 373 acted on by flange 372 on tightening of a clamping nut 374 which is fitted to the other end of the core.


Upper body portion 301 of unit 38 is tubular but at one side it has an internal face shaped to suit the exterior profile of solenoid casing 366 and mounting flanges 367.  Two mounting screws 375 screw into holes in this face and engage slots 376 in the mounting flanges 367 so that the height of the solenoid above valve 310 can be adjusted.  The two terminals 377 are connected into the electrical circuit by wires (not shown) which may be extended into unit 38 via the air filter assembly.


When solenoid 56 is energised its magnetised core attracts valve stem 328 and valve member 326 is lifted until stem 328 abuts the lower flange 372 of the solenoid core. Thus valve 310 is opened when the ignition switch is closed and will close under the influence of spring 327 when the ignition switch is opened.  Vertical adjustment of the solenoid position controls the lift of valve member 326 and therefore the maximum fuel flow rate through unit 38.


Electrolyte cell 41 produces hydrogen in the ratio 2:1 to provide a mixture which is by itself completely combustible. However, as used in connection with existing internal combustion engines the volume of hydrogen and oxygen required for normal operation is less than that of a normal fuel air mixture. Thus a direct application to such an engine of only hydrogen and oxygen in the amount required to meet power demands will result in a vacuum condition within the system. In order to overcome this vacuum condition provision is made to draw make-up air into throats 319 via the air filter assembly 302 and upper body portion 301.


Upper body portion 301 has a single interior passage 328 through which make-up air is delivered to the dual throats 319.  It is fastened to body portion 303 by clamping studs 329 and a gasket 331 is sandwiched between the two body portions.  The amount of make-up air admitted is controlled by an air valve flap 332 disposed across passage 328 and rotatably mounted on a shaft 333 to which it is attached by screws 334.  The valve flap is notched to fit around solenoid casing 366.  Shaft 333 extends through the wall of body portion 301 and outside that wall it is fitted with a bracket 335 which carries an adjustable setting screw 336 and a biasing spring 337.   Spring 337 provides a rotational bias on shaft 333 and during normal running of the engine it simply holds flap 332 in a position determined by engagement of setting screw 336 with a flange 338 of body portion 301.  This position is one in which the flap almost completely closes passage 328 to allow only a small amount of make-up air to enter, this small amount being adjustable by appropriate setting of screw 336.   Screw 336 is fitted with a spring 339 so that it will hold its setting.


Although flaps 332 normally serve only to adjust the amount of make-up air admitted to unit 38, it also serves as a pressure relief valve if excessive pressures are built up, either due to excessive generation of hydrogen and oxygen gases or due to burning of gases in the inlet manifold of the engine.  In either event the gas pressure applied to flaps 332 will cause it to rotate so as to open passage 328 and allow gases to escape back through the air filter.  It will be seen in Fig.32 that flap mounting shaft 333 is offset from the centre of passage 328 such that internal pressure will tend to open the flap and thus exactly the reverse of the air valve in a conventional gasoline carburettor.


Air filter assembly 302 comprises an annular bottom pan 341 which fits snugly onto the top of upper body portion 301 and domed filter element 342 held between an inner frame 343 and an outer steel mesh covering 344.  The assembly is held in position by a wire and eyebolt fitting 345 and clamping nut 346.


Body portion 305 of unit 38 (Fig.31), which is fastened to body portion 303 by clamping studs 347, carries throttle valve apparatus to control engine speed. It has two vertical bores 348, 349 serving as continuations of the dual throats which started in body portion 303 and these are fitted with throttle valve flaps 351, 352 fixed to a common throttle valve shaft 353 by fixing screws 354.   Both ends of shaft 353 are extended through the wall of body portion 305 to project outwardly therefrom.  One end of this shaft is fitted with a bracket 355 via which it is connected as in a conventional carburettor to a throttle cable 356 and also to an automatic transmission kick-down control linkage 357.  A biasing spring 358 acts on shaft 353 to bias throttle flaps toward closed positions as determined by engagement of a setting screw 359 carried by bracket 355 with a plate 361 projecting from body portion 303.


The other end of throttle valve shaft 353 carries a lever 362 the outer end of which is connected to a wire link 407 by means of which a control connection is made to the valve stem 314 of valve member 311 via a further lever 406 connected to the outer end of the valve stem.  This control connection is such that valve member 311 is at all times positioned to pass a quantity of gas mixture appropriate to the engine speed as determined by the throttle setting.  The initial setting of valve member 311 can be adjusted by selection between two connection holes 405 in lever 406 and by bending of link 407.


Body portion 303 is fastened to the bottom body portion 300 of unit 38 by four clamping studs 306. The bottom body portion has two holes 364, 365 which form continuations of the dual throats and which diverge in the downward direction so as to direct the hydrogen, oxygen and air mixture delivered through these throats outwardly toward the two banks of cylinder inlets.  Since this fuel is dry, a small quantity of oil vapour is added to it via a passage 403 in body portion 305 to provide some upper cylinder lubrication. Passage 403 receives oil vapour through a tube 404 connected to a tapping on the engine tapped cover.  It discharges the oil vapour down on to a relieved top face part 368 of body portion 300 between holes 364, 365.  The vapour impinges on the relieved face part and is deflected into the two holes to be drawn with the gases into the engine.


In the illustrated gas mixing and delivery unit 38, it will be seen that passageway 309, vertical passageway 316, chamber 324 and nozzles 318 constitute transfer passage means via which the hydrogen mixture pass to the gas flow duct means comprised of the dual throats via which it passes to the engine. The transfer passage means has a gas metering valve comprised of the valve member 311 and the solenoid operated valve is disposed in the transfer passage means between the metering valve and the gas flow duct means. The gas metering valve is set to give maximum flow rate through the transfer passage means at full throttle setting of throttle flaps 351, 352.  The solenoid operated valve acts as an on/off valve so that when the ignition switch is opened the supply of gas to the engine is positively cut-off thereby preventing any possibility of spontaneous combustion in the cylinders causing the engine to "run on". It also acts to trap gas in the electrolytic cell and within the mixing chamber of the mixing and delivery unit so that gas will be available immediately on restarting the engine.


Dumping capacitor C5 will determine a ratio of charging time to discharge time which will be largely independent of the pulse rate and the pulse rate determined by the oscillation transistor Q1 must be chosen so that the discharge time is not so long as to produce overheating of the transformer coils and more particularly the secondary coil 89 of transformer TR2.  Experiments indicate that overheating problems are encountered at pulse rates below about 5,000 and that the system will behave much like a DC system, with consequently reduced performance at pulse rates greater than about 40,000.  A pulse rate of about 10,000 pulses per minute will be nearly optimum. With the saw tooth wave input and sharply spiked output pulses of the preferred oscillator circuit the duty cycle of the pulses produced at a frequency of 10,000 pulses per minute was about 0.006.  This pulse form helps to minimise overheating problems in the components of the oscillator circuit at the high pulse rates involved.  A duty cycle of up to 0.1, as may result from a square wave input, would be feasible but at a pulse rate of 10,000 pulses per minute some of the components of the oscillator circuit would then be required to withstand unusually high heat inputs. A duty cycle of about 0.005 would be a minimum which could be obtained with the illustrated type of oscillator circuitry.


From the foregoing description it can be seen that the electrolytic cell 41 converts water to hydrogen and oxygen whenever ignition switch 44 is closed to activate solenoid 51, and this hydrogen and oxygen are mixed in chamber 308.  Closure of the ignition switch also activates solenoid 56 to permit entry of the hydrogen and oxygen mixture into chamber 319, when it mixes with air admitted into the chamber by air valve flap 332.   As described above, air valve flap 332 may be set to admit air in an amount as required to avoid a vacuum condition in the engine.


In operation the throttle cable 356 causes bracket 355 to pivot about throttle valve shaft 353, which rotates flap 351 to control the amount of hydrogen-oxygen-air mixture entering the engine.  At the same time shaft 353 acts via the linkage shown in Fig.37 to control the position of shaft 314, and shaft 314 adjusts the amount of hydrogen-oxygen mixture provided for mixing with the air.  As shown in Fig.30, bracket 355 may also be linked to a shaft 357, which is connected to the car transmission.  Shaft 357 is a common type of shaft used for down shifting into a passing gear when the throttle has been advanced beyond a predetermined point. Thus there is provided a compact fuel generation system which is compatible with existing internal combustion engines and which has been designed to fit into a standard passenger car.


While the form of apparatus herein described constitutes a preferred embodiment of the invention, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to this precise form of apparatus, and that changes may be made therein without departing from the scope of the invention.

 

 

CLAIMS

1. For an internal combustion engine having inlet means to receive a combustible fuel, fuel supply apparatus comprising:

 
a vessel to hold an aqueous electrolyte solution;

 

an anode and a cathode to contact the electrolyte solution within the vessel;


electrical supply means to apply between said anode and said cathode pulses of electrical energy to induce a pulsating current in the electrolyte solution thereby to generate by electrolysis hydrogen and oxygen gases;


gas collection and delivery means to collect the hydrogen and oxygen gases and to direct them to the engine inlet means; and


water admission means to admit water to said vessel;


said electrical supply means comprising a source of direct current electrical energy of substantially uniform voltage and current and electrical converter means to convert that energy to said pulses, said converter means comprising a transformer means having primary coil means energised by direct current energy from said source and secondary coil means inductively coupled to the primary coil means; a dump capacitor connected to the secondary coil means of the transformer means so as to be charged by electrical output of that coil means; oscillator means to derive electrical pulses from direct current energy of said source; a switching device switchable from a non-conducting state to a conducting state in response to each of the electrical pulses derived by the oscillator means and connected to the secondary coil means of the transformer means and the dump capacitor such that each switching from its non-conducting state to its conducting state causes the dump capacitor to discharge and also short circuits the transformer means to cause the switching means to revert to its non-conducting state; and electrical conversion means to receive the pulse discharges from the dump capacitor and to convert them to said pulses of electrical energy which are applied between the anode and cathode.


2. Fuel supply as claimed in claim 1, wherein the electrical supply means applies said pulses of electrical energy at a frequency of ranging between about 5,000 and 40,000 pulses per minute.


3. Fuel supply apparatus as claimed in claim 2, wherein the electrical supply means applies said pulses of electrical energy at a frequency of about 10,000 pulses per minute.


4. Fuel supply apparatus as claimed in claim 2, wherein the electrical supply means comprises a source of direct current electrical energy of substantially uniform voltage and current and electrical converter means to convert that energy to said pulses.


5. Fuel supply apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein the electrical conversion means is a voltage step-down transformer comprising a primary coil to receive the pulse discharge from said dump capacitor and a secondary coil electrically connected between the anode and cathode and inductively coupled to the primary coil.


6. Fuel supply apparatus as claimed in claim 5, wherein said cathode encompasses the anode.


7. Fuel supply apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein the cathode encompasses the anode which is hollow and the primary and secondary coils of the second transformer means are disposed within the anode.


8. Fuel supply apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein the anode is tubular and its ends are closed to form a chamber which contains the primary and secondary coils of the second transformer means and which is charged with oil.


9. In combination with an internal combustion engine having an inlet for combustible fuel, fuel supply apparatus comprising:


a. an electrolytic cell to hold an electrolytic conductor;


b. a first hollow cylindrical electrode disposed within said cell and provided about its outer surface with a series of circumferentially spaced and longitudinally extending flutes;


c. a second hollow cylindrical electrode surrounding said anode and segmented into a series of electrically connected longitudinally extending strip; said strips being equal in number to the number of said flutes, said strips having a total active surface area approximately equal to the total active surface area of said flutes, and said strips being in radial alignment with the crests of said flutes;


d. current generating means for generating a flow of electrolysing current between said first and second electrodes;


e. gas collection and delivery means to collect hydrogen and oxygen gases from the cell and to direct them to said fuel inlet of the engine; and


f. water admission means to admit water to the cell.


10. The combination claimed in claim 9, wherein said current generating means comprises a transformer situated inside said first electrode.


11. The combination claimed in claim 10, wherein the secondary winding of said transformer is connected whereby said first electrode operates as an anode and said second electrode operates as a cathode.


12. The combination claimed in claim 11, wherein said current generating means further comprising means to generate a pulsed current in the primary winding of said transformer.


13. The combination claimed in claim 9, wherein the roots of said flutes are cylindrically curved.


14. The combination claimed in claim 10, wherein said current generating means comprises a source of direct current; a transformer means having primary coil means energised by direct current energy from said source and secondary coil means inductively coupled to the primary coil means; a dump capacitor connected to the secondary coil means of the transformer means so as to be charged by electrical output of that coil means; oscillator means to derive electrical pulses from direct current energy of said source, a switching device switchable from a non-conducting state to a conducting state in response to each of the electrical pulses derived by the oscillator means and connected to the secondary coil means of the transformer means and the dump capacitor such that each switching from its non-conducting state to its conducting state causes the dump capacitor to discharge and also short circuits the transformer means to cause the switching means to revert to its non-conducting state; and electrical conversion means to receive the pulse discharges from the dump capacitor and to convert them to said pulses of electrical electrical which are applied between said first and second electrodes.


15. The combination claimed in claim 10, wherein the electrical conversion means comprises a voltage step-down transformer having a primary coil to receive the pulse discharge from said dump capacitor and a secondary coil electrically connected between said first and second electrodes.


16. The combination of an internal combustion engine having an inlet to receive a combustible fuel and fuel supply apparatus comprising:


a vessel to hold an aqueous electrolyte solution;


a first hollow cylindrical electrode disposed within said vessel and provided about its outer surface with a series of circumferentially spaced and longitudinally extending flutes;


a second hollow cylindrical electrode surrounding the first electrode and segmented into a series of electrically connected longitudinally extending strips; said strips being equal in number to the number of said flutes and being in radial alignment with the crests of said flutes;


current generating means for generating a pulsating current between said first and second electrodes to produce hydrogen and oxygen gases within the vessel;


gas collection and delivery means to collect the hydrogen and oxygen gases and to direct them to the engine inlet means; and


water admission means to admit water to the vessel.


17. The combination claimed in claim 26, wherein said current generating means comprises a source of direct current; a first transformer means having primary coil means energised by direct current energy from said source and secondary coil means inductively coupled to the primary coil means; a dump capacitor connected to the secondary coil means of the first transformer means so as to be charged by electrical output of that coil means; oscillator means to derive electrical pulses from direct current energy of said source; a switching device switchable from non-conducting state to a conducting state in response to each of the electrical pulses derived by the oscillator means and connected to the secondary coil means of the first transformer means and the dump capacitor such that each switching from its non-conducting state to its conducting state causes the dump capacitor to discharge and also short circuits the first transformer means to cause a second transformer to receive the pulse discharges from the dump capacitor and to transform them to pulses of electrical energy which are applied between said first and second electrodes.


18. The combination claimed in claim 26, wherein the second transformer means has primary coil means energised by the pulse discharges from the dump capacitor and secondary coil means which is inductively coupled to the primary coil means and is connected to the first and second electrodes such that the first electrode operates as an anode and the second electrode operates as a cathode.

 

 

 

 

 

The Water Fracture Cell of Christopher Eccles

 

UK Patent App. 2,324,307      21st October 1998     Inventor: Christopher R. Eccles

 

FRACTURE  CELL  APPARATUS

 

 

Please note that this is a re-worded extract from the patent and the diagrams have been adapted slightly.  It describes a device for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen gasses via electrolysis using electrodes which are placed on the outside of the cell.

 

 

ABSTRACT

Fracture cell apparatus including a capacitive fracture cell 20 comprising a container 21 having walls 21a, and 21b made of non-electrically conducting material for containing a liquid dielectric 26, and spaced apart electrodes 22 and 23 positioned outside container 21 with the liquid dielectric 26 between the electrodes,  and a mechanism (8a and 8b in Fig.1 and Fig.2) for applying positive and negative voltage pulses to each of the electrods 22 and 23.  In use, whenever one of a positive voltage pulse and a negative voltage pulse is applied to one of the two electrodes, the other of a positive voltage pulse and a negative voltage pulse is applied to the other of the two electrodes, thereby creating an alternating electric field across the liquid dielectric to cause fracture of the liquid dielectric 26.  The apparatus may be used for generating hydrogen gas.

 

 

FRACTURE CELL APPARATUS

This invention relates to a fracture cell apparatus and to a method of generating fuel gas from such fracture cell apparatus.  In particular, but not exclusively, the invention relates to an apparatus and method for providing fuel gas from water.

 

Conventionally, the principal methods of splitting a molecular species into its component atomic constituents have been either purely chemical or purely electrolytic:

 

Purely chemical reactions always involve "third-party" reagents and do not involve the interaction of(l) an applied external electrical influence, and (2) a simple substance. Conventional electrolysis involves the passage of an electric current through a medium (the electrolyte), such current being the product of ion-transits between the electrodes of the cell.  When ions are attracted towards either the cathode or the anode of a conventional electrolytic cell, they either receive or donate electrons on contact with the respective electrode.  Such electron exchanges constitute the current during electrolysis.  It is not possible to effect conventional electrolysis to any useful degree without the passage of this current; it is a feature of the process.

A number of devices have recently been described which purport to effect "fracture" of, particularly, water by means of resonant electrostatic phenomena.  In particular one known device and process for producing oxygen and hydrogen from water is disclosed in US-A-4936961.  In this known device a so-called fuel cell water "capacitor" is provided in which two concentrically arranged spaced apart "capacitor" plates are positioned in a container of water, the water contacting, and serving as the dielectric between, the "capacitor" plates.  The "capacitor" is in effect a charge-dependent resistor which begins to conduct after a small displacement current begins to flow. The ”capacitor" forms part of a resonant charging circuit that includes an inductance in series with the "capacitor".  The "capacitor" is subjected to a pulsating, unipolar electric charging voltage which subjects the water molecules within the "capacitor" to a pulsating electric field between the capacitor plates.  The "capacitor" remains charged during the application of the pulsating charging voltage causing the covalent electrical bonding of the hydrogen and oxygen atoms within the water molecules to become destabilised, resulting in hydrogen and oxygen atoms being liberated from the molecules as elemental gases.

 

Such known fracture devices have, hitherto, always featured, as part of their characteristics, the physical contact of a set of electrodes with the water, or other medium to be fractured. The primary method for limiting current flow through the cell is the provision of a high impedance power supply network, and the heavy reliance on the time-domain performance of the ions within the water (or other medium), the applied voltage being effectively "switched off" in each cycle before ion-transit can occur to any significant degree.

 

In use of such a known system, there is obviously an upper limit to the number of ion-migrations, electron captures, and consequent molecule-to-atom disruptions which can occur during any given momentary application of an external voltage.  In order to perform effectively, such devices require sophisticated current-limiting and very precise switching mechanisms.

 

A common characteristic of all such known fracture devices described above, which causes them to behave as though they were conventional electrolysis cells at some point in time after the application of the external voltage, is that they have electrodes in actual contact with the water or other medium.

 

The present invention seeks to provide an alternative method of producing fracture of certain simple molecular species, for example water.

 

According to one aspect of the present invention there is provided a fracture cell apparatus including a capacitive fracture cell comprising a container having walls made of non-electrically conducting material for containing a liquid dielectric, and spaced apart electrodes positioned outside the container with the liquid dielectric between the electrodes, and a mechanism for applying positive and negative voltage pulses to each of the electrodes so that, whenever one of a positive voltage pulse and a negative voltage pulse is applied to one of the two electrodes, the other voltage pulse is applied to the other electrode, thereby creating an alternating electric field across the liquid dielectric to cause fracture of the liquid dielectric.

 

In the apparatus of this invention, the electrodes do not contact the liquid dielectric which is to be fractured or disrupted.  The liquid to be fractured is the simple dielectric of a capacitor.  No purely ohmic element of conductance exists within the fracture cell and, in use, no current flows due to an ion-carrier mechanism within the cell.  The required fracture or disruption of the liquid dielectric is effected by the applied electric field whilst only a simple displacement current occurs within the cell.

 

Preferably the liquid dielectric comprises water, e.g. distilled water, tap water or deuterated water.

 

Conveniently each electrode comprises a bipolar electrode.

 

The mechanism for alternately applying positive and negative pulses, provides step voltages alternately to the two electrodes with a short period of time during each charge voltage cycle in which no step voltage is applied to either electrode.  Typically, step voltages in excess of 15 kV, typically about 25 kV, on either side of a reference potential, e.g. earth, are applied to the electrodes.  In effect, trains of pulses having alternating positive and negative values are applied to the electrodes, the pulses applied to the different electrodes being "phase shifted".   In the case where each electrode comprises a bipolar electrode, each bipolar electrode comprising first and second electrode "plates" electrically insulated from each other, a train of positive pulses is arranged to be applied to one electrode plate of each bipolar electrode and a train of negative pulses is arranged to be applied to the other electrode plate of each bipolar electrode.  One electrode plate of one bipolar electrode forms a first set with one electrode plate of the other bipolar electrode and the other electrode plate of the one bipolar electrode forms a second set with the other electrode plate of the other bipolar electrode.  For each set, a positive pulse is applied to one electrode plate and a negative pulse is applied simultaneously to the other electrode plate.  By alternately switching the application of positive and negative pulses from one to the other set of electrode plates, an "alternating" electric field is generated across the dielectric material contained in the container.  The pulse trains are synchronised so that there is a short time interval between the removal of pulses from one electrode plate set and the application of pulses to the other electrode plate set.

 

According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method of generating gas comprising, applying positive and negative voltage pulses alternately to the electrodes (positioned either side of, but not in contact with, a liquid dielectric), the voltage pulses being applied so that, whenever one of a positive voltage pulse and a negative voltage pulse is applied to one of the two electrodes, the other of a positive voltage pulse and a negative voltage pulse is applied to the other of the two electrodes, the applied voltage pulses generating an alternating electric field across the liquid dielectric causing fracture of the liquid dielectric into gaseous media.  Preferably, voltages of at least 15 kV, e.g. 25 kV, either side of a reference value, e.g. earth, are applied across the liquid dielectric to generate the alternating electric field.

 

An embodiment of the invention will now be described by way of example only, with particular reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

 

 

Fig.1 is a circuit diagram of fracture cell apparatus according to the invention;

 

 

 

Fig.2 shows in more detail a part of the circuit diagram of Figure 1;

 

 

 

 

Fig.3 shows the different waveforms at various parts of the circuit diagram of Fig.1;

 

Fig.4 is a schematic diagram of a fracture cell for use in fracture cell apparatus according to the invention,

 

 

 

 

Fig.5 shows trains of pulses applied to electrodes of the fracture cell apparatus according to the invention.

 

 

If a large electric field is applied across a pair of electrode plates positioned either side of a cell containing water, disruption of the water molecules will occur.  Such disruption yields hydrogen nuclei and HO- ions. Such a molecular disruption is of little interest in terms of obtaining a usable result from the cell.  A proton-rich zone exists for as long as the field exists and quickly re-establishes equilibrium ion-product when the field is removed.

 

One noticeable side-effect, however, is that the hydroxyl ions (which will migrate to the +ve charged plate) are stripped of electrons as they approach the cell boundary.  Any negatively-charged ion will exhibit this behaviour in a strong enough potential well, but the OH ions have a strong tendency to such dissociation. This results, momentarily, in a region of negative-charge close to the positive cell boundary.  Thus, on opposite sides of the active cell, there are hydrogen nuclei (free proton zone) and displaced electrons (-ve charge zone), both tending to increase in density closer to the charged plates.

 

If, at this point, the charge is removed from the plates, there is a tendency for the charge-zones to move, albeit very slowly, towards the centre of the active cell.  The ion-transit rates of free electrons and of hydrogen nuclei are, however, some two orders of magnitude greater than either H30+ ions or OH ions.

 

If the charges are now replaced on the plates, but with opposite polarity, the interesting and potentially useful aspect of the process is revealed.  Hydrogen nucleus migration is accelerated in the direction of the new -ve plate and free electron migration takes place towards the new +ve plate.  Where there is a sufficient concentration of both species, including the accumulations due to previous polarity changes, monatomic hydrogen is formed with the liberation of some heat energy.  Normal molecular association occurs and H2 gas bubbles off from the cell.

 

Also existing OH radicals are further stripped of hydrogen nuclei and contribute to the process.  Active, nascent 0-- ions rapidly lose their electronic space charge to the +ve field and monatomic oxygen forms, forming the diatomic molecule and similarly bubbling off from the cell.

 

Thus, the continuous application of a strong electric field, changing in polarity every cycle, is sufficient to disrupt water into its constituent gaseous elements, utilising a small fraction of the energy required in conventional electrolysis or chemical energetics, and yielding heat energy of the enthalpy of formation of the diatomic bonds in the hydrogen and oxygen.

 

 

Apparatus for performing the above process is described below.  In particular, electronic circuitry to effect the invention is shown in the simplified block diagram of Fig.1.  In Fig.1 a pulse-repetition frequency (PRF) generator 1 comprises an astable multivibrator clock running at a frequency which is preset for any application, but able to be varied across a range of approximately 5-30 kHz.  The generator 1 drives, by triggering with the trailing edge of its waveform, a pulse-width (PW) timer 2.

 

The output of the timer 2 is a train of regular pulses whose width is determined by the setting of timer 2 and whose repetition frequency is set by the PRF generator 1.

 

A gate clock 3 comprises a simple 555-type circuit which produce a waveform (see Fig.3a) having a period of 1 to 5 ms, e.g. 2 ms as shown in Fig.3a.  The duty cycle of this waveform is variable from 50% to around 95%. The waveform is applied to one input of each of a pair of AND gates 5a and 5b and also to a binary divide-by-two counter 4.  The output of the counter 4 is shown in Fig.3b.

 

The signal from the divide-by-two counter 4 is applied directly to the AND gate 5b serving phase-2 driver circuitry 7a but is inverted before application to the AND gate 5a serving phase-l driver circuitry 7a.  The output of the AND gate 5a is therefore ((CLOCK and (NOT (CLOCK)/2)) and the output of the AND gate 5b is ((CLOCK) and (CLOCK/2)), the waveforms, which are applied to pulse-train gates 6a and 6b, being shown in Fig.3c and Fig.3d.

 

Trains of 5-30 kHz pulses are applied to drive amplifiers 7a and 7b alternately, with a small "off"-period during which no pulses are applied to either amplifier.  The duration of each "off" period is dependent upon the original duty cycle of the clock timer 3.  The reason for the small "off" period in the driver waveforms is to prevent local corona arc as the phases change over each cycle.

 

The drive amplifiers 7a and 7b each use a BC182L transistor 10 (see Fig.2), small toroidal 2:1 pulse transformer 11 and a BUZll power-MOSFET 12 and apply pulse packets across the primary windings of their respective 25 kV line-output transformers 8a and 8b to produce an EHT ac voltage of high frequency at their secondary windings.  The secondary windings are 'lifted' from system ground and provide, after simple half-wave rectification, the applied field for application to cell 20 (see Fig.4).

 

Cell 20 comprises a container 21 having walls 21a, 21b of electrically insulating material, e.g. a thermoplastics material, such as polymethyl methacrylate, typically spaced about 5 mm apart, and bipolar cell electrodes generally designated 22 and 23 and typically constructed from aluminium foil, positioned outside the walls 21a and 21b.  Each bipolar cell electrode comprises a pair of electrode plates 22a and 22b (or 23a and 23b) for each side of the cell 20 separated from each other by an electrically insulating layer 24 (or 25) , e.g. of polycarbonate plastics material about 0.3 mm thick.

 

The electrode plates 22a and 23a form one set (set A) of electrode plates positioned on opposite sides of container 21 and the electrode plates 22b and 23b form another set of electrode plates positioned on opposite sides of the container 21.  An insulating layer 25, e.g. of polycarbonate material, similar to the insulating layers 24a or 24b may be positioned between each bipolar cell electrode 22 (or 23) and its adjacent container wall 21a(or 21b).  A liquid electrolyte, preferably water, is placed in the container 21.

 

In use, a train of positive pulses is applied to the electrode plates 22a and 23b and a train of negative pulses is applied to the electrode plates 23a and 22b.  The timing of the pulses is shown schematically in Fig.5, which illustrates that, for set A (or for set B), whenever a positive pulse is applied to electrode plate 22a (or 23b), a negative pulse is also applied to electrode plate 23a (or 22b).  However the pulses applied to the electrode plate set A are "out of phase" with the pulses applied to the electrode plate set B.  In each train of pulses, the duration of each pulse is less than the gap between successive pulses.

 

 

By arranging for the pulses of electrode plate set B to be applied in the periods when no pulses are applied to the electrode plate set A, the situation arises where pairs of pulses are applied successively to the electrode plates of different sets of electrode plates, there being a short interval of time when no pulses are applied between each successive application of pulses to pairs of electrode plates.  In other words, looking at Fig.5, pulses P1 and Q1 are applied at the same time to the electrode plates 22a and 23a.  The pulses P1 and Q1 are of the same pulse length and, at the end of their duration, there is a short time period t before pulses R1 and S1 are applied to the electrode plates 23b and 22b.

 

The pulses R1 and S1 are of the same pulse length as the pulses P1 and Q1 and, at the end of their duration, there is a further time t before the next pulses P2 and Q2 are applied to the electrode plates 22a and 23a.  It will be appreciated that whenever a pulse of one sign is applied to one of the electrode plates of a set, a pulse of the opposite sign is applied to the other electrode plate of that set.

 

Furthermore, by switching from one to the other electrode plate set the polarities applied across the container are repeatedly switched resulting in an "alternating" electric field being created across the "liquid dielectric" water in the container.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Electrolyser of Spiro Spiros

 

Patent WO 9528510              26th October 1995             Inventor: Spiro Ross Spiros

 

IMPROVEMENTS IN ELECTROLYSIS SYSTEMS

& THE AVAILABILITY OF OVER-UNITY ENERGY

 

 

This patent application shows the details of an electrolyser system which it is claimed, produces greater output than the input power needed to operate it.

 

 

ABSTRACT

A looped energy system for the generation of excess energy available to do work is disclosed. The system comprises an electrolysis cell unit 150 receiving a supply of water to liberate separated hydrogen gas 154 and oxygen 156 by electrolysis driven by a DC voltage 152 applied across respective anodes and cathodes of the cell unit 150.  A hydrogen gas receiver 158 receives and stores hydrogen gas liberated by the cell unit 150, and an oxygen gas receiver 160 receives and stores oxygen gas liberated by the cell unit 150.  A gas expansion device 162 expands the stored gases to recover expansion work, and a gas combustion device 168 mixes and combusts the expanded hydrogen gas and oxygen gas to recover combusted work. A proportion of the sum of the expansion work and the combustion work sustains electrolysis of the cell unit to retain operational gas pressure in the gas receivers 158, 160 such that the energy system is self-sustaining, and there is excess energy available from the sum of energies.

 

 

TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to the generation of hydrogen gas and oxygen gas from water, either as an admixture or as separated gases, by the process of electrolysis, and relates further to applications for the use of the liberated gas. Embodiments of the invention relate particularly to apparatus for the efficient generation of these gases, and to use of the gases in an internal combustion engine and an implosion pump.  The invention also discloses a closed-loop energy generation system where latent molecular energy is liberated as a form of 'free energy' so the system can be self-sustaining.

 

Reference is made to commonly-owned International patent application No. PCT/AU94/000532, having the International filing date of 6 September 1994.

 

Background Art

The technique of electrolysing water in the presence of an electrolyte such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH) to liberate hydrogen and oxygen gas (H2, 02) is well known. The process involves applying a DC potential difference between two or more anode/cathode electrode pairs and delivering the minimum energy required to break the H-O bonds (i.e. 68.3 kcal per mole @ STP).

 

The gases are produced in the stoichiometric proportions for O2:H2 of 1:2 liberated respectively from the anode (+) and cathode (-).

 

Reference can be made to the following texts:

"Modern Electrochemistry, Volume 2, John O'M. Bockris and Amulya K.N. Reddy, Plenum Publishing Corporation",

"Electro-Chemical Science, J. O'M. Bockris and D.M. Drazic, Taylor and Francis Limited" and

"Fuel Cells, Their Electrochemistry, J. O'M. Bockris and S. Srinivasan, McGraw-Hill Book Company".

 

A discussion of experimental work in relation to electrolysis processes can be obtained from "Hydrogen Energy, Part A, Hydrogen Economy Miami Energy Conference, Miami Beach, Florida, 1974, edited by T. Nejat Veziroglu, Plenum Press".  The papers presented by J. O'M. Bockris on pages 371 to 379, by F.C. Jensen and F.H. Schubert on pages 425 to 439 and by John B. Pangborn and John C. Sharer on pages 499 to 508 are of particular relevance.

 

On a macro-scale, the amount of gas produced depends upon a number of variables, including the type and concentration of the electrolytic solution used, the anode/cathode electrode pair surface area, the electrolytic resistance (equating to ionic conductivity, which is a function of temperature and pressure), achievable current density and anode/cathode potential difference. The total energy delivered must be sufficient to disassociate the water ions to generate hydrogen and oxygen gases, yet avoid plating (oxidation/reduction) of the metallic or conductive non-metallic materials from which the electrodes are constructed.

 

 

 

 

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION

The invention discloses a looped-energy system for the generation of excess energy available to do work, the said system comprising of:

 

An electrolysis cell unit receiving a supply of water for liberating separated hydrogen gas and oxygen gas by electrolysis due to a DC voltage applied across respective anodes and cathodes of the cell;

 

A hydrogen gas receiver to receive and store the hydrogen gas liberated by the electrolysis cell;

 

An oxygen gas receiver to receive and store the oxygen gas liberated by the electrolysis cell;

 

A gas-expansion chamber to allow the expansion of the stored gases to recover expansion work; and

 

A gas-combustion mechanism for mixing and combusting the expanded hydrogen and oxygen gases to recover combustion work; and wherein a proportion of the sum of the expansion work and the combustion work sustains the electrolysis of the electrolysis cell in order to retain the operational gas pressure in the hydrogen and oxygen gas receivers so that the energy system is self-sustaining and there is excess energy available.

 

The invention further discloses a method for the generation of excess energy available to do work by the process of electrolysis, said method comprising the steps of: electrolysing water by a DC voltage to liberate separated hydrogen gas and oxygen gas; separately receiving and storing the hydrogen and oxygen gases in a manner to be self-pressuring; separately expanding the stored gas to recover expansion energy; burning the expanded gases to recover combustion energy; and applying a portion of the sum of the expansion work and the combustion work as the DC voltage to retain operational gas pressures and sustain the electrolysis, there being excess energy available to do this.

 

 

The invention also discloses an internal combustion engine powered by hydrogen and oxygen comprising of:

 

At least one cylinder and

 

At least one reciprocating piston within the cylinder;

 

A hydrogen gas input port in communication with the cylinder for receiving a supply of pressurised hydrogen;

 

An oxygen gas input port in communication with the cylinder for receiving a supply of pressurised oxygen; and

 

An exhaust port in communication with the cylinder and wherein the engine can be operated in a two-stroke manner whereby, at the top of the stroke, hydrogen gas is supplied through the respective inlet port to the cylinder driving the piston downwards, oxygen gas then is supplied through the respective inlet port to the cylinder to drive the cylinder further downwards, after which time self-detonation occurs and the piston moves to the bottom of the stroke and upwards again with the exhaust port opened to force out the water vapour resulting from the detonation.

 

 

The invention also discloses an implosion pump comprising of;

 

A combustion chamber interposed, and in communication with,

 

An upper reservoir and a lower reservoir separated by a vertical distance across which water is to be pumped, this chamber receiving admixed hydrogen and oxygen at a pressure sufficient to lift a volume of water the distance from there to the top reservoir, the gas in the chamber then being ignited to create a vacuum in the chamber to draw water from the lower reservoir to fill the chamber, whereupon a pumping cycle is established and can be repeated.

 

 

The invention also discloses a parallel stacked arrangement of cell plates for a water electrolysis unit, the cell plates alternately forming an anode and cathode of the electrolysis unit, and the arrangement including separate hydrogen gas and oxygen gas outlet ports respectively linked to the anode cell plates and the cathode cell plates and extending longitudinally along the plate stack.  These outlet ports are arranged so as to be insulated from the anode and cathode plates.

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Figs.1 1a-16 of noted International application no. PCT/AU94/000532 are reproduced to aid description of the present invention, but herein denoted as Figs.la-6:

 

Fig.1A and Fig.1B show an embodiment of a cell plate:

 

Fig.2A and Fig.2B show a complementary cell plate to that of Fig.lA and Fig1B:

 

 

Fig.3 shows detail of the perforations and porting of the cell plates of Figs. lA,lB, 2A and 2B:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.4 shows an exploded stacked arrangement of the cell plates of Figs. lA,lB, 2A and 2B:

 

 

 

Fig.5A shows a schematic view of the gas separation system of Fig.4:

 

 

 

 

Fig.5B shows a stylised representation of Fig.5a:

 

Fig.5C shows an electrical equivalent circuit of Fig.5A and

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.6 shows a gas collection system for use with the cell bank separation system of Figs. 4 and 5a.

 

 

 

 

 

The remaining drawings are:

Fig.7A and Fig.7B are views of a first cell plate:

 

 

Fig.8A and Fig.8B are views of a second cell plate:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.9 shows detail of the edge margin of the first cell plate:

 

Fig10 shows an exploded stacked arrangement of the cell plates shown in Fig.7A and Fig.8A:

 

 

Fig.11 is a cross-sectional view of three of the stacked cell plates shown in Fig.10 in the vicinity of a gas port:

 

Fig.12A and Fig.12B respectively show detail of the first and second cell plates in the vicinity of a gas port:

 

 

Fig.13 is a cross-sectional view of a cell unit of four stacked cell plates in the vicinity of an interconnecting shaft:

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.14 shows a perspective view of a locking nut used in the arrangement of Fig.13:

 

Fig.15 shows an idealised electrolysis system:

 

 

 

 

Figs.16-30 are graphs supporting the system of Fig.15 and the availability of over-unity energy:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figs. 31a to 31e show a hydrogen/oxygen gas-driven internal combustion engine:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figs. 32a-32c show a gas-driven implosion pump:

 

 

 

 

 

 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION AND BEST MODE OF PERFORMANCE

Fig.lA and Fig.2A show embodiments of a first and second type of cell plate 90, 98 as an end view.  Fig.1B and Fig.2B are partial cross-sectional views along the respective mid-lines as shown.  Common reference numerals have been used where appropriate.  The plates 90, 98 can have the function of either an anode (+) or a cathode (-), as will become apparent.  Each comprises an electrode disc 92 which is perforated with hexagonally shaped holes 96.  The disc 92 is made from steel or resin-bonded carbon or conductive polymer material.  The disc 92 is housed in a circular rim or sleeve 94.  The function of the perforations 96 is to maximise the surface area of the electrode disc 92 and minimise the weight over solid constructions by 45%.

 

By way of example, for a disc of diameter 280 mm, the thickness of the disc must be 1 mm in order to allow the current density (which ranges from 90 A / 2,650 cm2 - 100 A / 2,940 cm2 of the anode or cathode) to be optimal. If the diameter of the plate is increased, which consequently increases the surface area, it is necessary to increase the thickness of the plate in order to maintain uniformity of conductance for the desired current density.

 

The hexagonal perforations in a 1 mm disc have a distance of 2 mm between the flats, twice the thickness of the plate in order to maintain the same total surface area prior to perforation, and be 1 mm away from the next adjacent perforation to allow the current density to be optimal.   A (flat-to-flat) distance of 1 mm between the hexagonal perforations is required, because a smaller distance will result in thermal losses and a larger distance will add to the overall weight of the plate.

 

The sleeve 94 is constructed of PVC material and incorporates a number of equally spaced shaft holes 100,102.  The holes are for the passage of interconnecting shafts provided in a stacked arrangement of the plates 90, 98 forming the common conductor for the respective anode and cathode plates.  The further two upper holes 104,106 each support a conduit respectively for the out-flow of oxygen and hydrogen gases. The further holes 108,110 at the bottom of the sleeve 94 are provided for the inlet of water and electrolyte to the respective cell plates 90, 98.

 

Fig.3 shows an enlarged view of a portion of the cell plate 90 shown in Fig.lA.  The port hole 104 is connected to the hexagonal perforations 96 within the sleeve 94 by an internal channel 112.  A similar arrangement is in place for the other port hole 106, and for the water/electrolyte supply holes 108, 110.

 

If it is the case that the hydrogen and oxygen gases liberated are to be kept separate (i.e. not to be formed as an admixture), then it is necessary to separate those gases as they are produced.  In the prior art this is achieved by use of diaphragms which block the passage of gases and effectively isolate the water/electrolyte on each side of the diaphragm. Ionic transfer thus is facilitated by the conductive nature of the diaphragm material (i.e. a water - diaphragm - water path). This results in an increase in the ionic resistance and hence a reduction in efficiency.

 

Fig.4 shows an exploded stacked arrangement of four cell plates, being an alternative stacking of two (anode) cell plates 90 and two (cathode) cell plates 98.  The two ends of the stacked arrangement of cell plates delineates a single cell unit 125.

 

Interposed between each adjacent cell plate 90, 98 is a PTFE separation 116.   Although not shown in Fig.4, the cell unit includes separate hydrogen and oxygen gas conduits that respectively pass through the stacked arrangement of cell plates via the port holes 106, 104 respectively.  In a similar way, conduits are provided for the supply of water/electrolyte, respectively passing through the holes 108, 110 at the bottom of the respective plates 90, 98.  Only two pairs of anode/cathode cell plates are shown.  The number of such plates can be greatly increased per cell unit 125.

 

Also not shown are the interconnecting conductive shafts that electrically interconnect alternative common cell plates. The reason for having a large diameter hole in one cell plate adjacent to a smaller diameter hole in the next cell plate, is so that an interconnecting shaft will pass through the larger diameter hole, and not make an electrical connection (i.e. insulated with PVC tubing) rather only forming an electrical connection between alternate (common) cell plates.

 

Fig.4 is an exploded view of one cell unit 125 arrangement.  When fully constructed, all the elements are stacked in intimate contact.  Mechanical fastening is achieved by use of one of two adhesives such as (a) "PUR-FECT LOK" (TM) 34-9002, which is a Urethane Reactive Hot Melt adhesive with a main ingredient of Methylene Bispheny/Dirsocynate (MDI), and (b) "MY-T-BOND" (TM) which is a PVC solvent based adhesive.   Both adhesives are Sodium Hydroxide resistant, which is necessary because the electrolyte contains 20% Sodium Hydroxide.  In that case the water/electrolyte only resides within the area contained within the cell plate sleeve 94.  Thus the only path for the inlet of water/electrolyte is by bottom channels 118, 122 and the only outlet for the gases is by the top channels 112, 120.  In a system constructed and tested by the inventor, the thickness of the cell plates 90, 98 is 1 mm (2 mm on the rim because of the PVC sleeve 94), with a diameter of 336 mm. The cell unit 125 is segmented from the next cell by an insulating PVC segmentation disc 114.   A segmentation disc 114 is also placed at the beginning and end of the entire cell bank.   If there is to be no separation of the liberated gases, then the PTFE membranes 116 are omitted and sleeve 94 is not required.

 

The PTFE membrane 116 is fibrous and has 0.2 to 1.0 micron interstices.   A suitable type is type Catalogue Code J, supplied by Tokyo Roshi International Inc (Advantec).  The water/electrolyte fills the interstices and ionic current flows only via the water - there is no contribution of ionic flow through the PTFE material itself.  This leads to a reduction in the resistance to ionic flow.  The PTFE material also has a 'bubble point' that is a function of pressure, hence by controlling the relative pressures at either side of the PTFE separation sheets, the gases can be 'forced' through the interstices to form an admixture, or otherwise kept separate.  Other advantages of this arrangement include a lesser cost of construction, improved operational efficiency and greater resistance to faults.

 

Fig.5A is a stylised, and exploded, schematic view of a linear array of three series-connected cell units 125. For clarity, only six interconnecting shafts 126-131 are shown. The shafts 126-131 pass through the respective shaft holes 102,100 in the various cell plates 90,98 in the stacked arrangement. The polarity attached to each of the exposed end shafts, to which the DC supply is connected also is indicated.  The shafts 126-131 do not run the full length of the three cell banks 125.  The representation is similar to the arrangement shown in Fig.7A and Fig.8.   One third the full DC source voltage appears across each anode/cathode cell plate pair 90,98.

 

Further, the gas conduits 132,133, respectively for hydrogen and oxygen, that pass through the port holes 104,106 in the cell plates 90,98 also are shown. In a similar way, water/electrolyte conduits 134,135, passing through the water port holes 108,110 in the cell plates also are shown.

 

Fig.5B particularly shows how the relative potential difference in the middle cell bank 125 changes.  That is, the plate electrode 90a now functions as a cathode (i.e. relatively more negative) to generate hydrogen, and the plate electrode 98a now functions as an anode (i.e. relatively more positive) to generate oxygen.  This is the case for every alternate cell unit.  The arrowheads shown in Fig.5B indicate the electron and ionic current circuit.  Fig.5C is an electrical equivalent circuit representation of Fig.5B, where the resistive elements represent the ionic resistance between adjacent anode/cathode plates.  Thus it can be seen that the cell units are connected in series.

 

Because of the change of function of the cell plates 90a and 98a, the complementary gases are liberated at each, hence the respective channels 112 are connected to the opposite gas conduit 132,133.  Practically, this can be achieved by the simple reversal of the cell plates 90,98.

 

Fig.6 shows the three cell units 125 of Fig.5A connected to a gas collection arrangement.  The cell units 125 are located within a tank 140 which is filled with water/electrolyte to the indicated level h.  The water is consumed as the electrolysis process proceeds, and replenishing supply is provided via the inlet 152.  The water/electrolyte level h can be viewed via the sight glass 154. In normal operation, the different streams of hydrogen and oxygen are produced and passed from the cell units 125 to respective rising columns 142,144.  That is, the pressure of electrolyte on opposed sides of the PTFE membranes 116 is equalised, thus the gases cannot admix.

 

The columns 142,144 also are filled with the water/electrolyte, and as it is consumed at the electrode plates, replenishing supply of electrolyte is provided by way of circulation through the water/electrolyte conduits 134,135.  The circulation is caused by entrainment by the liberated gases, and by the circulatory inducing nature of the conduits and columns.

 

The upper extent of the tank 140 forms two scrubbing towers 156,158, respectively for the collection of oxygen and hydrogen gases.  The gases pass up a respective column 142,144, and out from the columns via openings therein at a point within the interleaved baffles 146.  The point where the gases exit the columns 142,144 is beneath the water level h, which serves to settle any turbulent flow and entrained electrolyte.  The baffles 146 located above the level h scrub the gas of any entrained electrolyte, and the scrubbed gas then exits by respective gas outlet columns 148,150 and so to a gas receiver.  The level h within the tank 140 can be regulated by any convenient means, including a float switch, again with the replenishing water being supplied by the inlet pipe 152.

 

The liberated gases will always separate from the water/electrolyte solution by virtue of the difference in densities.   Because of the relative height of the respective set of baffles, and due to the density differential between the gases and the water/electrolyte, it is not possible for the liberated hydrogen and oxygen gases to mix.  The presence of the full volume of water within the tank 140 maintains the cell plates in an immersed state, and further serves to absorb the shock of any internal detonations should they occur.

 

In the event that a gas admixture is required, then firstly the two flow valves 136,137 respectively located in the oxygen gas outlet conduit 132 and water/electrolyte inlet port 134 are closed.  This blocks the outlet path for the oxygen gas and forces the inlet water/electrolyte to pass to the inlet conduit 134 via a one-way check valve 139 and pump 138.  The water/electrolyte within the tank 140 is under pressure by virtue of its depth (volume), and the pump 138 operates to increase the pressure of water/electrolyte occurring about the anode cell plates 90,98a to be at an increased pressure with respect to the water/electrolyte on the other side of the membrane 116.

 

This pressure differential is sufficient to cause the oxygen gas to migrate through the membrane, thus admixed oxygen and hydrogen are liberated via the gas output conduit 133 and column 144.  Since there is no return path for the water/electrolyte supplied by the pump 138, the pressure about the cell plates 90,98a will increase further, and to a point where the difference is sufficient such that the water/electrolyte also can pass through the membrane 116.  Typically, pressure differential in the range of 1.5 - 10 psi is required to allow passage of gas, and a pressure differential in the range of 10 - 40 psi for water/electrolyte.

 

While only three cell units 125 are shown, clearly any number, connected in series, can be implemented.

 

Embodiments of the present invention now will be described. Where applicable, like reference numerals have been used.

 

Fig.7A and Fig.7B show a first type of cell plate 190 respectively as an end view and as an enlarged cross-sectional view along line VIIb-VIIb.  The cell plate 190 differs from the previous cell plate 90 shown in Fig.1A and Fig.1B in a number of important aspects.  The region of the electrode disc 192 received within the sleeve 194 now is perforated.  The function of these perforations is to further reduce the weight of the cell plate 190.  The shaft holes 200,202 again pass through the electrode disc 192, but so too do the upper holes 204,206 through which the conduits for the out-flow of liberated hydrogen and oxygen gases pass. The bottom holes 208,210, provided for the inlet of water and electrolyte, now also are located in the region of the sleeve 194 coincident with the perforated edge margin of the electrode disc 192.  The channels 212,218 respectively communicating with the port hole 204 and the supply hole 210 also are shown.

 

Fig.8A and Fig.8B show a second type of cell plate 198 as a companion to the first cell plate 190, and as the same respective views.  The second cell plate 198 is somewhat similar to the cell plate 98 previously shown in Fig.2A and Fig.2B.  The differences between them are the same as the respective differences between the cell plate shown in Fig.1A and Fig.1B and the one shown in Fig.7A and Fig.7B. The arrangement of the respective channels 220,222 with respect to the port 206 and the water supply hole 208 also are shown.

 

In the fabrication of the cell plates 190,198, the sleeve 94 is injection moulded from PVC plastics material formed about the edge margin of the electrode disc 192.

 

The injection moulding process results in the advantageous forming of interconnecting sprues forming within the perforations 196 in the region of the disc 192 held within the sleeve 194, thus firmly anchoring the sleeve 194 to the disc 192.

 

Fig.9 is a view similar to Fig.3, but for the modified porting arrangement and perforations (shown in phantom where covered by the sleeve) of the region of the disc 192 within and immediately outside of the sleeve 194.

 

Fig.10 shows a cell unit 225 in the form of an exploded alternating stacking of first and second cell plates 190,198, much in the same manner as Fig.4.  Only two pairs of anode/cathode cell plates are shown, however the number of such plates can be greatly increased per cell unit 225.  The membrane 216 preferably is type QR-HE silica fibre with the alternative being PTFE.    Both are available from Tokyo Roshi

International Inc. (Advantec) of Japan.  Type QR-HE is a hydrophobic material having 0.2 to 1.0 micron interstices, and is capable of operation at temperatures up to 1,0000C.   The cell unit 225 can be combined with other such cell units 225 to form an interconnected cell bank in the same manner as shown in Fig.5A, Fig.5B and Fig.5C.

 

Furthermore, the cell units can be put to use in a gas collection arrangement such as that shown in Fig.6. Operation of the gas separation system utilising the new cell plates 190,198 is in the same manner as previously described.

 

Fig.11 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of three cell plates in the vicinity of the oxygen port 204.  The cell plates comprise two of the first type of plate 190 shown in Fig.7A constituting a positive plate, and a single one of the second type of plate 198 shown in Fig.8A representing a negative plate.  The location of the respective channels 212 for each of the positive cell plates 190 is shown as a dashed representation.  The respective sleeves 194 of the three cell plates are formed from moulded PVC plastics as previously described, and in the region that forms the perimeter of the port 204 have a configuration particular to whether a cell plate is positive or negative.  In the present case, the positive cell plates 190 have a flanged foot 230 that, in the assembled construction, form the contiguous boundary of the gas port 204.  Each foot 230 has two circumferential ribs 232 which engage corresponding circumferential grooves 234 in the sleeve 194 of the negative plate 198.

 

The result of this arrangement is that the exposed metal area of the negative cell plates 198 always are insulated from the flow of oxygen gas liberated from the positive cell plates 190, thus avoiding the possibility of spontaneous explosion by the mixing of the separated hydrogen and oxygen gases.  This arrangement also overcomes the unwanted production of either oxygen gas or hydrogen gas in the gas port.

 

For the case of the gas port 206 carrying the hydrogen gas, the relative arrangement of the cell plates is reversed such that a flanged footing now is formed on the sleeve 194 of the other type of cell plate 198. This represents the converse arrangement to that shown in Fig.11.

 

Fig.12A and Fig.12B show perspective side views of adjacent cell plates, with Fig.12A representing a positive cell plate 190 and Fig.12B representing a negative cell plate 198.  The gas port 206 thus formed is to carry hydrogen gas.  The mating relationship between the flanged foot 230 and the end margin of the sleeve 194 of the positive cell plate 192 can be seen, particularly the interaction between the ribs 232 and the grooves 234.

 

Fig.13 is a cross-sectional view of four cell plates formed into a stacked arrangement delimited by two segmentation plates 240, together forming a cell unit 242.  Thus there are two positive cell plates 190 and two negative cell plates 198 in alternating arrangement.  The cross-section is taken in the vicinity of a shaft hole 202 through which a negative conductive shaft 244 passes.  The shaft 244 therefore is in intimate contact with the electrode discs 192 of the negative cell plates 198.  The electrodes discs 192 of the positive cell plates 190 do not extend to contact the shaft 244.  The sleeve 194 of the alternating negative cell plates 198 again have a form of flanged foot 246, although in this case the complementarily shaped ribs and grooves are formed only on the sleeve of the negative cell plates 198, and not on the sleeve 194 of the positive cell plates 190.  The segmentation plates 240 serve to delimit the stacked plates forming a single cell unit 242, with ones of the cell units 242 being stacked in a linear array to form a cell bank such as has been shown in Fig.5A.

 

A threaded shaft nut 250 acts as a spacer between adjacent electrodes connecting with the shaft 244.  Fig.14 is a perspective view of the shaft nut 250 showing the thread 252 and three recesses 254 for fastening nuts, screws or the like.

 

In all of Figs.11 to 13, the separation membrane material 216 is not shown, but is located in the spaces 248 between adjacent cell plates 190,198, extending to the margins of the electrode disks 192 in the vicinity of the gas ports 204,206 or the shaft holes 200,202.

 

An electrolysis hydrogen and oxygen gas system incorporating a gas separation system, such as has been described above, can therefore be operated to establish respective high pressure stores of gas. That is, the separated hydrogen and oxygen gases liberated by the electrolysis process are stored in separate gas receivers or pressure vessels.  The pressure in each will increase with the continuing inflow of gas.

 

Fig.15 shows an idealised electrolysis system, comprising an electrolysis cell 150 that receives a supply of water to be consumed. The electrolysis process is driven by a DC potential (Es) 152.  The potential difference applied to the cell 150 therefore must be sufficient to electrolyse the water into hydrogen and oxygen gas dependent upon, inter alia, the water pressure PC and the back pressure of gas PB acting on the surface of the water, together with the water temperature Tc.  The separate liberated hydrogen and oxygen gases, by a priming function, are pressurised to a high value by storage in respective pressure vessels 158,160, being carried by gas lines 154,156.

 

The pressurised store of gases then are passed to an energy conversion device that converts the flow of gas under pressure to mechanical energy (e.g. a pressure drop device 162).  This mechanical energy recovered WM is available to be utilised to provide useful work.  The mechanical energy WM also can be converted into electrical form, again to be available for use.

 

The resultant exhausted gases are passed via lines 164,166 to a combustion chamber 168.  Here, the gases are combusted to generate heat QR, with the waste product being water vapour.  The recovered heat QR can be recycled to the electrolysis cell to assist in maintaining the advantageous operating temperature of the cell.

 

The previously described combustion chamber 168 can alternatively be a fuel cell.  The type of fuel cell can vary from phosphoric acid fuel cells through to molten carbonate fuel cells and solid oxide cells.  A fuel cell generates both heat (QR) and electrical energy (WE), and thus can supply both heat to the cell 150 or to supplement or replace the DC supply (Es) 152.

 

Typically, these fuel cells can be of the type LaserCell TM as developed by Dr Roger Billings, the PEM Cell as available from Ballard Power Systems Inc. Canada or the Ceramic Fuel Cell (solid oxide) as developed by Ceramic Fuel Cells Ltd., Melbourne, Australia.

 

It is, of course, necessary to replenish the pressurised store of gases, thus requiring the continuing consumption of electrical energy.   The recovered electrical energy WE is in excess of the energy required to drive electrolysis at the elevated temperature and is used to replace the external electrical energy source 152, thereby completing the energy loop after the system is initially primed and started.

 

The present inventor has determined that there are some combinations of pressure and temperature where the efficiency of the electrolysis process becomes advantageous in terms of the total energy recovered, either as mechanical energy by virtue of a flow of gas at high pressure or as thermal energy by virtue of combustion (or by means of a fuel cell), with respect to the electrical energy consumed, to the extent of the recovered energy exceeding the energy required to sustain electrolysis at the operational pressure and temperature.  This has been substantiated by experimentation.  This notion has been termed "over-unity".

 

"Over-unity" systems can be categorised as broadly falling into three types of physical phenomena:

 

(i) An electrical device which produces 100 Watts of electrical energy as output after 10 Watts of electrical energy is input thereby providing 90 Watts of overunity (electrical) energy.

 

(ii) An electro-chemical device such as an electrolysis device where 10 Watts of electrical energy is input and 8 Watts is output being the thermal value of the hydrogen and oxygen gas output.  During this process, 2 Watts of electrical energy converted to thermal energy is lost due to specific inefficiencies of the electrolysis system.  Pressure - as the over-unity energy - is irrefutably produced during the process of hydrogen and oxygen gas generation during electrolysis.  Pressure is a product of the containment of the two separated gases.  The Law of Conservation of Energy (as referenced in "Chemistry Experimental Foundations", edited by Parry, R.W.; Steiner, L.E.; Tellefsen, R.L.; Dietz, P.M. Chap. 9, pp. 199-200, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey" and "An Experimental Science", edited by Pimentel, G.C., Chap. 7, pp. 115-117, W.H. & Freeman Co. San Francisco) is in equilibrium where the 10 watts of input equals the 8 watts thermal energy output plus the 2 watts of losses.  However, this Law ends at this point.  The present invention utilises the apparent additional energy being the pressure which is a by-product of the electrolysis process to achieve over-unity.

 

(iii) An electro-chemical device which produces an excess of thermal energy after an input of electrical energy in such devices utilised in "cold fusion" e.g. 10 watts of electrical energy as input and 50 watts of thermal energy as output.

 

The present invention represents the discovery of means by which the previously mentioned second phenomenon can be embodied to result in "over-unity" and the realisation of 'free' energy.  As previously noted, this is the process of liberating latent molecular energy.  The following sequence of events describes the basis of the availability of over-unity energy.

 

In a simple two plate (anode/cathode) electrolysis cell, an applied voltage differential of 1.57 DC Volts draws 0.034 Amps per cm2 and results in the liberation of hydrogen and oxygen gas from the relevant electrode plate. The electrolyte is kept at a constant temperature of 400C, and is open to atmospheric pressure.

 

The inefficiency of an electrolytic cell is due to its ionic resistance (approximately 20%), and produces a by-product of thermal energy.  The resistance reduces, as does the minimum DC voltage required to drive electrolysis, as the temperature increases.  The overall energy required to dissociate the bonding electrons from the water molecule also decreases as the temperature increases.  In effect, thermal energy acts as a catalyst to reduce the energy requirements in the production of hydrogen and oxygen gases from the water molecule.  Improvements in efficiency are obtainable by way of a combination of thermal energy itself and the NaOH electrolyte both acting to reduce the resistance of the ionic flow of current.

 

Thermal 'cracking' of the water molecule is known to occur at 1,5000C, whereby the bonding electrons are dissociated and subsequently 'separate' the water molecule into its constituent elements in gaseous form. This thermal cracking then allows the thermal energy to become a consumable.  Insulation can be introduced to conserve thermal energy, however there will always be some thermal energy losses.

 

Accordingly, thermal energy is both a catalyst and a consumable (in the sense that the thermal energy excites bonding electrons to a higher energetic state) in the electrolysis process.  A net result from the foregoing process is that hydrogen is being produced from thermal energy because thermal energy reduces the overall energy requirements of the electrolysis system.

 

Referring to the graph titled "Flow Rate At A Given Temperature" shown in Fig.16, it has been calculated that at a temperature of 2,0000C, 693 litres of hydrogen/oxygen admixed gas (2:1) will be produced.  The hydrogen content of this volume is 462 litres.   At an energy content of 11 BTUs per litre of hydrogen, this then gives an energy amount of 5,082 BTUs (11 x 462).  Using the BTU:kilowatt conversion factor of 3413:1, 5,082 BTUs of the hydrogen gas equate to 1.49 kW.  Compare this with l kW to produce the 693 litres of hydrogen/oxygen (including 463 litres of hydrogen).  The usage of this apparatus therefore identifies that thermal energy, through the process of electrolysis, is being converted into hydrogen.  These inefficiencies, i.e. increased temperature and NaOH electrolyte, reduce with temperature to a point at approximately 10000C where the ionic resistance reduces to zero, and the volumetric amount of gases produced per kWh increases.

 

The lowering of DC voltage necessary to drive electrolysis by way of higher temperatures is demonstrated in the graph in Fig.17 titled "The Effect of temperature on Cell Voltage".

 

The data in Fig.16 and Fig.17 have two sources.  Cell voltages obtained from 00C up to and including 1000C were those obtained by an electrolysis system as described above.  Cell voltages obtained from 1500C up to 2,0000C are theoretical calculations presented by an acknowledged authority in this field, Prof. J. O'M. Bockris.  Specifically, these findings were presented in "Hydrogen Energy, Part A, Hydrogen Economy”, Miami Energy Conference, Miami Beach, Florida, 1974, edited by T. Nejat Veziroglu, Plenum Press,  pp. 371-379.  These calculations appear on page 374.

 

By inspection of Fig.17 and Fig.18 (titled "Flow Rate of Hydrogen and Oxygen at 2:1"), it can be seen that as temperature increases in the cell, the voltage necessary to dissociate the water molecule is reduced, as is the overall energy requirement.  This then results in a higher gas flow per kWh.

 

As constrained by the limitation of the materials within the system, the operationally acceptable temperature of the system is 10000C.  This temperature level should not, however, be considered as a restriction. This temperature is based on the limitations of the currently commercially available materials.  Specifically, this system can utilise material such as compressed Silica Fibre for the sleeve around the electrolysis plate and hydrophobic Silica Fibre (part no. QR-100HE supplied by Tokyo Roshi International Inc., also known as "Advantec") for the diaphragm (as previously discussed) which separates the electrolysis disc plates.  In the process of assembling the cells, the diaphragm material and sleeved electrolysis plates 190,198 are adhered to one another by using high-temperature-resistant silica adhesive (e.g. the "Aremco" product "Ceramabond 618" which has an operational tolerance specification of 1,0000C).

 

For the electrolysis cell described above, with the electrolyte at 1,0000C and utilising electrical energy at the rate of 1 kWh, 167 litres of oxygen and 334 litres of hydrogen per hour will be produced.

 

The silica fibre diaphragm 116 previously discussed separates the oxygen and hydrogen gas streams by the mechanism of density separation, and produce a separate store of oxygen and hydrogen at pressure. Pressure from the produced gases can range from 0 to 150,000 Atmospheres.  At higher pressures, density separation may not occur.  In this instance, the gas molecules can be magnetically separated from the electrolyte if required.

 

In reference to the experiments conducted by Messrs Hamann and Linton (S.D. Hamann and M. Linton, Trans. Faraday Soc. 62,2234-2241, specifically, page 2,240), this research has proven that higher pressures can produce the same effect as higher temperatures in that the conductivity increases as temperature and/or pressure increases.  At very high pressures, the water molecule dissociates at low temperatures.  The reason for this is that the bonding electron is more readily removed when under high pressure.  The same phenomenon occurs when the bonding electrons are at a high temperature (e.g. 1,5000C) but at low pressures.

 

As shown in Fig.15, hydrogen and oxygen gases are separated into independent gas streams flowing into separate pressure vessels 158,160 capable of withstanding pressures up to 150,000 Atmospheres. Separation of the two gases thereby eliminates the possibility of detonation.  It should also be noted that high pressures can facilitate the use of high temperatures within the electrolyte because the higher pressure elevates the boiling point of water.

 

Experimentation shows that 1 litre of water can yield 1,850 litres of hydrogen/oxygen (in a ratio of 2: 1) gas mix after decomposition, this significant differential(1:1,850) is the source of the pressure.   Stripping the bonding electrons from the water molecule, which subsequently converts liquid into a gaseous state, releases energy which can be utilised as pressure when this occurs in a confined space.

 

A discussion of experimental work in relation to the effects of pressure in electrolysis processes can be obtained from "Hydrogen Energy, Part A, Hydrogen Economy Miami Energy Conference, Miami Beach, Florida, 1974, edited by T. Nejat Veziroglu, Plenum Press".   The papers presented by F.C. Jensen and F.H. Schubert on pages 425 to 439 and by John B. Pangborn and John C. Sharer on pages 499 to 508 are of particular relevance.

 

Attention must be drawn to the above published material; specifically on page 434, third paragraph, where reference is made to "Fig.7 shows the effect of pressure on cell voltage...". Fig. 7 on page 436 ("Effect of Pressure on SFWES Single Cell") indicates that if pressure is increased, then so too does the minimum DC voltage.

 

These quotes were provided for familiarisation purposes only and not as demonstrable and empirical fact. Experimentation by the inventor factually indicates that increased pressure (up to 2,450 psi) in fact lowers the minimum DC voltage.

 

This now demonstrable fact, whereby increased pressure actually lowers minimum DC voltage, is further exemplified by the findings of Messrs. Nayar, Ragunathan and Mitra in 1979 which can be referenced in their paper: "Development and operation of a high current density high pressure advanced electrolysis cell".

 

Nayar, M.G.; Ragunathan, P. and Mitra, S.K. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (Pergamon Press Ltd.), 1980, Vol. 5, pp. 65-74.  Their Table 2 on page 72 expressly highlights this as follows: "At a Current density (ASM) of 7,000 and at a temperature of 800C, the table shows identical Cell voltages at both pressures of 7.6 kg/cm2 and 11.0 kg/cm2.   But at Current densities of 5,000, 6,000, 8,000, 9,000 and 10,000 (at a temperature of 800C), the Cell voltages were lower at a pressure of 11.0 kg/cm2 than at a pressure of 7.6 kg/cm2. "  The present invention thus significantly improves on the apparatus employed by Mr. M.G. Nayar, et al, at least in the areas of cell plate materials, current density and cell configuration.

 

In the preferred form the electrode discs 192 are perforated mild steel, conductive polymer or perforated resin bonded carbon cell plates.  The diameter of the perforated holes 196 is chosen to be twice the thickness of the plate in order to maintain the same total surface area prior to perforation.  Nickel was utilised in the noted prior art system.  That material has a higher electrical resistance than mild steel or carbon, providing the present invention with a lower voltage capability per cell.

 

The previously mentioned prior art system quotes a minimum current density (after conversion from ASM to Amps per square cm.) at 0.5 Amps per cm2.  The present invention operates at the ideal current density, established by experimentation, to minimise cell voltage which is 0.034 Amps per cm2.

 

When compared with the aforementioned system, an embodiment of the present invention operates more efficiently due to a current density improvement by a factor of 14.7, the utilisation of better conducting cell plate material which additionally lowers cell voltage, a lower cell voltage of 1.49 at 800C as opposed to 1.8 volts at 800C, and a compact and efficient cell configuration.

 

In order to further investigate the findings of Messrs. M.G. Nayer, et al, the inventor conducted experiments utilising much higher pressures.  For Nayer, et al, the pressures were 7.6 kg/cm2 to 11.0 kg/cm2, whereas inventor's pressures were 0 psi to 2,450 psi in an hydrogen/oxygen admixture electrolysis system.

 

This electrolysis system was run from the secondary coil of a transformer set approximately at maximum 50 Amps and with an open circuit voltage of 60 Volts.  In addition, this electrolysis system is designed with reduced surface area in order that it can be housed in an hydraulic container for testing purposes.  The reduced surface area subsequently caused the gas production efficiency to drop when compared with previous (i.e. more efficient) prototypes.  The gas flow rate was observed to be approximately 90 litres per hour at 700C in this system as opposed to 310 litres per hour at 700C obtained from previous prototypes.  All of the following data and graphs have been taken from the table shown in Fig.19.

 

Referring to Fig.20 (titled "Volts Per Pressure Increase"), it can be seen that at a pressure of 14.7 psi (i.e. 1 Atmosphere), the voltage measured as 38.5V and at a pressure of 2,450 psi, the voltage measured as 29.4V.  This confirms the findings of Nayar et al that increased pressure lowers the system's voltage. Furthermore, these experiments contradict the conclusion drawn by F.C. Jensen and F.H. Schubert ("Hydrogen Energy, Part A, Hydrogen Economy Miami Energy Conference, Miami Beach, Florida, 1974, edited by T. Nejat Veziroglu, Plenum Press", pp 425 to 439, specifically Fig. 7 on page 434) being that "... as the pressure of the water being electrolysed increases, then so too does the minimum DC Voltage”.  As the inventor’s experiments are current and demonstrable, the inventor now presents his findings as the current state of the art and not the previously accepted findings of Schubert and Jensen.

 

Referring to Fig.21 (titled "Amps Per Pressure Increase"), it can be seen that at a pressure of 14.7 psi (i.e. 1 Atmosphere being Test Run No. 1), the current was measured as 47.2A and at a pressure of 2,450 psi (Test Run No. 20), the current was measured as 63A.

 

Referring to Fig.22 (titled "Kilowatts Per Pressure Increase"), examination of the power from Test Run No. 1 (1.82 kW) through to Test Run No. 20 (1.85 kW) indicates that there was no major increase in energy input required at higher pressures in order to maintain adequate gas flow.

 

Referring to Fig.23 (titled "Resistance (Ohms) Per Pressure Increase"), the resistance was calculated from Test Run No. 1 (0.82 ohms) to Test Run No. 20 (0.47 ohms).  These data indicate that the losses due to resistance in the electrolysis system at high pressures are negligible.

 

Currently accepted convention has it that dissolved hydrogen, due to high pressures within the electrolyte, would cause an increase in resistance because hydrogen and oxygen are bad conductors of ionic flow.  The net result of which would be that this would decrease the production of gases.

 

These tests indicate that the ions find their way around the H2 and O2 molecules within the solution and that at higher pressures, density separation will always cause the gases to separate from the water and facilitate the movement of the gases from the electrolysis plates.  A very descriptive analogy of this phenomenon is where the ion is about the size of a football and the gas molecules are each about the size of a football field thereby allowing the ion a large manoeuvring area in which to skirt the molecule.

 

Referring to Fig.24 (titled "Pressure Differential (Increase)"), it can be seen that the hydrogen/oxygen admixture caused a significant pressure increase on each successive test run from Test Run No. 1 to Test Run No. 11.  Test Runs thereafter indicated that the hydrogen/oxygen admixture within the electrolyte solution imploded at the point of conception (being on the surface of the plate).

 

Referring again to the table of Fig.19, it can be noted the time taken from the initial temperature to the final temperature in Test Run No. 12 was approximately half the time taken in Test Run No. 10.  The halved elapsed time (from 400C to 700C) was due to the higher pressure causing the hydrogen/oxygen admixture to detonate which subsequently imploded within the system thereby releasing thermal energy.

 

Referring to the table shown in Fig.25 (titled "Flow Rate Analysis Per Pressure Increase"), these findings were brought about from flow rate tests up to 200 psi and data from Fig.24.  These findings result in the data of Fig.25 concerning gas flow rate per pressure increase.   Referring to Fig.25, it can be seen that at a pressure of 14.7 psi (1 Atmosphere) a gas production rate of 88 litres per kWh is being achieved.  At 1,890 psi, the system produces 100 litres per kWh.  These findings point to the conclusion that higher pressures do not affect the gas production rate of the system, the gas production rate remains constant between pressures of 14.7 psi (1 Atmosphere) and 1,890 psi.

 

Inferring from all of the foregoing data, increased pressure will not adversely affect cell performance (gas production rate) in separation systems where hydrogen and oxygen gases are produced separately, nor as a combined admixture.  Therefore, in an enclosed electrolysis system embodying the invention, the pressure can be allowed to build up to a predetermined level and remain at this level through continuous (on-demand) replenishment.  This pressure is the over-unity energy because it has been obtained during the normal course of electrolysis operation without additional energy input.  This over-unity energy (i.e. the produced pressure) can be utilised to maintain the requisite electrical energy supply to the electrolysis system as well as provide useful work.

 

The following formulae and subsequent data do not take into account the apparent efficiencies gained by pressure increase in this electrolysis system such as the gained efficiency factors highlighted by the previously quoted Hamann and Linton research.  Accordingly, the over-unity energy should therefore be considered as conservative claims and that such claimed over-unity energy would in fact occur at much lower pressures.

 

This over-unity energy can be formalised by way of utilising a pressure formula as follows: E = (P - PO) V which is the energy (E) in Joules per second that can be extracted from a volume (V) which is cubic meters of gas per second at a pressure (P) measured in Pascals and where P0 is the ambient pressure (i.e. 1 Atmosphere).

 

In order to formulate total available over-unity energy, we will first use the above formula but will not take into account efficiency losses.  The formula is based on a flow rate of 500 litres per kWh at 1,0000C.  When the gases are produced in the electrolysis system, they are allowed to self-compress up to 150,000 Atmospheres which will then produce a volume (V) of 5.07 x 10-8 m3/sec.

 

Work [Joules/sec] = ((150-1) x 108) 5.07 x 10-8 m3/sec   = 760.4 Watts

 

The graphs in Figs.27-29 (Over-Unity in watt-hours) indicate over-unity energy available excluding efficiency losses.  However, in a normal work environment, inefficiencies are encountered as energy is converted from one form to another.

 

The results of these calculations will indicate the amount of surplus- over-unity energy after the electrolysis system has been supplied with its required 1 kWh to maintain its operation of producing the 500 Iph of hydrogen and oxygen (separately in a ratio of 2:1).

 

The following calculations utilise the formula stated above, including the efficiency factor.  The losses which we will incorporate will be 10% loss due to the energy conversion device (converting pressure to mechanical energy, which is represented by device 162 in Fig.15) and 5% loss due to the DC generator We providing a total of 650 watt-hours which results from the pressurised gases.

 

Returning to the 1 kWh, which is required for electrolysis operation, this 1 kWh is converted (during electrolysis) to hydrogen and oxygen.  The 1 kWh of hydrogen and oxygen is fed into a fuel cell.  After conversion to electrical energy in the fuel cell, we are left with 585 watt-hours due to a 65 % efficiency factor in the fuel cell (35 % thermal losses are fed back into electrolysis unit 150 via Qr in Fig.15).

 

Fig.30 graphically indicates the total over-unity energy available combining a fuel cell with the pressure in this electrolysis system in a range from 0 kAtmospheres to 150 kAtmospheres. The data in Fig.30 have been compiled utilising the previously quoted formulae where the watt-hours findings are based on incorporating the 1 kWh required to drive the electrolysis system, taking into account all inefficiencies in the idealised electrolysis system (complete the loop) and then adding the output energy from the pressurised electrolysis system with the output of the fuel cell.  This graph thereby indicates the energy break-even point (at approximately 66 kAtmospheres) where the idealised electrolysis system becomes self-sustaining.

 

In order to scale up this system for practical applications, such as power stations that will produce 50 MW of available electrical energy (as an example), the required input energy to the electrolysis system will be 170 MW (which is continually looped).

 

The stores of high pressure gases can be used with a hydrogen/oxygen internal combustion engine, as shown in Figs. 31A to 31E.  The stores of high pressure gases can be used with either forms of combustion engines having an expansion stroke, including turbines, rotary, Wankel and orbital engines.  One cylinder of an internal combustion engine is represented, however it is usually, but not necessarily always the case, that there will be other cylinders in the engine offset from each other in the timing of their stroke. The cylinder 320 houses a piston head 322 and crank 324, with the lower end of the crank 324 being connected with a shaft 326.  The piston head 322 has conventional rings 328 sealing the periphery of the piston head 322 to the bore of the cylinder 320.

 

A chamber 330, located above the top of the piston head 322, receives a supply of regulated separated hydrogen gas and oxygen gas via respective inlet ports 332,334.  There is also an exhaust port 336 venting gas from the chamber 330.

 

The engine's operational cycle commences as shown in Fig.31A, with the injection of pressurised hydrogen gas, typically at a pressure of 5,000 psi to 30,000 psi, sourced from a reservoir of that gas (not shown).  The oxygen gas port 334 is closed at this stage, as is the exhaust port 336.  Therefore, as shown in Fig.31B, the pressure of gas forces the piston head 322 downwards, thus driving the shaft 326.  The stroke is shown as distance "A".

 

At this point, the oxygen inlet 334 is opened to a flow of pressurised oxygen, again typically at a pressure of 5,000 psi to 30,000 psi, the volumetric flow rate being one half of the hydrogen already injected, so that the hydrogen and oxygen gas within the chamber 330 are the proportion 2:1.

 

Conventional expectations when injecting a gas into a confined space (e.g. such as a closed cylinder) are that gases will have a cooling effect on itself and subsequently its immediate environment (e.g. cooling systems/refrigeration).  This is not the case with hydrogen.  The inverse applies where hydrogen, as it is being injected, heats itself up and subsequently heats up its immediate surroundings.  This effect, being the inverse of other gases, adds to the efficiency of the overall energy equation when producing over-unity energy.

 

As shown in Fig.31C, the piston head 322 has moved a further stroke, shown as distance "B", at which time there is self-detonation of the hydrogen and oxygen mixture.  The hydrogen and oxygen inlets 332,334 are closed at this point, as is the exhaust 336.

As shown in Fig.31D, the piston head is driven further downwards by an additional stroke, shown as distance "C", to an overall stroke represented by distance "D".  The added piston displacement occurs by virtue of the detonation.

 

As shown in Fig.31E, the exhaust port 336 is now opened, and by virtue of the kinetic energy of the shaft 326 (or due to the action of others of the pistons connected with the shaft), the piston head 322 is driven upwards, thus exhausting the waste steam by the exhaust port 336 until such time as the situation of Fig.31E is achieved so that the cycle can repeat.

 

A particular advantage of an internal combustion motor constructed in accordance with the arrangement shown in Figs.31A to 31E is that no compression stroke is required, and neither is an ignition system required to ignite the working gases, rather the pressurised gases spontaneously combust when provided in the correction proportion and under conditions of high pressure.

 

Useful mechanical energy can be extracted from the internal combustion engine, and be utilised to do work. Clearly the supply of pressurised gas must be replenished by the electrolysis process in order to allow the mechanical work to continue to be done.  Nevertheless, the inventor believes that it should be possible to power a vehicle with an internal combustion engine of the type described in Figs.31A to 31E, with that vehicle having a store of the gases generated by the electrolysis process, and still be possible to undertake regular length journeys with the vehicle carrying a supply of the gases in pressure vessels (somewhat in a similar way to, and the size of, petrol tanks in conventional internal combustion engines).

 

When applying over-unity energy in the form of pressurised hydrogen and oxygen gases to this internal combustion engine for the purpose of providing acceptable ranging (i.e. distance travelled), pressurised stored gases as mentioned above may be necessary to overcome the problem of mass inertia (e.g. stop-start driving).  Inclusion of the stored pressurised gases also facilitates the ranging (i.e. distance travelled) of the vehicle.

 

Over-unity energy (as claimed in this submission) for an average sized passenger vehicle will be supplied at a continual rate of between 20 kW and 40 kW. In the case of an over-unity energy supplied vehicle, a supply of water (e.g. similar to a petrol tank in function) must be carried in the vehicle.

 

Clearly electrical energy is consumed in generating the gases.   However it is also claimed by the inventor that an over-unity energy system can provide the requisite energy thereby overcoming the problem of the consumption of fossil fuels either in conventional internal combustion engines or in the generation of the electricity to drive the electrolysis process by coal, oil or natural gas generators.

 

Experimentation by the inventor shows that if 1,850 litres of hydrogen/oxygen gas mix (in a ratio of 2:1) is detonated, the resultant product is 1 litre of water and 1,850 litres of vacuum if the thermal value of the hydrogen and oxygen gas mix is dissipated.   At atmospheric pressure, 1 litre of admixed hydrogen/oxygen (2:1) contains 11 BTUs of thermal energy.  Upon detonation, this amount of heat is readily dissipated at a rate measured in microseconds which subsequently causes an implosion (inverse differential of 1,850:1). Tests conducted by the inventor at 3 atmospheres (hydrogen/oxygen gas at a pressure of 50 psi) have proven that complete implosion does not occur. However, even if the implosion container is heated (or becomes heated) to 400C, total implosion will still occur.

 

This now available function of idiosyncratic implosion can be utilised by a pump taking advantage of this action.   Such a pump necessarily requires an electrolysis gas system such as that described above, and particularly shown in Fig.6.

 

Figs. 32A-32C show the use of implosion and its cycles in a pumping device 400.  The pump 400 is initially primed from a water inlet 406.  The water inlet 406 then is closed-off and the hydrogen/oxygen gas inlet 408 is opened.

 

As shown in Fig.32B, the admixed hydrogen/oxygen gas forces the water upward through the one-way check valve 410 and outlet tube 412 into the top reservoir 414.  The one-way check valves 410,416 will not allow the water to drop back into the cylinder 404 or the first reservoir 402.  This force equates to lifting the water over a distance.  The gas inlet valve 408 then is closed, and the spark plug 418 detonates the gas mixture which causes an implosion (vacuum).  Atmospheric pressure forces the water in reservoir 402 up through tube 420.

 

Fig.32C shows the water having been transferred into the pump cylinder 404 by the previous action. The implosion therefore is able to 'lift' the water from the bottom reservoir 402 over a distance which is approximately the length of tube 420.

 

The lifting capacity of the implosion pump is therefore approximately the total of the two distances mentioned.  This completes the pumping cycle, which can then be repeated after the reservoir 402 has been refilled.

 

Significant advantages of this pump are that it does not have any diaphragms, impellers nor pistons thereby essentially not having any moving parts (other than solenoids and one-way check valves).  As such, the pump is significantly maintenance free when compared to current pump technology.

 

It is envisaged that this pump with the obvious foregoing positive attributes and advantages in pumping fluids, semi-fluids and gases can replace all currently known general pumps and vacuum pumps with significant benefits to the end-user of this pump.

 

 

CLAIMS

1. A looped energy system for the generation of excess energy available to do work, said system comprising:

An electrolysis cell unit receiving a supply of water and for liberating separated hydrogen gas and oxygen gas by electrolysis due to a DC voltage applied across respective anodes and cathodes of said cell unit;

Hydrogen gas receiver means for receiving and storing hydrogen gas liberated by said cell unit;

Oxygen gas receiver means for receiving and storing oxygen gas liberated by said cell unit;

Gas expansion means for expanding said stored gases to recover expansion work; and

Gas combustion means for mixing and combusting said expanded hydrogen gas and oxygen gas to recover combustion work; and in which a proportion of the sum of the expansion work and the combustion work sustains electrolysis of said cell unit to retain operational gas pressure in said hydrogen and oxygen gas receiver means such that the energy system is self-sustaining and there is excess energy available from said sum of energies.

 

2. A looped energy system for the generation of excess energy available to do work, said system comprising:

An electrolysis cell unit receiving a supply of water and for liberating separated hydrogen gas and oxygen gas by electrolysis due to a DC voltage applied across respective anodes and cathodes of said cell unit;

Hydrogen gas receiver means for receiving and storing hydrogen gas liberated by said cell unit;

Oxygen gas receiver means for receiving and storing oxygen gas liberated by said cell unit;

Gas expansion means for expanding said stored gases to recover expansion work; and

Fuel cell means for recovering electrical work from said expanded hydrogen gas and oxygen gas; and wherein a proportion of the sum of the expansion work and the recovered electrical work sustains electrolysis of said cell unit to retain operational gas pressure in said hydrogen and oxygen gas receiver means such that the energy system is self-sustaining and there is excess energy available from said sum of energies.

 

3. An energy system as claimed in Claim 1 or Claim 2 further comprising mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion means coupled to said gas expansion means to convert the expansion work to electrical expansion work to be supplied as said DC voltage to said cell unit.

 

4. An energy system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein said water in said cell unit is maintained above a predetermined pressure by the effect of back pressure from said gas receiver means and above a predetermined temperature resulting from input heat arising from said combustion work and/or said expansion work.

 

5. A method for the generation of excess energy available to do work by the process of electrolysis, said method comprising the steps of:

Electrolysing water by a DC voltage to liberate separated hydrogen gas and oxygen gas;

Separately receiving and storing said hydrogen gas and oxygen gas in a manner to be self-pressuring;

Separately expanding said stores of gas to recover expansion work;

Combusting said expanded gases together to recover combustion work; and

Applying a portion of the sum of the expansion work and the combustion work as said DC voltage to retain operational gas pressures and sustain said electrolysing step, there thus being excess energy of said sum available.

 

6. A method for the generation of excess energy available to do work by the process of electrolysis, said method comprising the steps of:

Electrolysing water by a DC voltage to liberate separated hydrogen gas and oxygen gas;

Separately receiving and storing said hydrogen gas and oxygen gas in a manner to be self-pressuring;

Separately expanding said stores of gas to recover expansion work;

Passing said expanded gases together through a fuel cell to recover electrical work; and

Applying a portion of the sum of the expansion work and the recovered electrical work as said DC voltage to retain operational gas pressures and sustain said electrolysing step, there thus being excess energy of said sum available.

 

7. An internal combustion engine powered by hydrogen and oxygen comprising:

At least one cylinder and at least one reciprocating piston within the cylinder;

A hydrogen gas input port in communication with the cylinder for receiving a supply of pressurised hydrogen;

An oxygen gas input port in communication with the cylinder for receiving a supply of pressurised oxygen; and

An exhaust port in communication with the cylinder and wherein the engine is operable in a two-stroke manner whereby, at the top of the stroke, hydrogen gas is supplied by the respective inlet port to the cylinder driving the piston downwards, oxygen gas then is supplied by the respective inlet port to the cylinder to drive the cylinder further downwards, after which time self-detonation occurs and the piston moves to the bottom of the stroke and upwardly again with said exhaust port opened to exhaust water vapour resulting from the detonation.

 

8. An engine as claimed in Claim 7, wherein there are a plurality of said cylinder and an equal plurality of said pistons, said pistons being commonly connected to a shaft and relatively offset in stroke timing to co-operate in driving the shaft.

 

9. An implosion pump comprising a combustion chamber interposed, and in communication with, an upper reservoir and a lower reservoir separated by a vertical distance across which water is to be pumped, said chamber receiving admixed hydrogen and oxygen at a pressure sufficient to lift a volume of water the distance therefrom to the top reservoir, said gas in the chamber then being combusted to create a vacuum in said chamber to draw water from said lower reservoir to fill said chamber, whereupon a pumping cycle is established and can be repeated.

 

10. An implosion pump as claimed in Claim 9, further comprising conduit mean connecting a respective reservoir with said chamber and one-way flow valve means located in each conduit means to disallow reverse flow of water from said upper reservoir to said chamber and from said chamber to said lower reservoir.

 

11. A parallel stacked arrangement of cell plates for a water electrolysis unit, the cell plates alternately forming an anode and cathode of said electrolysis unit, and said arrangement including separate hydrogen gas and oxygen gas outlet port means respectively in communication with said anode cell plates and said cathode call plates and extending longitudinally of said stacked plates, said stacked cell plates being configured in the region of said conduits to mate in a complementary manner to form said conduits such that a respective anode cell plate or cathode cell plate is insulated from the hydrogen gas conduit or the oxygen gas conduit.

 

12. An arrangement of cell plates as claimed in Claim 11, wherein said configuration is in the form of a flanged foot that extends to a flanged foot of the next adjacent like-type of anode or cathode cell plate respectively.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry Paine’s HHO Fuel Conversion System

 

This is a very interesting patent which describes a simple system for overcoming the difficult problem of storing the hydrogen/oxygen gas mix produced by electrolysis of water.  Normally this “hydroxy” gas mix is too dangerous to be compressed and stored like propane and butane are, but this patent states that hydroxy gas can be converted to a more benign form merely by bubbling it through a hydrocarbon liquid.  Henry automatically speaks of turpentine in the patent, which strongly suggests that he used it himself, and consequently, it would probably be a good choice for any tests of the process.

 

This patent is more than 120 years old and has only recently been brought to the attention of the various “watercar”  internet Groups.  Consequently, it should be tested carefully before being used.  Any tests should be done with extreme caution, taking every precaution against injury or damage should the mixture explode.  It should be stressed that hydroxy gas is highly explosive, with a flame front speed far too fast to be contained by conventional commercial flashback arrestors.  It is always essential to use a bubbler to contain any accidental ignition of the gas coming out of the electrolyser cell, as shown here:

 

 

 

For the purposes of a test of the claims of this patent, it should be sufficient to fill the bubbler with turpentine rather than water, though if possible, it would be good to have an additional bubbler container for the turpentine, in which case, the bubbler with the water should come between the turpentine and the source of the flame.  Any tests should be done in an open space, ignited remotely and the person running the test should be well protected behind a robust object.  A disadvantage of hydroxy gas is that it requires a very small orifice in the nozzle used for maintaining a continuous flame and the flame temperature is very high indeed.  If this patent is correct, then the modified gas produced by the process should be capable of being used in any conventional gas burner.

 

 

US Letters Patent 308,276            18th November 1884             Inventor: Henry M. Paine

 

PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING ILLUMINATING GAS

 

 

To all whom it may concern:

 

Be it known that I, Henry M. Paine, a citizen of the United States, residing at Newark, in the county of Essex and State of New Jersey, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in the Process of Manufacturing Illuminating-Gas; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains, to make and use the same, reference being had to the accompanying drawing, and to letters or figures of reference marked thereon, which form a part of this specification.

 

The present invention relates to the processes for manufacturing illuminating-gas, as explained and set forth here.  Up to now, it has always been found necessary to keep the constituent gases of water separated from each other from the point of production to the point of ignition, as hydrogen and oxygen being present in the proper proportions for a complete reunion, form a highly-explosive mixture.  Consequently, the two gases have either been preserved in separate holders and only brought together at the point of ignition, or else the hydrogen alone has been saved and the oxygen to support combustion has been drawn from the open air, and the hydrogen gas thus obtained has been carburetted by itself by passing through a liquid hydrocarbon, which imparts luminosity to the flame.

 

I have discovered that the mixed gases obtained by the decomposition of water through electrolysis can be used with absolute safety if passed through a volatile hydrocarbon; and my invention consists of the new gas thus obtained, and the process described here for treating the gas mixture whereby it is rendered safe for use and storage under the same conditions as prevail in the use of ordinary coal-gas, and is transformed into a highly-luminiferous gas.

 

In the accompanying drawing, which shows in sectional elevation, an apparatus adapted to carry out my invention, G is a producer for generating the mixed gases, preferably by the decomposition of water by an electric current.  A is a tank partly filled with turpentine, camphene or other hydrocarbon fluid as indicated by B.  The two vessels are connected by the pipe C, the end of which terminates below the surface of the turpentine, and has a broad mouthpiece C’, with numerous small perforations, so that the gas rises through the turpentine in fine streams or bubbles in order that it may be brought intimately in contact with the hydrocarbon.

 

Above the surface of the turpentine there may be a diaphragm E, of wire netting or perforated sheet metal, and above this, a layer of wool or other fibre packed sufficiently tightly to catch all particles of the hydrocarbon fluid which may be mechanically held in suspension, but loose enough to allow free passage of the gases.  The pipe F, conducts the mixed gases off directly to the burners or to a holder.

 

I am aware that the hydrocarbons have been used in the manufacturer of water-gas from steam, and, as stated above, hydrogen gas alone has been carburetted; but I am not aware of any attempt being made to treat the explosive mixed gases in this manner.

 

Experiments have demonstrated that the amount of turpentine or other volatile hydrocarbon taken up by the gases in this process is very small and that the consumption of the hydrocarbon does not appear to bear any fixed ratio to the volume of the mixed gases passed through it.  I do not, however, attempt to explain the action of the hydrocarbon on the gases.

 

What I claim as my invention and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is -

 

The process described here of manufacturing gas, which consists in decomposing water by electrolysis and conjointly passing the mixed constituent gases of water thus obtained, through a volatile hydrocarbon, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

 

In testimony whereof I affix my signature in presence of two witnesses.

                                                                          HENRY M. PAINE

 

Witnesses:

  Bennet Osborne, Jr.,

  W. E. Redding

 

Henry Paine’s apparatus would therefor be:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Boris Volfson’s Space Drive

 

US Patent 6,960,975           Nov.1, 2005            Inventor: Boris Volfson

 

SPACE VEHICLE PROPELLED BY THE PRESSURE

OF INFLATIONARY VACUUM STATE

 

 

ABSTRACT

A space vehicle propelled by the pressure of inflationary vacuum state is provided comprising a hollow superconductive shield, an inner shield, a power source, a support structure, upper and lower means for generating an electromagnetic field, and a flux modulation controller. A cooled hollow superconductive shield is energised by an electromagnetic field resulting in the quantised vortices of lattice ions projecting a gravitomagnetic field that forms a space-time curvature anomaly outside the space vehicle. The space-time curvature imbalance, the space-time curvature being the same as gravity, provides for the space vehicle's propulsion. The space vehicle, surrounded by the space-time anomaly, may move at a speed approaching the light-speed characteristic for the modified locale.

 

US Patent References:    

3626605  Dec., 1971        Wallace.          

3626606  Dec., 1971        Wallace.          

3823570  Jul., 1974          Wallace.          

5197279  Mar., 1993         Taylor.

6353311  Mar., 2002         Brainard et al.   

 

Other References:           

M.T. French, "To the Stars by Electromagnetic Propulsion", http://www.mtjf.demon.co.uk/antigravp2.htm#cforce.

 

Evgeny Podkletnov, "Weak Gravitational Shielding Properties of Composite Bulk YBa2Cu33O(7-x) Superconductor Below 70K Under E.M. Field", LANL database number cond-mat/9701074, v. 3, 10 pages, Sep. 16, 1997.

 

N. LI & D.G. Torr, "Effects of a Gravitomagnetic Field on Pure Superconductors", Physical Review, vol. 43, p. 457, 3 pages, Jan. 15, 1991.

 

Evgeny Podkletnov, Giovanni Modanese "Impulse Gravity Generator Based on Charged YBa2Cu33O7-y  Superconductor with Composite Crystal Structure", arXiv.org/physics database, #0108005 vol. 2, 32 pages, 8 figures, Aug. 30, 2001.

 

S. Kopeikin & E. Fomalont, "General Relativistic Model for Experimental Measurement of the Speed of Propagation of Gravity by VLBI", Proceedings of the 6th European VLBI Network Symposium Jun. 25-28, 2002, Bonn, Germany, 4 pages.

 

Sean M. Carroll, "The Cosmological Constant", http://pancake.uchicago.edu/˜ carroll/encyc/, 6 pages.

 

Chris Y. Taylor and Giovanni Modanese, "Evaluation of an Impulse Gravity Generator Based Beamed Propulsion Concept", American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., 2002.

 

Peter L. Skeggs, "Engineering Analysis of the Podkletnov Gravity Shielding Experiment", Quantum Forum, Nov. 7, 1997, http://www.inetarena'.com/˜ noetic/pls/podlev.html).

 

 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The existence of a magnetic-like gravitational field has been well established by physicists for general relativity, gravitational theories, and cosmology. The consequences of the effect of electromagnetically-affected gravity could be substantial and have many practical applications, particularly in aviation and space exploration.

 

There are methods known for converting electromagnetism into a propulsive force that potentially generates a large propulsive thrust. According to these methods, the machine thrust is produced by rotating, reciprocating masses in the following ways: centrifugal thrust, momentum thrust, and impulse thrust. ("To the Stars by Electromagnetic Propulsion", M. T. French, http://www.mtjf.demon.co.uk/antigravp2.htm#cforce).

 

However, the electromagnetic propulsion in an ambient space, or space that is not artificially modified, is not practical for interstellar travel because of the great distances involved. No interstellar travel is feasible without some form of distortion of space. In turn, no alteration of space is possible without the corresponding deformation of time. Gravitomagnetic alteration of space, resulting in the space-time curvature anomaly that could propel the space vehicle, could be a feasible approach to future space travel.

 

In the late 1940s, H. B. G. Casimir proved that the vacuum is neither particle nor field-free. It is a source of zero-point-fluctuation (ZPF) of fields such as the vacuum gravitomagnetic field. ZPF fields lead to real, measurable physical consequences such as the Casimir force. The quantised hand-made electromagnetic processes, such as those occurring in superconductors, affect the similarly quantised ZPFs. The most likely reason is the electron-positron creation and annihilation, in part corresponding to the "polarisation effect" sited by Evgeny Podkletnov in explaining the gravitomagnetic effect reportedly observed by him in 1992. ("Weak Gravitational Shielding Properties of Composite Bulk YBa2Cu33O(7-x) Superconductor Below 70 K Under E.M. Field", Evgeny Podkletnov, LANL database number cond-mat/9701074, v. 3, 10 pages, 16 Sep. 1997).

 

The investigation of gravitomagnetism, however, started well before Podkletnov. In the U.S. Pat. No. 3,626,605, Henry Wm. Wallace describes an experimental apparatus for generating and detecting a secondary gravitational field. He also shows how a time-varying gravitomagnetic field can be used to shield the primary background of a gravitoelectric field.

 

In the U.S. Pat. No. 3,626,606, Henry Wm. Wallace provides a variation of his earlier experiment. A type III-V semiconductor material, of which both components have unpaired nuclear spin, is used as an electronic detector for the gravitomagnetic field. The experiment demonstrates that the material in his gravitomagnetic field circuit has hysterisis and remanence effects analogous to magnetic materials.

 

In the U.S. Pat. No. 3,823,570, Henry Wm. Wallace provides an additional variation of his experiment. Wallace demonstrates that, by aligning the nuclear spin of materials having an odd number of nucleons, a change in specific heat occurs.

 

In the U.S. Pat. No. 5,197,279, James R. Taylor discloses Electromagnetic Propulsion Engine where solenoid windings generate an electromagnetic field that, without the conversion into a gravitomagnetic field, generates the thrust necessary for the propulsion.

 

In the U.S. Pat. No. 6,353,311 B1, John P. Brainard et al. offer a controversial theory of Universal Particle Flux Field, and in order to prove it empirically, provide a shaded motor-type device. This device is also intended for extracting energy from this hypothetical Field.

 

In the early 1980s, Sidney Coleman and F. de Luca noted that the Einsteinean postulate of a homogeneous Universe, while correct in general, ignores quantised local fluctuation of the pressure of inflationary vacuum state, this fluctuation causing local cosmic calamities. While the mass-less particles propagate through large portions of Universe at light speed, these anomaly bubbles, depending on their low or high relative vacuum density, cause a local increase or decrease of the propagation values for these particles. Scientists disagree about the possibility, and possible ways, to artificially create models of such anomalies.

 

In the early 1990s, Ning Li and D. G Torr described a method and means for converting an electromagnetic field into a gravitomagnetic field. Li and Torr suggested that, under the proper conditions, the minuscule force fields of superconducting atoms can "couple", compounding in strength to the point where they can produce a repulsion force ("Effects of a Gravitomagnetic Field on Pure Superconductors", N. Li and D. G. Torr, Physical Review, Volume 43, Page 457, 3 pages, 15 Jan. 1991).

 

A series of experiments, performed in the early 1990s by Podkletnov and R. Nieminen, reportedly resulted in a reduction of the weights of objects placed above a levitating, rotating superconductive disk subjected to high frequency magnetic fields. These results substantially support the expansion of Einstainean physics offered by Li & Torr. Podkletnov and Giovanni Modanese have provided a number of interesting theories as to why the weight reduction effect could have occurred, citing quantum gravitational effects, specifically, a local change in the cosmological constant. The cosmological constant, under ordinary circumstances, is the same everywhere. But, according to Podkletnov and Modanese, above a levitating, rotating superconductive disk exposed to high frequency magnetic fields, it is modified. ("Impulse Gravity Generator Based on Charged YBa2Cu33O7-y Superconductor with Composite Crystal Structure", Evgeny Podkletnov, Giovanni Modanese, arXiv.org/physics database, #0108005 volume 2, 32 pages, 8 figures, Aug. 30, 2001).

 

In the July 2004 paper, Ning Wu hypothesised that exponential decay of the gravitation gauge field, characteristic for the unstable vacuum such as that created by Podkletnov and Nieminen, is at the root of the gravitational shielding effects (Gravitational Shielding Effects in Gauge Theory of Gravity, Ning Wu, arXiv:hep-th/0307225 v 1 23 Jul. 2003, 38 pages incl. 3 figures, July 2004).

 

In 2002, Edward Fomalont and Sergei Kopeikin measured the speed of propagation of gravity. They confirmed that the speed of propagation of gravity matches the speed of light. ("General Relativistic Model for Experimental Measurement of the Speed of Propagation of Gravity by VLBI", S. Kopeikin and E. Fomalont, Proceedings of the 6th European VLBI Network Symposium Jun. 25-28 2002, Bonn, Germany, 4 pages).

 

String theory unifies gravity with all other known forces. According to String theory, all interactions are carried by fundamental particles, and all particles are just tiny loops of space itself forming the space-time curvature. Gravity and bent space are the same thing, propagating with the speed of light characteristic of the particular curvature. In light of the Fomalont and Kopeikin discovery, one can conclude that if there is a change in the speed of propagation of gravity within the space-time curvature, then the speed of light within the locality would also be affected.

 

In general relativity, any form of energy affects the gravitational field, so the vacuum energy density becomes a potentially crucial ingredient. Traditionally, the vacuum is assumed to be the same everywhere in the Universe, so the vacuum energy density is a universal number. The cosmological constant Lambda is proportional to the vacuum pressure:

Where:

G is Newton's constant of gravitation and

c is the speed of light

("The Cosmological Constant", Sean M. Carroll, http://pancake.uchicago.edu/˜carroll/encyc/, 6 pages). Newer theories, however, permit local vacuum fluctuations where even the "universal" constants are affected:

Analysing physics laws defining the cosmological constant, a conclusion can be drawn that, if a levitating, rotating superconductive disk subjected to high frequency magnetic fields affects the cosmological constant within a locality, it would also affect the vacuum energy density. According to the general relativity theory, the gravitational attraction is explained as the result of the curvature of space-time being proportional to the cosmological constant. Thus, the change in the gravitational attraction of the vacuum's subatomic particles would cause a local anomaly in the curvature of the Einsteinean space-time.

 

Time is the fourth dimension. Lorentz and Einstein showed that space and time are intrinsically related. Later in his life, Einstein hypothesised that time fluctuates both locally and universally. Ruggero Santilli, recognised for expanding relativity theory, has developed the isocosmology theory, which allows for variable rates of time. Time is also a force field only detected at speeds above light speed. The energy of this force field grows as its propagation speed declines when approaching light-speed. Not just any light-speed: the light-speed of a locale. If the conditions of the locale were modified, this change would affect the local time rate relative to the rate outside the affected locale, or ambient rate. The electromagnetically-generated gravitomagnetic field could be one such locale modifier.

 

Analysing the expansion of Einstainean physics offered by Li & Torr, one could conclude that gravity, time, and light speed could be altered by the application of electromagnetic force to a superconductor.

 

By creating a space-time curvature anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state around a space vehicle, with the lowest vacuum pressure density located directly in front of the vehicle, a condition could be created where gravity associated with lowered vacuum pressure density pulls the vehicle forward in modified space-time.

 

By creating a space-time curvature anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state around the space vehicle, with the point of highest vacuum pressure density located directly behind the vehicle, a condition could be created where a repulsion force associated with elevated vacuum pressure density pushes the space vehicle forward in modified space-time. From the above-mentioned cosmological constant equation, re-written as:

it is clear that the increase in the vacuum pressure density could lead to a substantial increase in the light-speed. If the space vehicle is moving in the anomaly where the local light-speed is higher than the light-speed of the ambient vacuum, and if this vehicle approaches this local light-speed, the space vehicle would then possibly exceed the light-speed characteristic for the ambient area.

 

The levitating and rotating superconductor disk, which Podkletnov used to protect the object of experiment from the attraction produced by the energy of the vacuum, was externally energised by the externally-powered solenoid coils. Thus, Podkletnov's system is stationary by definition and not suitable for travel in air or space. Even if the superconductive disk is made part of the craft, and if it is energised by the energy available on the craft, the resulting anomaly is one-sided, not enveloping, and not providing the variable speed of light (VSL) environment for the craft.

 

In a recent (2002) article, Chris Y. Tailor and Modanese propose to employ an impulse gravity generator directing, from an outside location, an anomalous beam toward a spacecraft, this beam acting as a repulsion force field producing propulsion for the spacecraft. ("Evaluation of an Impulse Gravity Generator Based Beamed Propulsion Concept", Chris Y. Taylor and Giovanni Modanese, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., 2002, 21 pages, 10 figures). The authors of the article, however, didn't take into account the powerful quantised processes of field dispersion, which would greatly limit the distance of propagation of the repulsive force. At best, the implementation of this concept could assist in acceleration and deceleration at short distances from the impulse gravity generator, and only along a straight line of travel. If the travel goal is a space exploration mission rather than the shuttle-like commute, the proposed system is of little use.

 

Only a self-sufficient craft, equipped with the internal gravity generator and the internal energy source powering this generator, would have the flexibility needed to explore new frontiers of space. The modification of the space-time curvature all around the spacecraft would allow the spacecraft to approach the light-speed characteristic for the modified locale, this light-speed, when observed from a location in the ambient space, being potentially many times higher than the ambient light-speed. Then, under sufficient local energies, that is, energies available on the spacecraft, very large intergalactic distances could be reduced to conventional planetary distances.

 

In "The First Men in the Moon" (1903), H. G. Wells anticipates gravitational propulsion methods when he describes gravity repelling "cavorite." Discovered by Professor Cavor, the material acts as a "gravity shield" allowing Cavor's vehicle to reach the Moon. Prof. Cavor built a large spherical gondola surrounded on all sides by cavorite shutters that could be closed or opened. When Prof. Cavor closed all the shutters facing the ground and opened the shutters facing the moon, the gondola took off for the Moon.

 

Until today, no cavorite has been discovered. However, recent research in the area of superconductivity, nano materials and quantum state of vacuum, including that of Li, Torr, Podkletnov, and Modanese, has resulted in important new information about the interaction between a gravitational field and special states of matter at a quantum level. This new research opens the possibility of using new electromagnetically-energised superconductive materials allowing stable states of energy, the materials useful not only in controlling the local gravitational fields, but also in creating new gravitomagnetic fields.

 

 

 

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION: OBJECTS AND ADVANTAGES

There are four objects of this invention:

 

The first object is to provide a method for generating a pressure anomaly of inflationary vacuum state that leads to electromagnetic propulsion.

 

The second object is to provide a space vehicle capable of electromagnetically-generated propulsion. The implementation of these two objects leads to the development of the space vehicle propelled by gravitational imbalance with gravity pulling, and/or antigravity pushing, the space vehicle forward.

 

The third object is to provide a method for generating a pressure anomaly of inflationary vacuum state, specifically, the local increase in the level of vacuum pressure density associated with the greater curvature of space-time. The speed of light in such an anomaly would be higher than the speed of light in the ambient space.

 

The fourth object is to provide the space vehicle capable of generating an unequally-distributed external anomaly all around this vehicle, specifically the anomaly with the elevated level of vacuum pressure density. The anomaly is formed in such a way that gravity pulls the space vehicle forward in the modified space-time at a speed possibly approaching the light-speed specific for this modified locale. If the vacuum pressure density of the locale is modified to be substantially higher than that of the ambient vacuum, the speed of the vehicle could conceivably be higher than the ambient light-speed.

 

 

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

This invention concerns devices self-propelled by the artificially changed properties of the pressure of inflationary vacuum state to speeds possibly approaching the light-speed specific for this modified locale. Furthermore, this invention concerns devices capable of generating the space-time anomaly characterised by the elevated vacuum pressure density. The devices combining these capabilities may be able to move at speeds substantially higher than the light-speed in the ambient space.

 

The device of this invention is a space vehicle. The outside shell of the space vehicle is formed by a hollow disk, sphere, or the like hollowed 3-dimensional shape made of a superconductor material, hereinafter a hollow superconductive shield. An inner shield is disposed inside the hollow superconductive shield. The inner shield is provided to protect crew and life-support equipment inside.

 

A support structure, upper means for generating an electromagnetic field and lower means for generating an electromagnetic field are disposed between the hollow superconductive shield and the inner shield. A flux modulation controller is disposed inside the inner shield to be accessible to the crew.

 

Electrical energy is generated in a power source disposed inside the hollow superconductive shield. The electrical energy is converted into an electromagnetic field in the upper means for generating an electromagnetic field and the lower means for generating an electromagnetic field.

 

Electrical motors, also disposed inside the hollow superconductive shield, convert the electrical energy into mechanical energy.

 

The mechanical energy and the electromagnetic field rotate the hollow superconductive shield, and the upper and the lower means for generating an electromagnetic field, against each other.

 

The electromagnetic field is converted into a gravitomagnetic field in the hollow superconductive shield.

 

The gravitomagnetic field, propagated outward, orthogonally to the walls of the hollow superconductive shield, forms a pressure anomaly of inflationary vacuum state in the area of propagation. The pressure anomaly of inflationary vacuum state is comprised of an area of relatively lower vacuum pressure density in front of the space vehicle and an area of relatively higher vacuum pressure density behind the vehicle.

 

The difference in the vacuum pressure density propels the space vehicle of this invention forward.

 

 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Fig.1 is a cross-sectional view through the front plane taken along the central axis of a space vehicle provided by the method and device of this invention.

 

 

 

 

Fig.2A and Fig.2B are diagrams, presented as perspective views, showing some of the physical processes resulting from a dynamic application of an electromagnetic field to a hollow superconductive shield. Only one line of quantised vortices, shown out of scale, is presented for illustration purposes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.3A and Fig.3B are diagrams, presented as perspective views, showing a vacuum pressure density anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state and a vacuum pressure density anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state, respectively. Both anomalies are shown on the background of Universal curvature of inflationary vacuum state.

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.4A and Fig.4B are diagrams, presented as perspective views, showing a space-time anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state and a space-time anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state, respectively. Both anomalies are shown on the background of Universal space-time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figs.5A, 5B, 6, 7A, & 7B are diagrams of space-time curvature anomalies generated by the space vehicle of the current invention, these anomalies providing for the propulsion of the space vehicle.

 

 

DRAWINGS—REFERENCE NUMERALS

 

#1 hollow superconductive shield

#2 inner shield

#3 upper shell

#4 lower shell

#5 support structure

#6 upper rotating element

#7 lower rotating element

#8 upper means for generating an electromagnetic field

#9 lower means for generating an electromagnetic field

#10 flux lines

#11 power source

#12 life-support equipment

#13 flux modulation controller

#14 crew

#15 clockwise shield motion vector

#16 counter-clockwise EMF motion vector

#17 wire grid

#18 clockwise quantised vortices of lattice ions

#19 outward gravitomagnetic field vector

#20 counter-clockwise shield motion vector

#21 clockwise EMF motion vector

#22 counter-clockwise quantised vortices of lattice ions

#23 inward gravitomagnetic field vector

#24 vacuum pressure density anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state

#25 Universal curvature of inflationary vacuum state

#26 vacuum pressure density anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state

#27 space-time anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state

#28 space-time anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state

#29 Universal space-time

#30 substantially droplet-shaped space-time curvature anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state

#31 substantially droplet-shaped space-time anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state

#32 substantially egg-shaped space-time anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state

#33 area of the lowest vacuum pressure density

#34 substantially egg-shaped space-time anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state

#35 area of the highest vacuum pressure density

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PRESENTLY PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

Fig.1 is a cross-sectional view through the front plane taken along the central axis of a space vehicle provided by the method and device of this invention. A hollow superconductive shield 1 forms a protective outer shell of the space vehicle. The hollow superconductive shield 1 may be shaped as a hollow disk, sphere, or the like 3-dimensional geometrical figure formed by the 2-dimensional rotation of a curve around the central axis.

 

In the preferred embodiment, the hollow superconductive shield 1 is made of a superconductor such as YBa2Cu33O7-y, or a like high-temperature superconductor with a composite crystal structure cooled to the temperature of about 400K.  Those skilled in the art may envision the use of many other low and high temperature superconductors, all within the scope of this invention.

 

An inner shield 2 is disposed inside the hollow superconductive shield 1. The inner shield 2 is comprised of an upper shell 3 and a lower shell 4, the shells 3 and 4 adjoined with each other.  Executed from insulation materials such as foamed ceramics, the inner shield 2 protects the environment within the shield from the electromagnetic field and severe temperatures.

 

A support structure 5 is disposed between the hollow superconductive shield 1 and the inner shield 2, concentric to the hollow superconductive shield.  The support structure 5 is comprised of an upper rotating element 6 and a lower rotating element 7.

 

The upper rotating element 6 is pivotably disposed inside the hollow superconductive shield 1 and may envelope the upper shell 3. The lower rotating element 7 is pivotably disposed inside the hollow superconductive shield 1 and may envelope the lower shell 4.  Even though the preferred embodiment has two rotating elements, those skilled in the art may envision only one rotating element, or three or more rotation elements, all within the scope of this invention.

 

Upper means for generating an electromagnetic field 8 are disposed between the hollow superconductive shield 1 and the upper shell 3.  The upper means for generating an electromagnetic field 8 are fixed to the upper rotating element 6 at an electromagnetic field-penetrable distance to the hollow superconductive shield 1.

 

Lower means for generating an electromagnetic field 9 are disposed between the hollow superconductive shield 1 and the lower shell 4.  The lower means for generating an electromagnetic field 9 are fixed to the lower rotating element 7 at an electromagnetic field-penetrable distance to the hollow superconductive shield 1.

 

The upper means for generating an electromagnetic field 8 and the lower means for generating an electromagnetic field 9 could be solenoid coils or electromagnets. In the process of operation of the space vehicle, the electromagnetic field identified by flux lines 10, is controllably and variably applied to the hollow superconductive shield 1.

 

Electric motors are disposed inside the hollow superconductive shield along its central axis.

 

A power source 11 is disposed inside the hollow superconductive shield 1 and may be disposed inside the lower shell 4. The power source 11 is electrically connected with the upper means for generating an electromagnetic field 8, the lower means for generating an electromagnetic field 9, and the electric motors. The upper means for generating an electromagnetic field 8, the lower means for generating an electromagnetic field 9, and the electric motors provide for the rotation of the upper rotating element 6 and the lower rotating element 7.  The power source 11 may be a nuclear power generator.

 

Life-support equipment 12 is disposed inside the inner shield 2, and may be disposed inside the lower shell 4.  The life-support equipment 12 may include oxygen, water, and food.

 

A flux modulation controller 13 is disposed inside the inner shield 2, and may be disposed inside the upper shell 3. The flux modulation controller 13 is in communication with the upper means for generating an electromagnetic field 8, the lower means for generating an electromagnetic field 9, the power source 11, and the electric motors.

 

The flux modulation controller 8 may be executed as a computer or a microprocessor.  The flux modulation controller 8 is provided with a capability of modulating the performance parameters of the upper means for generating an electromagnetic field 8, the lower means for generating an electromagnetic field 9, the power source 11, and the electric motors.

 

A crew 14 may be located inside the upper shell 3 of the inner shield 2 and may consist of one or more astronauts.  The crew has a free access to the life-support equipment 12 and the flux modulation controller 8.  A person skilled in the art, may envision a fully-automated, pilotless craft, which is also within the scope of this invention.

 

A person skilled in the art, may also envision the embodiment (not shown), also within the scope of this invention, where the hollow superconductive shield is pivotable, and the support structure with the means for generating an electromagnetic field is affixed on the outside of the inner shield.

 

Fig.2A and Fig.2B are diagrams showing the results of the quantised electromagnetic turbulence within the superconductive shell of the hollow superconductive shield provided by the relative rotational motion of the hollow superconductive shield against the upper means for generating an electromagnetic field.

 

Fig.2A shows the clockwise relative rotational motion of the hollow superconductive shield, this motion identified by a clockwise shield motion vector 15, and the counter-clockwise relative rotational motion of upper means for generating an electromagnetic field, this motion identified by a counter-clockwise EMF motion vector 16.

 

The electromagnetic field, controllably and variably applied by the upper means for generating an electromagnetic field, whose various positions are identified by a wire grid 17, to the hollow superconductive shield (not shown), causes quantised electromagnetic turbulence within the hollow superconductive shield. This turbulence is represented by a plurality of clockwise quantised vortices of lattice ions 18.  Only one line of the clockwise quantised vortices of lattice ions 18, (not to scale), is shown for illustration purposes only. Each of the clockwise quantised vortices of lattice ions 18 generates a gravitomagnetic field identified by an outward gravitomagnetic field vector 19 directed orthogonally away from the hollow superconductive shield.

 

Fig.2B shows the counter-clockwise relative rotational motion of the hollow superconductive shield, this motion identified by a counter-clockwise shield motion vector 20, and the clockwise relative rotational motion of upper means for generating an electromagnetic field, this motion identified by a clockwise EMF motion vector 21.

 

The electromagnetic field, controllably and variably applied by the upper means for generating an electromagnetic field identified by the wire grid 17, to the hollow superconductive shield (not shown), causes quantised electromagnetic turbulence within the hollow superconductive shield, this turbulence represented by a plurality of counter-clockwise quantised vortices of lattice ions 22. Only one line of the counter-clockwise quantised vortices of lattice ions 22, (not to scale), is shown for illustration purposes only.  Each of the counter-clockwise quantised vortices of lattice ions 22 generates a gravitomagnetic field identified by an inward gravitomagnetic field vector 23 directed orthogonally toward the hollow superconductive shield.

 

The electrical requirements for providing the Li-Torr effect are as follows:

 

Podkletnov has reported using the high frequency current of 105 Hz.  He also used 6 solenoid coils @ 850 Gauss each.  The reported system's efficiency reached 100% and the total field in the Podkletnov's disk was about 0.5 Tesla.  The maximum weight loss reported by Podkletnov was 2.1%.

 

The preferred embodiment of the device of current invention is capable of housing 2-3 astronauts and therefore is envisioned to be about 5 meters in diameter at the widest point. The preferred space vehicle's acceleration is set at 9.8 m/s/s providing that gravity on board is similar to that on the surface of Earth.

 

The means for generating an electromagnetic field may be comprised of 124 solenoid coils. At the same 100% efficiency reported by Podkletnov, the total field required providing the acceleration of 9.8 m/s/s is 5,000 Tesla, or about 40 Tesla per coil.  Skeggs suggests that on the Podkletnov device, out of 850 Gauss developed on the coil surface, the field affecting the superconductor and causing the gravitomagnetism is only 400 Gauss ("Engineering Analysis of the Podkletnov Gravity Shielding Experiment, Peter L. Skeggs, Quantum Forum, Nov. 7, 1997, http://www.inetarena.com/˜noetic/pls/podlev.html, 7 pages). This translates into 47% device efficiency.

 

In this 47%-efficient space vehicle, the total field required achieving the 9.8 m/s/s acceleration is about 10,600 Tesla, or 85.5 Tesla per each of 124 solenoid coils.  It must be noted that at this acceleration rate, it would take nearly a year for the space vehicle to reach the speed of light.

 

It also must be noted that Skeggs has detected a discrepancy between the Li-Torr estimates and Podkletnov's practical results. If Podkletnov's experimental results are erroneous while the Li-Torr estimates are indeed applicable to the space vehicle of this invention, then the energy requirements for achieving the sought speed would be substantially higher than the above estimate of 10,600 Tesla.

 

Podkletnov has concluded that, in order for the vacuum pressure density anomaly to take place, the Earth-bound device must be in the condition of Meissner levitation. As are all space bodies, the space vehicle is a subject to the pressure inflationary vacuum state and the gravitational force, which, within the migrating locality of the expanding Universe, in any single linear direction, are substantially in equilibrium. Thus, for the space vehicle, the requirement of Meissner levitation is waved.

 

The propagation of the gravitomagnetic field identified by the outward gravitomagnetic field vector 19 and the inward gravitomagnetic field vector 23 would cause exotic quantised processes in the vacuum's subatomic particles that include particle polarisation, ZPF field defects, and the matter-energy transformation per E=mc2. The combination of these processes would result in the gravitational anomaly. According to the general relativity theory, gravitational attraction is explained as the result of the curvature of space-time being proportional to the gravitational constant. Thus, the change in the gravitational attraction of the vacuum's subatomic particles would cause a local anomaly in the curvature of the Einsteinean space-time.

 

Gravity is the same thing as bent space, propagating with the speed of light characteristic for the particular space-time curvature. When bent space is affected, there is a change in the speed of propagation of gravity within the space-time curvature anomaly. The local speed of light, according to Fomalont and Kopeikin always equal to the local speed of propagation of gravity, is also affected within the locality of space-time curvature anomaly.

 

Creation of space-time curvature anomalies adjacent to, or around, the space vehicle, these anomalies characterised by the local gravity and light-speed change, has been the main object of this invention.

 

Fig.3A shows a diagram of a vacuum pressure density anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state 24 on the background of Universal curvature of inflationary vacuum state 25. The vacuum pressure density anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state 24 is formed by a multitude of the inward gravitomagnetic field vectors. According to the cosmological constant equation,

where:

The cosmological constant Lambda, is proportional to the vacuum energy pressure rho-lambda, G is Newton's constant of gravitation, and c is the speed of light, so the curvature of space-time is proportional to the gravitational constant.  According to the general relativity theory, the change in the vacuum pressure density is proportional to the change in the space-time curvature anomaly.  By replacing rho-lambda with the vacuum pressure density, P times the vacuum energy coefficient kappa, and replacing c with:

delta-distance/delta-time, we derive to the equation:

and can now construct a vacuum pressure density curvature diagram.

 

The vacuum pressure density curvature anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state 24 is shown here as a flattened surface representing the lowered pressure of the inflationary vacuum state. This anomaly is the result of the exotic quantised processes in the subatomic particles caused by the quantised turbulence occurring in the hollow superconductive shield. The XYZ axes represent three dimensions of space and the P axis represents the vacuum pressure density.

 

Fig.3B shows a diagram of a vacuum pressure density anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state 26 on the background of the Universal curvature of inflationary vacuum state 25. The vacuum pressure density anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state 26 is formed by a multitude of the outward gravitomagnetic field vectors. The anomaly is shown here as a convex surface representing the elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state. The diagrams of Fig.3A and Fig.3B are not to scale with the anomaly sizes being exaggerated for clarity.

 

Fig.4A and Fig.4B show diagrams of a space-time anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state 27, and a space-time anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state 28, respectively, each on the background a diagram of Universal space-time 29.

 

The quaterised Julia set Qn+1 = Qn2 + C0 is assumed to be an accurate mathematical representation of the Universal space-time.  The generic quaternion Q0 belongs to the Julia set associated with the quaternion C, and n tends to infinity.  If we assume that the quaternion value C0 is associated with the Universal space-time 29, C1 is the value of quaternion C for the space-time anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state 27, and C2 is the value of quaternion C for the space-time anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state 28, then we can construct two diagrams.

 

The diagram of Fig.4A shows the space-time anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state 27 as a quaterised Julia set contained in a 4-dimensional space: Qn+1 = Qn2 + C1 on the background of the Universal space-time 29 represented by Qn+1 = Qn2 + C0.

 

The diagram of Fig.4B shows the space-time anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state 28 as a quaterised Julia set Qn+1 = Qn2 + C2, also on the background of the Universal space-time 29 represented by Qn+1 = Qn2 + C0.   On both diagrams, the XYZ axes represent three dimensions of space, and the T axis represents time.  The diagrams are not to scale: the anomaly sizes are exaggerated for clarity, and the halves of quaterised Julia sets, conventionally associated with the hypothetical Anti-Universe, are omitted.

 

Figs. 5A, 5B, 6, 7A, & 7B show simplified diagrams of space-time curvature anomalies generated by the space vehicle of the current invention, these anomalies providing for the propulsion of the space vehicle. In each case, the pressure anomaly of inflationary vacuum state is comprised of an area of relatively lower vacuum pressure density in front of the space vehicle and an area of relatively higher vacuum pressure density behind the space vehicle. Because the lower pressure of inflationary vacuum state is associated with greater gravity and the higher pressure is associated with the higher repulsive force, the space vehicle is urged to move from the area of relatively higher vacuum pressure density toward the area of relatively lower vacuum pressure density.

 

Fig.5A illustrates the first example of space-time curvature modification. This example shows a substantially droplet-shaped space-time curvature anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state 30 adjacent to the hollow superconductive shield 1 of the space vehicle.  The anomaly 30 is provided by the propagation of a gravitomagnetic field radiating orthogonally away from the front of the hollow superconductive shield 1.  This gravitomagnetic field may be provided by the relative clockwise motion of the upper means for generating an electromagnetic field, and relative counterclockwise motion of the hollow superconductive field, as observed from above the space vehicle.

 

In this example, the difference between the space-time curvature within the substantially droplet-shaped space-time anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state, and the ambient space-time curvature, the space-time curvature being the same as gravity, results in the gravitational imbalance, with gravity pulling the space vehicle forward.

 

Fig.5B illustrates the second example of space-time curvature modification. This example shows a substantially droplet-shaped space-time anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state 31 adjacent to the hollow superconductive shield 1 of the space vehicle.  The anomaly 31 is provided by the propagation of a gravitomagnetic field radiating orthogonally away from the back of the hollow superconductive shield.  This gravitomagnetic field may be provided by the relative counter-clockwise motion of the lower means for generating an electromagnetic field, and relative clockwise motion of the hollow superconductive field, as observed from below the space vehicle.

 

In this example, the difference between the space-time curvature within the substantially droplet-shaped space-time anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state, and the ambient space-time curvature, the space-time curvature being the same as gravity, results in the gravitational imbalance, with the repulsion force pushing the space vehicle forward.

 

Fig.6 illustrates the third example of space-time curvature modification.  This example shows the formation of the substantially droplet-shaped space-time anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state 30 combined with the substantially droplet-shaped space-time anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state 31.  This combination of anomalies may be provided by the relative clockwise motion of the upper means for generating an electromagnetic field and relative clockwise motion of the hollow superconductive field, combined with the relative clockwise motion of the lower means for generating an electromagnetic field, as observed from above the space vehicle.

 

In this example, the difference between the space-time curvature within the substantially droplet-shaped space-time anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state, and the space-time curvature of the substantially droplet-shaped space-time anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state, the space-time curvature being the same as gravity, results in the gravitational imbalance, with gravity pulling, and the repulsion force pushing, the space vehicle forward.

 

Fig.7A illustrates the fourth example of space-time curvature modification. This example shows the formation of a substantially egg-shaped space-time anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state 32 around the hollow superconductive shield 1 of the space vehicle.  The anomaly 32 is provided by the propagation of gravitomagnetic field of unequally-distributed density, this gravitomagnetic field radiating in all directions orthogonally away from the hollow superconductive shield. The propagation of the unequally-distributed gravitomagnetic field leads to the similarly unequally-distributed space-time curvature anomaly.  This unequally-distributed gravitomagnetic field may be provided by the relatively faster clockwise motion of the upper means for generating an electromagnetic field relative to the hollow superconductive field, combined with the relatively slower counter-clockwise motion of the lower means for generating an electromagnetic field, as observed from above the space vehicle.

 

An area of the lowest vacuum pressure density 33 of the substantially egg-shaped space-time anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state 32 is located directly in front of the space vehicle.

 

In this example, the variation in the space-time curvature within the substantially egg-shaped space-time anomaly associated with lowered pressure of inflationary vacuum state, the space-time curvature being the same as gravity, results in a gravitational imbalance, with gravity pulling the space vehicle forward in modified space-time.

 

Fig.7B illustrates the fifth example of space-time curvature modification, also with the purpose of providing for a propulsion in modified space-time.  This example shows the formation of a substantially egg-shaped space-time anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state 34 around the hollow superconductive shield 1 of the space vehicle. The anomaly 34 is provided by the propagation of gravitomagnetic field of unequally-distributed density, this gravitomagnetic field radiating in all directions orthogonally away from the hollow superconductive shield. The propagation of the unequally-distributed gravitomagnetic field leads to the similarly unequally-distributed space-time curvature anomaly. This unequally-distributed gravitomagnetic field may be provided by the relatively slower counter-clockwise motion of the upper means for generating an electromagnetic field relative to the hollow superconductive field, combined with the relatively faster clockwise motion of the lower means for generating an electromagnetic field, as observed from above the space vehicle.

 

An area of the highest vacuum pressure density 35 of the substantially egg-shaped space-time anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state 34 is located directly behind the space vehicle.

 

In this example, the variation in the space-time curvature within the substantially egg-shaped space-time anomaly associated with elevated pressure of inflationary vacuum state, the space-time curvature being same as gravity, results in a gravitational imbalance, with the repulsion force pushing the space vehicle forward in modified space-time at speeds approaching the light-speed characteristic for this modified area. This light-speed might be much higher than the light-speed in the ambient space.

 

By creating alternative anomalies and modulating their parameters, the space vehicle's crew would dilate and contract time and space on demand. The space vehicle, emitting a vacuum pressure modifying, controllably-modulated gravitomagnetic field in all directions, would rapidly move in the uneven space-time anomaly it created, pulled forward by gravity or pushed by the repulsion force.  The time rate zone of the anomaly is expected to have multiple quantised boundaries rather than a single sudden boundary affecting space and time in the immediate proximity of the vehicle.   Speed, rate of time, and direction in space could be shifted on demand and in a rapid manner.  The modulated light-speed could make the space vehicle suitable for interstellar travel.  Because of the time rate control in the newly created isospace, the accelerations would be gradual and the angles of deviation would be relatively smooth. The gravity shielding would further protect pilots from the ill-effects of gravity during rapid accelerations, directional changes, and sudden stops.

 

***************************

 

If you find the thought of generating a gravitational field, difficult to come to terms with, then consider the work of Henry Wallace who was an engineer at General Electric about 25 years ago, and who developed some incredible inventions relating to the underlying physics of the gravitational field.  Few people have heard of him or his work.   Wallace discovered that a force field, similar or related to the gravitational field, results from the interaction of relatively moving masses.   He built machines which demonstrated that this field could be generated by spinning masses of elemental material having an odd number of nucleons -- i.e. a nucleus having a multiple half-integral value of h-bar, the quantum of angular momentum.  Wallace used bismuth or copper material for his rotating bodies and "kinnemassic" field concentrators. 

 

Aside from the immense benefits to humanity which could result from a better understanding of the physical nature of gravity, and other fundamental forces, Wallace's inventions could have enormous practical value in countering gravity or converting gravitational force fields into energy for doing useful work.  So, why has no one heard of him?   One might think that the discoverer of important knowledge such as this would be heralded as a great scientist and nominated for dynamite prizes.  Could it be that his invention does not work?  Anyone can get the patents. Study them -- Wallace -- General Electric -- detailed descriptions of operations -- measurements of effects -- drawings and models -- it is authentic.  If you are handy with tools, then you can even build it yourself. It does work.

 

Henry was granted two patents in this field:

US Patent #3626605 -- "Method and Apparatus for Generating a Secondary Gravitational Force Field", Dec 14, 1971 and

 

US Patent #3626606 -- "Method and Apparatus for Generating a Dynamic Force Field", Dec 14, 1971.  He was also granted US Patent #3823570 -- "Heat Pump" (based on technology similar to the above two inventions), July 16, 1973.

 

These patents can be accessed via http://www.freepatentsonline.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The First High MPG Carburettor of Charles Pogue

 

US Patent 642,434        12th November 1932         Inventor: Charles N. Pogue

 

CARBURETTOR

 

 

This patent describes a carburettor design which was able to produce very high mpg figures using the gasoline available in the USA in the 1930s but which is no longer available as the oil industry does not want functional high mpg carburettors to be available to the public.

 

 

DESCRIPTION

This invention relates to a device for obtaining an intimate contact between a liquid in a vaporous state and a gas, and particularly to such a device which may serve as a carburettor for internal combustion engines.

 

Carburettors commonly used for supplying a combustible mixture of air and liquid fuel to internal combustion engines, comprise a bowl in which a supply of the fuel is maintained in the liquid phase and a fuel jet which extends from the liquid fuel into a passage through which air is drawn by the suction of the engine cylinders.  On the suction, or intake stroke of the cylinders, air is drawn over and around the fuel jet and a charge of liquid fuel is drawn in, broken up and partially vaporised during its passage to the engine cylinders.  However, I have found that in such carburettors, a relatively large amount of the atomised liquid fuel is not vaporised and enters the engine cylinder in the form of microscopic droplets.  When such a charge is ignited in the engine cylinder, only that portion of the liquid fuel which has been converted into the vaporous (molecular) state, combines with the air to give an explosive mixture.   The remaining portion of the liquid fuel which is drawn into the engine cylinders and remains in the form of small droplets, does not explode and impart power to the engine, but burns with a flame and raises the temperature of the engine above that at which the engine operates most efficiently, i.e. 160O to 180O F.

 

According to this invention, a carburettor for internal combustion engines is provided in which substantially all of the liquid fuel entering the engine cylinder will be in the vapour phase and consequently, capable of combining with the air to form a mixture which will explode and impart a maximum amount of power to the engine, and which will not burn and unduly raise the temperature of the engine.

 

A mixture of air and liquid fuel in truly vapour phase in the engine cylinder is obtained by vaporising all, or a large portion of the liquid fuel before it is introduced into the intake manifold of the engine.  This is preferably done in a vaporising chamber, and the “dry” vaporous fuel is drawn from the top of this chamber into the intake manifold on the intake or suction stroke of the engine.  The term “dry” used here refers to the fuel in the vaporous phase which is at least substantially free from droplets of the fuel in the liquid phase, which on ignition would burn rather than explode.

 

More particularly, the invention comprises a carburettor embodying a vaporising chamber in the bottom of which, a constant body of liquid fuel is maintained, and in the top of which there is always maintained a supply of “dry” vaporised fuel, ready for admission into the intake manifold of the engine.  The supply of vaporised liquid fuel is maintained by drawing air through the supply of liquid fuel in the bottom of the vaporising chamber, and by constantly atomising a portion of the liquid fuel so that it may more readily pass into the vapour phase.  This is preferably accomplished by a double-acting suction pump operated from the intake manifold, which forces a mixture of the liquid fuel and air against a plate located within the chamber.  To obtain a more complete vaporisation of the liquid fuel, the vaporising chamber and the incoming air are preferably heated by the exhaust gasses from the engine.  The carburettor also includes means for initially supplying a mixture of air and vaporised fuel so that starting the engine will not be dependent on the existence of a supply of fuel vapours in the vaporising chamber.

 

The invention will be further described in connection with the accompanying drawings, but this further disclosure and description is to be taken as an exemplification of the invention and the same is not limited thereby except as is pointed out in the claims.

 

Fig.1 is an elevational view of a carburettor embodying my invention.

 

 

Fig.2 is a vertical cross-sectional view through the centre of Fig.1

 

 

Fig.3 is a horizontal sectional view on line 3--3 of Fig.2.

 

 

Fig.4 is an enlarged vertical sectional view through one of the pump cylinders and adjacent parts of the carburettor.

 

 

Fig.5 is an enlarged view through the complete double-acting pump and showing the associated distributing valve.

 

 

Fig.6 is an enlarged vertical sectional view through the atomising nozzle for supplying a starting charge for the engine.

 

 

Fig.7 and Fig.8 are detail sectional views of parts 16 and 22 of Fig.6

 

 

Fig.9 and Fig.10 are detail sectional views showing the inlet and outlet to the cylinders of the atomising pump.

 

 

Referring to the drawings, the numeral 1 indicates a combined vaporising chamber and fuel bowl in which liquid fuel is maintained at the level indicated in Fig.1 by a float-valve 2 controlling the flow of liquid fuel through pipe 3 which leads from the vacuum tank or other liquid fuel reservoir.

 

The vaporising chamber 1 is surrounded by a chamber 4 through which hot exhaust gasses from the engine, enter through pipe 5 located at the bottom of the chamber.  These gasses pass around the vaporising chamber 1 and heat the chamber, which accelerates the vaporisation of the liquid fuel.  The gasses then pass out through the upper outlet pipe 6.

 

Chamber 4 for the hot exhaust gasses, is in turn surrounded by chamber 7 into which air for vaporising part of the liquid fuel in chamber 1 enters through a lower intake pipe 8.  This air passes upwards through chamber 4 through which the hot exhaust gasses pass, and so the air becomes heated.  A portion of the heated air then passes though pipe 9 into an aerator 10, located in the bottom of the vaporising chamber 1 and submerged in the liquid fuel in it.  The aerator 10 is comprised of a relatively flat chamber which extends over a substantial portion of the bottom of the chamber and has a large number of small orifices 11 in its upper wall.  The heated air entering the aerator passes through the orifices 11 as small bubbles which then pass upwards through the liquid fuel.  These bubbles, together with the heat imparted to the vaporising chamber by the hot exhaust gasses, cause a vaporisation of a portion of the liquid fuel.

 

Another portion of the air from chamber 7 passes through a connection 12 into passage 13, through which air is drawn directly from the atmosphere into the intake manifold.  Passage 13 is provided with a valve 14 which is normally held closed by spring 14a, the tension of which may be adjusted by means of the threaded plug 14b.  Passage 13 has an upward extension 13a, in which is located a choke valve 13b for assisting in starting the engine.  Passage 13 passes through the vaporising chamber 1 and has its inner end communicating with passage 15 via connector 15a which is secured to the intake manifold of the engine.  Passage 15 is provided with the usual butterfly valve 16 which controls the amount of fuel admitted to the engine cylinders, and consequently, regulates the speed of the engine.

 

The portion of passage 13 which passes through the vaporising chamber has an opening 17 normally closed by valve 17a which is held against its seat by spring 17b, the tension of which may be adjusted by a threaded plug 17c.  As air is drawn past valve 14 and through passage 13 on the intake or suction stroke of the engine, valve 17a will be lifted from its seat and a portion of the dry fuel vapour from the upper portion of the vaporising chamber will be sucked into passage 13 through opening 17 and mingle with the air in it before entering passage 15. 

 

In order to regulate the amount of air passing from chamber 7 to aerator 10 and into passage 13, pipe 9 and connection 12 are provided with suitable valves 18 and 19 respectively.  Valve 18 in pipe 9 is synchronised with butterfly valve 16 in passage 15.  Valve 19 is adjustable and preferably synchronised with butterfly valve 16 as shown, but this is not essential.

 

The bottom of passage 15 is made in the form of a venturi 20 and a nozzle 21 for atomised liquid fuel and air is located at or adjacent to the point of greatest restriction.  Nozzle 21 is preferably supplied with fuel from the supply of liquid fuel in the bottom of the vaporising chamber, and to that end, a member 22 is secured within the vaporising chamber by a removable threaded plug 23 having a flanged lower end 24.  Plug 22 extends through an opening in the bottom of chamber 1, and is threaded into the bottom of member 22.  This causes the bottom wall of chamber 1 to be securely clamped between the lower end of member 22 and flange 24, thus securely retaining member 22 in place.

 

Plug 23 is provided with a sediment bowl 24 and extending from bowl 24 are several small passages 25 extending laterally, and a central vertical passage 26.  The lateral passages 25 register with corresponding passages 27 located in the lower end of member 22 at a level lower than that at which fuel stands in chamber 1, whereby liquid fuel is free to pass into bowl 24.

 

Vertical passage 26 communicates with a vertical nozzle 28 which terminates within the flaring lower end of nozzle 21.  The external diameter of nozzle 26 is less than the interior diameter of the nozzle 21 so that a space is provided between them for the passage of air or and vapour mixtures.  Nozzle 26 is also provided with a series of inlets 29, for air or air and vapour mixtures, and a fuel inlet 30.  Fuel inlet 30 communicates with a chamber 31 located in the member 22 and surrounding the nozzle 28.  Chamber 30 is supplied with liquid fuel by means of a passage 32 which is controlled by a needle valve 33, the stem of which, extends to the outside of the carburettor and is provided with a knurled nut 34 for adjusting purposes.

 

The upper end of member 22 is made hollow to provide a space 35 surrounding the nozzles 21 and 28.  The lower wall of the passage 13 is provided with a series of openings 35a, to allow vapours to enter space 35 through them.  The vapours may then pass through inlets 29 into the nozzle 28, and around the upper end of the nozzle 28 into the lower end of nozzle 21.

 

Extending from chamber 31 at the side opposite passage 32, is a passage 36 which communicates with a conduit 37 which extends upwards through passage 13, and connects through a lateral extension 39, with passage 15 just above the butterfly valve 16.  The portion of conduit 37 which extends through passage 13 is provided with an orifice 39 through which air or air and fuel vapour may be drawn into the conduit 37 mingle with and atomise the liquid fuel being drawn through the conduit.  To further assist in this atomisation of the liquid fuel passing through conduit 37, the conduit is restricted at 40 just below orifice 39.

 

The upper end of conduit 37 is in communication with the atmosphere through opening 41 through which air may be drawn directly into the upper portion of the conduit.  The proportion of air to combustible vapours coming through conduit 37 is controlled by needle valve 42.

 

As nozzle 21 enters directly into the lower end of passage 15, suction in the inlet manifold will, in turn, create a suction on nozzle 21 which will cause a mixture of atomised fuel and air to be drawn directly into the intake manifold.  This is found to be desirable when starting the engine, particularly in cold weather, when there might not be an adequate supply of vapour in the vaporising chamber , or the mixture of air and vapour passing through passage 13 might be to “lean” to cause a prompt starting of the engine.  At such times, closing the choke valve 13b will cause the maximum suction to be exerted on nozzle 21 and the maximum amount of air and atomised fuel to be drawn directly into the intake manifold.  After the engine has been started, only a small portion of the combustible air and vapour mixture necessary for proper operation of the engine is drawn through nozzle 21 as the choke valve will then be open to a greater extent and substantially all of the air and vapour mixture necessary for operation of the engine will be drawn through the lower end 20 of passage 15, around nozzle 21.

 

Conduit 37 extending from fuel chamber 31 to a point above butterfly valve 16 provides an adequate supply of fuel when the engine is idling with vale 16 closed or nearly closed.

 

The casings forming chambers 1, 4 and 7, will be provided with the necessary openings, to subsequently be closed, so that the various parts may be assembled, and subsequently adjusted or repaired.

 

The intake stroke of the engine creates a suction in the intake manifold, which in turn causes air to be drawn past spring valve 14 into passage 13 and simultaneously a portion of the dry fuel vapour from the top of vaporising chamber 1 is drawn through opening 17 past valve 17a to mix with the air moving through the passage.  This mixture then passes through passage 15 to the intake manifold and engine cylinders.

 

The drawing of the dry fuel vapour into passage 13 creates a partial vacuum in chamber 1 which causes air to be drawn into chamber 7 around heated chamber 4 from where it passes through connection  12 and valve 19, into passage 13 and through pipe 9 and valve 18 into aerator 10, from which it bubbles up through the liquid fuel in the bottom of chamber 1 to vaporise more liquid fuel.

 

To assist in maintaining a supply of dry fuel vapour in the upper portion of vaporising chamber 1, the carburettor is provided with means for atomising a portion of the liquid fuel in vaporising chamber 1.  This atomising means preferably is comprised of a double-acting pump which is operated by the suction existing in the intake manifold of the engine.

 

The double-acting pump is comprised of a pair of cylinders 43 which have their lower ends located in the vaporising chamber 1, and each of which has a reciprocating pump piston 44 mounted in it.  Pistons 44 have rods 45 extending from their upper ends, passing through cylinders 46 and have pistons 47 mounted on them within the cylinders 46.

 

Cylinders 46 are connected at each end to a distributing valve V which connects the cylinders alternately to the intake manifold so that the suction in the manifold will cause the two pistons 44 to operate as a double-acting suction pump.

 

The distributing valve V is comprised of a pair of discs 48 and 49 between which is located a hollow oscillatable chamber 50 which is constantly subjected to the suction existing in the intake manifold through connection 51 having a valve 52 in it.  Chamber 50 has a pair of upper openings and a pair of lower openings.  These openings are so arranged with respect to the conduits leading to the opposite ends of cylinders 46 that the suction of the engine simultaneously forces one piston 47 upwards while forcing the other one downwards.

 

The oscillatable chamber 50 has a T-shaped extension 53.  The arms of this extension are engaged alternately by the upper ends of the piston rods 45, so as to cause valve V to connect cylinders 46 in sequence to the intake manifold.

 

Spring 54 causes a quick opening and closing of the ports leading to the cylinders 46 so that at no time will the suction of the engine be exerted on both of the pistons 47.  The tension between discs 48 and 49 and the oscillatable chamber 50 may be regulated by screw 55.

 

The particular form of the distributing valve V is not claimed here so a further description of operation is not necessary.  As far as the present invention is concerned, any form of means for imparting movement to pistons 47 may be substituted for the valve V and its associated parts.

 

The cylinders 43 are each provided with inlets and outlets 56 and 57, each located below the fuel level in chamber 1.  The inlets 56 are connected to horizontally and upwardly extending conduits 58 which pass through the carburettor to the outside.  The upper ends of these conduits are enlarged at 59 and are provided with a vertically extending slot 60.  The enlarged ends 59 are threaded on the inside to accept plugs 61.  The position of these plugs with respect to slots 60 determines the amount of air which may pass through the slots 60 and into cylinder 43 on the suction stroke of the pistons 44.

 

The upper walls of the horizontal portions of conduits 58 have an opening 62 for the passage of liquid fuel from chamber 1.  The extent to which liquid fuel may pass through these openings is controlled by needle valves 63, whose stems 64 pass up through and out of the carburettor and terminate in knurled adjusting nuts 65.

 

The horizontal portion of each conduit 58 is also provided with a check valve 66 (shown in Fig.10) which allows air to be drawn into the cylinders through conduits 58 but prevents liquid fuel from being forced upwards through the conduits on the down stroke of pistons 44.

 

Outlets 57 connect with horizontal pipes 67 which merge into a single open-ended pipe 68 which extends upwards.  The upper open end of this pipe terminates about half way up the height of the vaporising chamber 1 and is provided with a bail 69 which carries a deflecting plate 70 positioned directly over the open end of pipe 68.

 

The horizontal pipes 67 are provided with check valves 71 which permit the mingled air and fuel to be forced from cylinders 43 by the pistons 44, but which prevent fuel vapour from being drawn from chamber 1 into cylinders 43.

 

When operating, pistons 44 on the ‘up’ strokes, draw a charge of air and liquid fuel into cylinders 43, and on the ‘down’ stroke, discharge the charge in an atomised condition through pipes 67 and 68, against deflecting plate 70 which further atomises the particles of liquid fuel so that they will readily vaporise.  Any portions of the liquid fuel which do not vaporise, drop down into the supply of liquid fuel in the bottom of the vaporising chamber where they are subjected to the vaporising influence of the bubbles of heated air coming from the aerator 10, and may again pass into the cylinders 43.

 

As previously stated, the vaporised fuel for introduction into the intake manifold of the engine, is taken from the upper portion of the vaporising chamber 1.  To ensure that the vapour in this portion of the chamber shall contain no, or substantially no, entrained droplets of liquid fuel, chamber 1 is divided into upper and lower portions by the walls 71 and 72 which converge from all directions to form a central opening 73.  With the vaporising chamber thus divided into upper and lower portions which are connected only by the relatively small opening 73, any droplets entrained by the bubbles rising from the aerator 10, will come into contact with the sloping wall 72 and be deflected back into the main body of liquid fuel in the bottom of the chamber.  Likewise, the droplets of atomised fuel being forced from the upper end of pipe 68 will, on striking plate 70, be deflected back into the body of liquid fuel and not pass into the upper portion of the chamber.

 

In order that the speed of operation of the atomising pump may be governed by the speed at which the engine is running, and further, that the amount of air admitted from chamber 7 to the aerator 10, and to passage 13 through connection 12, may be increased as the speed of the engine increases, the valves 18, 19 and 52 and butterfly valve 16 are all connected by a suitable linkage L so that as butterfly valve 16 is opened to increase the speed of the engine, valves 18, 19 and 52 will also be opened.

 

As shown in Fig.2, the passage of the exhaust gasses from the engine to the heating chamber 4, located between the vaporising chamber  and the air chamber 7, is controlled by valve 74.  The opening and closing of valve 74 is controlled by a thermostat in accordance with the temperature inside chamber 4, by means of an adjustable metal rod 75 having a high coefficient of expansion, whereby the optimum temperature may be maintained in the vaporising chamber, irrespective of the surrounding temperature.

 

From the foregoing description, it will be understood that the present invention provides a carburettor for supplying to internal combustion engines, a comingled mixture of air and liquid fuel vapour free from microscopic droplets of liquid fuel which would burn rather than explode in the cylinders and that a supply of such dry vaporised fuel is constantly maintained in the carburettor.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Second High MPG Carburettor of Charles Pogue

 

US Patent 1,997,497           9th April 1935            Inventor: Charles N. Pogue

 

CARBURETTOR

 

 

This patent describes a carburettor design which was able to produce very high mpg figures using the gasoline available in the USA in the 1930s but which is no longer available as the oil industry does not want functional high mpg carburettors to be available to the public.

 

 

DESCRIPTION

This invention relates to a device for obtaining an intimate contact between a liquid in a truly vaporous state and a gas, and particularly to such a device which may serve as a carburettor for internal combustion engines and is an improvement on the form of device shown in my Patent No. 1,938,497, granted on 5th December 1933.

 

In carburettors commonly used for supplying a combustible mixture of air and liquid fuel to internal combustion engines, a relatively large amount of the atomised liquid fuel is not vaporised and enters the engine cylinder more or less in the form of microscopic droplets.  When such a charge is ignited in the engine cylinder, only that portion of the liquid fuel which has been converted into the vaporous, and consequently molecular state, combines with the air to give an explosive mixture.  The remaining portion of the liquid fuel which is drawn into the engine cylinders remains in the form of small droplets and does not explode imparting power to the engine, but instead burns with a flame and raises the engine temperature above that at which the engine operates most efficiently, i.e. from 160O F. to 180O F.

 

In my earlier patent, there is shown and described a form of carburettor in which the liquid fuel is substantially completely vaporised prior to its introduction into the engine cylinders, and in which, means are provided for maintaining a reverse supply of “dry” vapour available for introduction into the engine cylinder.  Such a carburettor has been found superior to the standard type of carburettor referred to above, and to give a better engine performance with far less consumption of fuel.

 

It is an object of the present invention to provide a carburettor in which the liquid fuel is broken up and prepared in advance of and independent of the suction of the engine and in which a reserve supply of dry vapour will be maintained under pressure, ready for introduction into the engine cylinder at all times.  It is also an object of the invention to provide a carburettor in which the dry vapour is heated to a sufficient extent prior to being mixed with the main supply of air which carries it into the engine cylinder, to cause it to expand so that it will be relatively lighter and will become more intimately mixed with the air, prior to explosion in the engine cylinders.

 

I have found that when the reserve supply of dry vapour is heated and expanded prior to being mixed with the air, a greater proportion of the potential energy of the fuel is obtained and the mixture of air and fuel vapour will explode in the engine cylinders without any apparent burning of the fuel which would result in unduly raising the operating temperature of the engine.

 

More particularly, the present invention comprises a carburettor in which liquid fuel vapour is passed from a main vaporising chamber under at least a slight pressure, into and through a heated chamber where it is caused to expand and in which droplets of liquid fuel are either vaporised or separated from the vapour , so that the fuel finally introduced into the engine cylinders is in the true vapour phase.  The chamber in which the liquid fuel vapour is heated and caused to expand, is preferably comprised  of a series of passages through which the vapour and exhaust gases from the engine pass in tortuous paths in such a manner that the exhaust gasses are brought into heat interchange relation with the vapour and give up a part of their heat to the vapour, thus causing heating and expansion of the vapour.

 

The invention will be further described in connection with the accompanying drawings, but this further disclosure and description is to be taken merely as an exemplification of the invention and the invention is not limited to the embodiment so described.

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Fig.1 is a vertical cross-sectional view through a carburettor embodying my invention.

 

 

Fig.2 is a horizontal sectional view through the main vaporising or atomising chamber, taken on line 2--2 of Fig.1

 

 

Fig.3 is a side elevation of the carburettor.

 

 

Fig.4 is a detail sectional view of one of the atomising nozzles and its associated parts

 

 

Fig.5 is a detail cross-sectional view showing the means for controlling the passage of gasses from the vapour expanding chamber into the intake manifold of the engine.

 

 

Fig.6 is a perspective view of one of the valves shown in Fig.5

 

 

Fig.7 is a cross-sectional view showing means for adjusting the valves shown in Fig.5

 

Fig.8 is a cross-sectional view on line 8--8 of Fig.7

 

 

Referring now to the drawings, the numeral 1 indicates a main vaporising and atomising chamber for the liquid fuel located at the bottom of, and communicating with, a vapour heating and expanding chamber 2.

 

The vaporising chamber is provided with a perforated false bottom 3 and is normally filled with liquid fuel to the level x.  Air enters the space below the false bottom 3 via conduit 4 and passes upwards through perforations 5 in the false bottom and then bubbles up through the liquid fuel, vaporising a portion of it.

 

To maintain the fuel level x in chamber 1, liquid fuel passes from the usual fuel tank (not shown) through pipe 8 into and through a pair of nozzles 9 which have their outlets located in chamber 1, just above the level of the liquid fuel in it.  The pump 7 may be of any approved form but is preferably of the diaphragm type, as such fuel pumps are now standard equipment on most cars.

 

The nozzles 9 are externally threaded at their lower ends to facilitate their assembly in chamber 1 and to permit them to be removed readily, should cleaning be necessary.

 

The upper ends of nozzles 9 are surrounded by venturi tubes 10, having a baffle 11, located at their upper ends opposite the outlets of the nozzles.  The liquid fuel being forced from the ends of nozzles 9 into the restricted portions of the Venturi tubes, causes a rapid circulation of the air and vapour in the chamber through the tubes 10 and brings the air and vapour into intimate contact with the liquid fuel, with the result that a portion of the liquid fuel is vaporised.  The part of the liquid fuel which is not vaporised, strikes the baffles 11 and is further broken up and deflected downwards into the upward-flowing current of air and vapour.

 

Pump 7 is regulated to supply a greater amount of liquid fuel to the nozzles 9 than will be vaporised.  The excess drops into chamber 1 and causes the liquid to be maintained at the indicated level.  When the liquid fuel rises above that level, a float valve 12 is lifted, allowing the excess fuel to flow out through overflow pipe 13 into pipe 14 which leads back to pipe 6 on the intake side of pump 7.  Such an arrangement allows a large amount of liquid fuel to be circulated by pump 7 without more fuel being withdrawn from the fuel tank than is actually vaporised and consumed in the engine.  As the float valve 12 will set upon the end of the outlet pipe 13 as soon as the liquid level drops below the indicated level, there is no danger of vapour passing into pipe 14 and from there into pump 7 and interfere with its normal operation.

 

The upper end of the vaporising and atomising chamber 1 is open and vapour formed by air bubbling through the liquid fuel in the bottom of the chamber and that formed as the result of atomisation at nozzles 9, pass into the heating and expanding chamber 2.  As is clearly shown in Fig.1, chamber 2 comprises a series of tortuous passages 15 and 16 leading from the bottom to the top.  The fuel vapour passes through passages 15 and the exhaust gasses of the engine pass through passages 16, a suitable entrance 17 and exit 18 being provided for that purpose.

 

The vapour passing upwards in a zigzag path through passages 15, will be brought into heat interchange relation with the hot walls of the passages 16 traversed by the hot exhaust gasses.  The total length of the passages 15 and 16 is such that a relatively large reserve supply of the liquid fuel is always maintained in chamber 2, and by maintaining the vapour in heat interchange relation with the hot exhaust gasses for a substantial period, the vapour will absorb sufficient heat to cause it to expand, with the result that when it is withdrawn from the top of chamber 2, it will be in the true vapour phase, and due to expansion, relatively light.

 

Any minute droplets of liquid fuel entrained by the vapour in chamber 1 will precipitate out in the lower passages 15 and flow back into chamber 1, or else be vaporised by the heat absorbed from the exhaust gasses during its passage through chamber 2.

 

The upper end of vapour passage 15 communicates with openings 19 adjacent to the upper end of a down-draft air tube 20 leading to the intake manifold of the engine.  Valves 21 are interposed in openings 19, so that the passage of the vapour through them into the air tube may be controlled.   Valves 21 are preferably of the rotary plug type and are controlled as described below.

 

Suitable means are provided for causing the vapour to be maintained in chamber 2, under a pressure greater than atmospheric, so that when the valves 21 are opened, the vapour will be forced into air tube 20 independent of the engine suction.  Such means may comprise an air pump (not shown) for forcing air through pipe 4 into chamber 1 beneath the false bottom 3, but I prefer merely to provide pipe 4 with a funnel-shaped inlet end 22 and placement just behind the usual engine fan 23.  This causes air to pass through pipe 4 with sufficient force to maintain the desired pressure in chamber 2, and the air being drawn through the radiator by the fan will be preheated prior to its introduction into chamber 1 and hence will vaporise greater amounts of the liquid fuel.  If desired, pipe 4  may be surrounded by an electric or other heater, or exhaust gasses from the engine may be passed around it  to further preheat the air passing through it prior to its introduction into the liquid fuel in the bottom of chamber 1.

 

Air tube 20 is provided with a butterfly throttle valve 24 and a choke valve 24a, as is customary with carburettors used for internal combustion engines.  The upper end of air tube 20 extends above chamber 2 a distance sufficient to receive an air filter and/or silencer, if desired.

 

A low-speed or idling jet 25 has its upper end communicating with the passage through air tube 20 adjacent to the throttling valve 24 and its lower end extending into the liquid fuel in the bottom of chamber 1, for supplying fuel to the engine when the valves are in a position such as to close the passages 19.  However, the passage through idling jet 25 is so small that under normal operations, the suction on it is not sufficient to lift fuel from the bottom of chamber 1.

 

To prevent the engine from backfiring into vapour chamber 2, the ends of the passages 19 are covered with a fine mesh screen 26 which, operating on the principle of the miner’s lamp, will prevent the vapour in chamber 2 from exploding in case of a backfire, but which will not interfere substantially with the passage of the vapour from chamber 2 into air tube 20 when valves 21 are open.  Air tube 20 is preferably in the form of a venturi with the greatest restriction being at that point where the openings 19 are located, so that when valves 21 are opened, there will be a pulling force on the vapour caused by the increased velocity of the air at the restricted portion of air tube 20 opposite the openings 19, as well as an expelling force on them due to the pressure in chamber 2.

 

As shown in Fig.3, the operating mechanism of valves 21 is connected to the operating mechanism for throttle valve 24, so that they are opened and closed simultaneously with the opening and closing of the throttle valve, ensuring that the amount of vapour supplied to the engine will, at all times, be in proportion to the demands placed upon the engine.   To that end, each valve 21 has an extension, or operating stem 27, protruding through one of the side walls of the vapour-heating and expanding chamber 2.  Packing glands 28 of ordinary construction, surround stems 27 where they pass through the chamber wall, to prevent leakage of vapour at those points.

 

Operating arms 29 are rigidly secured to the outer ends of stems 27 and extend towards each other.  The arms are pivotally and adjustably connected to a pair of links 30 which, at their lower ends are pivotally connected to an operating link 31, which in turn, is pivotally connected to arm 32 which is rigidly secured on an outer extension 33 of the stem of the throttle valve 24.  Extension 33 also has rigidly connected to it, arm 34 to which is connected operating link 35 leading from the means for accelerating the engine.

 

The means for adjusting the connection from the upper ends of links 30 to valve stems 27 of valves 21, so that the amount of vapour delivered from chamber 2 may be regulated to cause the most efficient operation of the particular engine to which the carburettor is attached, comprises angular slides 36, to which the upper ends of links 30 are fastened, and which cannot rotate but can slide in guideways 37 located in arms 29.  Slides 36 have threaded holes through which screws 38 pass.  Screws 38 are rotatably mounted in arms 29, but are held against longitudinal movement so that when they are rotated, slides 36 will be caused to move along the guideways 37 and change the relative position of links 30 to the valve stems 27, so that a greater or less movement, and consequently, a greater or less opening of the ports 19 will take place when throttle valve 24 is operated.

 

For safety, and for most efficient operation of the engine, the vapour in chamber 2 should not be heated or expanded beyond a predetermined amount, and in order to control the extent to which the vapour is heated, and consequently, the extent to which it expands, a valve 39 is located in the exhaust passage 16 adjacent to inlet 17.  Valve 39 is preferably theromstatically controlled, as for example, by an expanding rod thermostat 40, which extends through chamber 2.  However, any other means may be provided for reducing the amount of hot exhaust gasses entering passage 16 when the temperature of the vapour in the chamber reaches or exceeds the optimum.

 

The carburettor has been described in detail in connection with a down-draft type of carburettor, but it is to be understood that its usefulness is not to be restricted to that particular type of carburettor, and that the manner in which the mixture of air and vapour is introduced into the engine cylinders is immaterial as far as the advantages of the carburettor are concerned.

 

The term “dry vapour” is used to define the physical condition of the liquid fuel vapour after removal of liquid droplets or the mist which is frequently entrained in what is ordinarily termed a vapour.

 

From the foregoing description it will be seen that the present invention provides a carburettor in which the breaking up of the liquid fuel for subsequent use is independent of the suction created by the engine, and that after the liquid fuel is broken up, it is maintained under pressure in a heated space for a length of time sufficient to permit all entrained liquid particles to be separated or vaporised and to permit the dry vapour to expand prior to its introduction into and admixture with the main volume of air passing into the engine cylinders.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Third High MPG Carburettor of Charles Pogue

 

US Patent 2,026,798           7th January 1936            Inventor: Charles N. Pogue

 

CARBURETTOR

 

 

This patent describes a carburettor design which was able to produce very high mpg figures using the gasoline available in the USA in the 1930s but which is no longer available as the oil industry does not want functional high mpg carburettors to be available to the public.

 

 

DESCRIPTION

This invention relates to carburettors suitable for use with internal combustion engines and is an improvement on the carburettors shown in my Patents Nos. 1,938,497, granted on 5th December 1933 and 1,997,497 granted on 9th April 1935.

 

In my earlier patents, an intimate contact between such as the fuel used for internal combustion engines, and a gas such as air, is obtained by causing the gas to bubble up through a body of the liquid.  The vaporised liquid passes into a vapour chamber which preferably is heated, and any liquid droplets are returned to the body of the liquid, with the result that the fuel introduced into the combustion chambers is free of liquid particles , and in the molecular state so that an intimate mixture with the air is obtained to give an explosive mixture from which nearer the maximum energy contained in the liquid fuel is obtained.  Moreover, as there are no liquid particles introduced into the combustion chambers, there will be no burning of the fuel and consequently, the temperature of the engine will not be increased above that at which it operates most efficiently.

 

In my Patent No. 1,997,497, the air which is to bubble up through the body of the liquid fuel is forced into and through the fuel under pressure and the fuel vapour and air pass into a chamber where they are heated and caused to expand.  The introduction of the air under pressure and the expansion of the vaporous mixture ensures a sufficient pressure being maintained in the vapour heating and expanding chamber, to cause at least a portion of it to be expelled from it into the intake manifold as soon as the valve controlling the passage to it is opened.

 

In accordance with the present invention, improved means are provided for maintaining the vaporous mixture in the vapour-heating chamber under a predetermined pressure, and for regulating such pressure so that it will be at the optimum for the particular conditions under which the engine is to operate.  Such means preferably comprises a reciprocating pump operated by a vacuum-actuated motor for forcing the vapour into and through the chamber.  The pump is provided with a suitable pressure-regulating valve so that when the pressure in the vapour-heating chamber exceeds the predetermined amount, a portion of the vapour mixture will be by-passed from the outlet side to the inlet side of the pump, and so be recirculated.

 

The invention will be described further in connection with the accompanying drawings, but such further disclosure and description is to be taken merely as an exemplification of the invention, and the invention is not limited to that embodiment of the invention.

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Fig.1 is a side elevation of a carburettor embodying the invention.

 

 

Fig.2 is a plan view of the carburettor

 

 

 

Fig.3 is an enlarged vertical section view.

 

 

Fig.4 is a transverse sectional view on line 4--4 of Fig.3

 

 

Fig.5 is a detail sectional view on line 5--5 of Fig.3

 

 

Fig.6 is a transverse sectional view through the pump and actuating motor, taken on line 6--6 of Fig.2

 

 

Fig.7 is a longitudinal sectional view through the pump taken on line 7--7 of Fig.2

 

 

Fig.8 is a longitudinal sectional view through a part of the pump cylinder, showing the piston in elevation.

 

 

 

In the drawings, a vaporising and atomising chamber 1 is located at the bottom of the carburettor and has an outlet at its top for the passage of fuel vapour and air into a primary vapour-heating chamber 2.

 

The vaporising chamber 1 is provided with a perforated false bottom 3 and is normally filled with liquid fuel to the level indicated in Fig.1.  Air is introduced via conduit 4 into the space below the false bottom 3, and then through the perforations 5 in the false bottom which breaks it into a myriad of fine bubbles, which pass upwards through the liquid fuel above the false bottom.

 

Liquid fuel for maintaining the level indicated in chamber 1 passes from the usual fuel tank (not shown) through pipe 6, and is forced by pump 7 through pipe 8 through a pair of nozzles 9 having their outlets located in chamber 1, just above the level of the liquid fuel in it.  Pump 7 may be of any approved form but is preferably of the diaphragm type, as such fuel pumps are now standard equipment on most cars.

 

The nozzles 9 are externally threaded at their lower ends to facilitate their assembly in chamber 1 and to permit them to be readily removed should cleaning become necessary.

 

The upper ends of nozzles 9 are surrounded by venturi tubes 10 having baffles 11 located at their upper ends opposite the outlets of the nozzles, as is shown and described in detail in my Patent No. 1,997,497.  The liquid fuel being forced from the ends of nozzles 9 into the restricted portions of the venturi tubes, causes a rapid circulation of the air and vapour in the chamber through tubes 10 and brings the air and vapour into intimate contact with the liquid fuel, with the result that a portion of the liquid fuel is vaporised.  Unvaporised portions of the liquid fuel strike the baffles 11 and are thereby further broken up and deflected downwards into the upward-flowing current of air and vapour.

 

Pump 7 is regulated to supply a greater amount of liquid fuel to nozzles 9 than will be vaporised.  The excess liquid fuel drops into chamber 1 which causes the liquid there to be maintained at the indicated level.  When the liquid fuel rises above that level, float valve 12 opens and the excess fuel flows through overflow pipe 13 into pipe 14 which leads back to pipe 6 on the intake side of pump 7.  Such an arrangement permits a large amount of liquid fuel to be circulated by pump 7 without more fuel being withdrawn from the fuel tank than is actually vaporised and consumed by the engine.  As float valve 12 will set upon the end of the outlet pipe 13 as soon as the liquid level drops below the indicated level, there is no danger of vapour passing into pipe 14 and thence into pump 7 to interfere with its normal operation.

 

The amount of liquid fuel vaporised by nozzles 9 and by the passage of air through the body of liquid, is sufficient to provide a suitably enriched vaporous mixture for introducing into the passage leading to the intake manifold of the engine, through which the main volume of air passes.

 

Vapour formed by air bubbling through the liquid fuel in the bottom of chamber 1 and that formed by the atomisation at the nozzles 9, pass from the top of that chamber into the primary heating chamber 2.  As is clearly shown in Fig.1, chamber 2 comprises a relatively long spiral passage 15 through which the vaporous mixture gradually passes inwards to a central outlet 16 to which is connected a conduit 17 leading to a reciprocating pump 18 which forces the vaporous mixture under pressure into conduit 19 leading to a central inlet 20 of a secondary heating chamber 21, which like the primary heating chamber, comprises a relatively long spiral.  The vaporous mixture gradually passes outwards through the spiral chamber 21 and enters a downdraft air tube 22, leading to the intake manifold of the engine, through an outlet 23 controlled by a rotary plug valve 24.

 

To prevent the engine from backfiring into vapour chamber 2, the ends of passage 19 are covered with a fine mesh screen 25, which, operating on the principle of a miner’s lamp, will prevent the vapour in chamber 2 from exploding in case of a backfire, but will not interfere substantially with the passage of the vapour from chamber 21 into air tube 22 when valve 24 is open.

 

The air tube 22 is preferably in the form of a venturi with the greatest constriction being at that point where outlet 23 is located, so that when valve 24 is opened, there will be a pulling force on the vaporous mixture due to the increased velocity of the air at the restricted portion of the air tube opposite outlet 23, as well as an expelling force on it due to the pressure maintained in chamber 21 by pump 18.

 

Both the primary and secondary spiral heating chambers 15 and 21, and the central portion of air tube 22 are enclosed by a casing 26 having an inlet 27 and an outlet 28 for a suitable heating medium such as the gasses coming from the exhaust manifold.

 

Pump 18, used to force the vaporous mixture from primary heating chamber 2 into and through the secondary chamber 21, includes a working chamber 29 for hollow piston 30, provided with an inlet 31 controlled by valve 32, and an outlet 33 controlled by a valve 34.  The end of the working chamber 29 to which is connected conduit 17, which conducts the vaporous mixture from primary heating chamber 2, has an inlet valve 35, and the opposite end of the working chamber has an outlet 36 controlled by valve 37 positioned in an auxiliary chamber 38, to which is connected outlet pipe 19 which conducts the vaporous mixture under pressure to the secondary heating chamber 21.  Each of the valves 32, 34, 35 and 37 is of the one-way type.  They are shown as being gravity-actuated flap valves, but it will be understood that spring-loaded or other types of one-way valves may be used if desired.

 

One side of piston 30 is formed with a gear rack 39 which is received  in a groove 39a of the wall forming the cylinder of the pump.  The gear rack 39 engages with an actuating spur gear 40 carried on one end of shaft 41 and operating in a housing 42 formed on the pump cylinder.  The other end of shaft 41 carries a spur gear 43, which engages and is operated by a gear rack 44 carried on a piston 46 of a double-acting motor 47.  The particular construction of the double-acting motor 47 is not material, and it may be of a vacuum type commonly used for operating windscreen wipers on cars, in which case a flexible hose 48 would be connected with the intake manifold of the engine to provide the necessary vacuum for operating the piston 45.

 

Under the influence of the double-acting motor 47, the piston 30 of the pump has a reciprocatory movement in the working chamber 29.  Movement of the piston towards the left in Fig.7 tends to compress the vaporous mixture in the working chamber between the end of the piston and the inlet from pipe 17, and causes valve 35 to be forced tightly against the inlet opening.  In a like manner, valves 32 and 34 are forced open and the vaporous mixture in that portion of the working chamber is forced through the inlet 31 in the end of the piston 30, into the interior of the piston, where it displaces the vaporous mixture there and forces it into the space between the right-hand end of the piston and the right-hand end of the working chamber.  The passage of the vaporous mixture into the right-hand end of the working chamber is supplemented by the partial vacuum created there when the piston moves to the left.  During such movement of the piston, valve 37 is maintained closed and prevents any sucking back of the vaporous mixture from the secondary heating chamber 21.

 

When motor 47 reverses, piston 30 moves to the right and the vaporous mixture in the right-hand end of the working chamber is forced past valve 37 through pipe 19 into the secondary heating chamber 21.  At the same time, a vacuum is created behind piston 30 which results in the left-hand end of the working chamber being filled again with the vaporous mixture from the primary heating chamber 2.

 

As the operation of pump 47 varies in accordance with the suction created in the intake manifold, it should be regulated so that the vaporous mixture is pumped into the secondary heating chamber at a rate sufficient to maintain a greater pressure there than is needed.  In order that the pressure in the working chamber may at all times be maintained at the optimum, a pipe 50 having an adjustable pressure-regulating valve 51 is connected between the inlet and outlet pipes 17 and 19.  Valve 51 will permit a portion of the vaporous mixture discharged from the pump to be bypassed to inlet 17 so that a pressure predetermined by the seating of valve 51 will at all times be maintained in the second heating chamber 21.

 

Air tube 22 is provided with a butterfly throttle valve 52 and a choke valve 53, as is usual with carburettors adapted for use with internal combustion engines.  Operating stems 54, 55 and 56 for valves 52, 53 and 24 respectively, extend through casing 26.  An operating arm 57 is rigidly secured to the outer end of stem 55 and is connected to a rod 58 which extends to the dashboard of the car, or some other place convenient to the driver.  The outer end of stem 56 of valve 24 which controls outlet 23 from the secondary heating chamber 21 has one end of an operating arm 59 fixed securely to it.  The other end is pivotally connected to link 60 which extends downwards  and pivotally connects to one end of a bell crank lever 61, rigidly attached to the end of stem 54 of throttle valve 52.  The other end of the bell crank lever is connected to an operating rod 62 which, like rod 58, extends to a place convenient to the driver.  Valves 24 and 52 are connected for simultaneous operation so that when the throttle valve 52 is opened to increase the speed of the engine, valve 24 will also be opened to admit a larger amount of the heated vaporous mixture from the secondary heating chamber 21.

 

While the suction created by pump 18 ordinarily will create a sufficient vacuum in the primary heating chamber 2 to cause air to be drawn into and upwards through the body of liquid fuel in the bottom of vaporising chamber 1, in some instances it may be desirable to provide supplemental means for forcing the air into and up through the liquid, and in such cases an auxiliary pump may be provided for that purpose, or the air conduit 4 may be provided with a funnel-shaped intake which is positioned behind the engine fan 63 which is customarily placed behind the engine radiator.

 

The foregoing description has been given in connection with a downdraft type of carburettor, but it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to use with such type of carburettors and that the manner in which the mixture of air and vapour is introduced into the engine cylinders is immaterial as far as the advantages of the carburettor are concerned.

 

Before the carburettor is put into use, the pressure-regulating valve 51 in the bypass pipe 50 will be adjusted so that the pressure best suited to the conditions under which the engine is to be operated, will be maintained in the secondary heating chamber 21.  When valve 51 has thus been set and the engine started, pump 18 will create a partial vacuum in the primary heating chamber 2 and cause air to be drawn through conduit 4 to bubble upwards through the liquid fuel in the bottom of the vaporising and atomising chamber 1 with the resulting vaporisation of a part of the liquid fuel.  At the same time, pump 7 will be set into operation and liquid fuel will be pumped from the fuel tank through the nozzles 9 which results in an additional amount of the fuel being vaporised.  The vapour resulting from such atomisation of the liquid fuel and the passage of air through the body of the liquid, will pass into and through spiral chamber 1 where they will be heated by the products of combustion in the surrounding chamber formed by casing 26.  The fuel vapour and air will gradually pass inwards through outlet 16 and through conduit 17 to pump 18 which will force them into the secondary heating chamber 21 in which they will be maintained at the predetermined pressure by the pressure-regulating valve 51.  The vaporous mixture is further heated in chamber 21 and passes spirally outward to the valve-controlled outlet 23 which opens into air tube 22 which conducts the main volume of air to the intake manifold of the engine.

 

The heating of the vaporous mixture in the heating chambers 2 and 21, tends to cause them to expand, but expansion in chamber 21 is prevented due to the pressure regulating valve 51.  However, as soon as the heated vaporous mixture passes valve 24 and is introduced into the air flowing through intake tube 22, it is free to expand and thereby become relatively light so that a more intimate mixture with the air is obtained prior to the mixture being exploded in the engine cylinders.  Thus it will be seen that the present invention not only provides means wherein the vaporous mixture from heating chamber 21 is forced into the air passing through air tube 22 by a positive force, but it is also heated to such an extent that after it leaves chamber 21 it will expand to such an extent as to have a density less than it would if introduced directly from the vaporising and atomising chamber 1 into the air tube 22.

 

The majority of the liquid particles entrained by the vaporous mixture leaving chamber 1 will be separated in the first half of the outermost spiral of the primary heating chamber 2 and drained back into the body of liquid fuel in tank 1.  Any liquid particles which are not thus separated, will be carried on with the vaporous mixture and due to the circulation of that mixture and the application of heat, will be vaporised before the vaporous mixture is introduced into the air tube 22 from the secondary heating chamber 21.  Thus only “dry” vapour is introduced into the engine cylinders and any burning in the engine cylinders of liquid particles of the fuel, which would tend to raise the engine temperature above its most efficient level, is avoided.

 

While the fullest benefits of the invention are obtained by using both a primary and secondary heating chamber, the primary heating chamber may, if desired, be eliminated and the vaporous mixture pumped directly from the vaporising and atomising chamber 1 into the spiral heating chamber 21.

 

From the foregoing description it will be seen that the present invention provides an improvement over the carburettor disclosed in my Patent No. 1,997,497, in that it is possible to maintain the vaporous mixture in the heating chamber 21 under a predetermined pressure, and that as soon as the vaporous mixture is introduced into the main supply of air passing to the intake manifold of the engine, it will expand and reach a density at which it will form a more intimate mixture with the air.  Furthermore, the introduction of the vaporous mixture into the air stream in the tube 22, causes a certain amount of turbulence which also tends to give a more intimate mixture of vapour molecules with the air.

 

 

 

 

 

The High MPG Carburettor of Ivor Newberry

 

US Patent 2,218,922           22nd October 1940              Inventor: Ivor B. Newberry

 

VAPORIZER FOR COMBUSTION ENGINES

 

 

This patent describes a carburettor design which was able to produce very high mpg figures using the gasoline available in the USA in the 1930s but which is no longer available as the oil industry does not want functional high mpg carburettors to be available to the public.

 

 

DESCRIPTION

This invention relates to fuel vaporising devices for combustion engines and more particularly, is concerned with improvements in devices of the kind where provision is made for using the exhaust gasses of the engines as a heating medium to aid in the vaporisation of the fuel.

 

One object of the invention is to provide a device which will condition the fuel in such a manner that its potential energy may be fully utilised, thereby ensuring better engine performance and a saving in fuel consumption, and preventing the formation of carbon deposits in the cylinders of the engine and the production of carbon monoxide and other objectionable gasses.

 

A further object is to provide a device which is so designed that the fuel is delivered to the cylinders of the engine in a highly vaporised, dry and expanded state, this object contemplating a device which is available as an exhaust box in which the vaporisation and expansion of the liquid components is effected at sub-atmospheric pressures and prior to their being mixed with the air component.

 

A still further object is to provide a device which will condition the components of the fuel in such a manner that they be uniformly and intimately mixed without the use of a carburettor.

 

A still further object is to provide a device which will enable the use of various inferior and inexpensive grades of fuel.

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Fig.1 is an elevational view of the device as applied to the engine of a motor vehicle.

 

 

 

Fig.2 is an enlarged view of the device, partially in elevation and partially in section.

 

 

Fig.3 is a section taken along line 3--3 of Fig.2

 

 

Fig.4 is a section taken along line 4--4 of Fig.3

 

 

Fig.5 is a fragmentary section taken along line 5--5 of Fig.3

 

 

Fig.6 is a section taken along line 6--6 of Fig.4

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION

The device as illustrated, includes similar casings 8 and 9 which are secured together as a unit and which are formed to provide vaporising chambers 10 and 11, respectively, it being understood that the number of casings may be varied.  Two series of ribs 12 are formed in each of the vaporising chambers, the ribs of each series being spaced from one another so as to provide branch passages 13 and being spaced from the ribs of the adjacent series to provide main passages 14 with which the branch passages communicate.

 

The vaporising chambers are closed by cover plates 15.  The cover plates carry baffles 16 which are supported in the spaces between the ribs 12.  The baffles extend across the main passages 14 and into, but short of the ends of the branch passages 13 to provide tortuous paths.  Outlet 10a of chamber 10 is connected by conduit 17 to inlet 11a of chamber 11.  Outlet 18 of chamber 11, is connected by conduit 19 with mixing chamber 20 which is located at the lower end of pipe 21 which in turn is connected to and extension 22 of the intake manifold 22a of the engine.  Extension 22 contains a valve 23 which is connected by a lever  23a (Fig.1) and rod 23b to a conventional throttle (not shown).

 

The liquid fuel is introduced into the vaporising chamber 10 through nozzle 24 which is connected by pipe 25 to a reservoir 26 in which the fuel level is maintained by float-controlled valve 27, the fuel being supplied to the reservoir through pipe 28.

 

In accordance with the invention, ribs 12 are hollow, each being formed to provide a cell 29.  The cells in one series of ribs open at one side into an inlet chamber 30, while the cells of the companion series open at one side into an outlet chamber 31.  The cells of both series of ribs open at their backs into a connecting chamber 32 which is located behind the ribs and which is closed by a cover plate 33.  Casings 8 and 9 are arranged end-to-end so that the outlet chamber of 9 communicates with the inlet chamber of 8, the gasses from the exhaust manifold 34 being introduced into the inlet chamber of casing 9 through extension 34a.  The exhaust gasses enter the series of cells at the right hand side of the casing, pass through the cells into the connecting chamber at the rear and then enter the inlet chamber of casing 8.  They pass successively through the two series of cells and enter exhaust pipe 35.  The exhaust gasses leave the outlet chamber 31, and the path along which they travel is clearly shown by the arrows in Fig.6.  As the gasses pass through casings 8 and 9, their speed is reduced to such a degree that an exhaust box (muffler) or other silencing device is rendered unnecessary.

 

It will be apparent that when the engine is operating a normal temperature, the liquid fuel introduced into chamber 10 will be vaporised immediately by contact with the hot walls of ribs 12.  The vapour thus produced is divided into two streams, one of which is caused to enter each of the branch passages at one side of the casing and the other is caused to enter each of the branch passages at the opposite side of the casing.  The two streams of vapour merge as they pass around the final baffle and enter conduit 17, but are again divided and heated in a similar manner as they flow through casing 9.  Each of the vapour streams is constantly in contact with the highly heated walls of ribs 12.  This passage of the vapour through the casings causes the vapour to be heated to such a degree that a dry highly-vaporised gas is produced.  In this connection, it will be noted that the vaporising chambers are maintained under a vacuum and that vaporisation is effected in the absence of air.  Conversion of the liquid into highly expanded vapour is thus ensured.  The flow of the exhaust gasses through casings 8 and 9 is in the opposite direction to the flow of the vapour.  The vapour is heated in stages and is introduced into chamber 20 at its highest temperature.

 

The air which is mixed with the fuel vapour, enters pipe 21 after passing through a conventional filter 36, the amount of air being regulated by valve 37.  The invention also contemplates the heating of the air prior to its entry into mixing chamber 20.  To this end, a jacket 39 is formed around pipe 21.  The jacket has a chamber 40 which communicates with chamber 32 of casing 9 through inlet pipe 41 and with the corresponding chamber of casing 8 through outlet pipe 42.  A portion of the exhaust gasses is thus caused to pass through chamber 40 to heat the air as it passes through conduit 21 on its way to the mixing chamber.  Valve 37 is connected to valve 23 by arms 43 and 43a and link 44 so that the volume of air admitted to the mixing chamber is increased proportionately as the volume of vapour is increased.  As the fuel vapour and air are both heated to a high temperature and are in a highly expanded state when they enter the mixing chamber, they readily unite to provide a uniform mixture, the use of a carburettor or similar device for this purpose being unnecessary.

 

From the foregoing it will be apparent that the components of the fuel mixture are separately heated prior to their entry into mixing chamber 20.  As the vapour which is produced is dry (containing no droplets of liquid fuel) and highly expanded, complete combustion is ensured.  The potential energy represented by the vapour may thus be fully utilised, thereby ensuring better engine performance and a saving in fuel consumption.  At the same time, the formation of carbon deposits in the combustion chambers and the production of carbon monoxide and other objectionable exhaust gasses is prevented.  The device has the further advantage that, owing to the high temperature to which the fuel is heated prior to its admission into the combustion chambers, various inferior and inexpensive grades of fuel may be used with satisfactory results.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The High MPG Carburettor of Robert Shelton

 

US Patent 2,982,528                 2nd May 1940                 Inventor: Robert S. Shelton

 

VAPOUR FUEL SYSTEM

 

 

This patent describes a carburettor design which was able to produce very high mpg figures using the gasoline available in the USA in the 1930s but which is no longer available as the oil industry does not want functional high mpg carburettors to be available to the public.

 

 

DESCRIPTION

This invention relates to improvements in vapour fuel systems which are to be used for internal combustion engines.

 

An object of this invention is to provide a vapour fuel system which will provide a great saving in fuel since approximately eight times the mileage that is obtained by the conventional combustion engine, is provided by the use of this system.

 

Another object of the invention is to provide a vapour fuel system which is provided with a reservoir to contain liquid fuel which is heated to provide vapour from which the internal combustion engine will operate.

 

With the above and other objects and advantages in view, the invention consists of the novel details of construction, arrangement and combination of parts more fully described below, claimed and illustrated in the accompanying drawings.

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Fig.1 is an elevational view of a vapour fuel system embodying the invention.

 

 

 

Fig.2 is an enlarged view, partly in section, showing the carburettor forming part of the system shown in Fig.1.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.3 is a transverse sectional view on line 3--3 of Fig.2

 

 

 

Fig.4 is a transverse sectional view on line 4--4 of Fig.2

 

 

Fig.5 is a transverse sectional view on line 5--5 of Fig.2

 

 

 

The reference numbers used in the drawings always refer to the same item in each of the drawings.  The vapour fuel system 10 includes a conduit 11 which is connected to the fuel tank at one end and to a carburettor 12 at the opposite end.  In conduit 11 there is a fuel filter 13 and an electric fuel pump 14.   Wire 15 grounds the pump and wire 16 connects the pump to a fuel gauge 18 on which is mounted a switch 17 which is connected to a battery 19 of the engine by wire 20.

 

The fuel gauge/switch is of conventional construction and is of the type disclosed in US Patents No. 2,894,093,  No. 2,825,895 and No. 2,749,401.  The switch is so constructed that a float in the liquid in the gauge, opens a pair of contacts when the liquid rises and this cuts off the electric pump 14.  As the float lowers due to the consumption of the liquid fuel in the body, the float falls, closing the contacts and starting pump 14 which replenishes the liquid fuel in the body.

 

Carburettor 12 includes a dome-shaped circular bowl or reservoir 21 which is provided with a centrally located flanged opening 22 whereby the reservoir 21 is mounted on a tubular throat 23.  An apratured collar 24 on the lower end of throat 23 is positioned on the intake manifold 25 of an internal combustion engine 26 and fastenings 27 secure the collar to the manifold in a fixed position.

 

A vapour control butterfly valve 28 is pivotally mounted in the lower end of throat 23 and valve 28 controls the entrance of the vapour into the engine and so controls its speed.

 

A fuel pump 29, having an inlet 30, is mounted in the bottom of the reservoir 21 so that the inlet 30 communicates with the interior of the reservoir.  A spurt or feed pipe 31 connected to pump 29 extends into throat 23 so that by means of a linkage 32 which is connected to pump 29 and to a linkage for control valve 28 and the foot throttle of the engine, raw fuel may be forced into throat 23 to start the engine when it is cold.

 

The upper end of throat 23 is turned over upon itself to provide a bulbous hollow portion 33 within reservoir 21.  An immersion heater 34 is positioned in the bottom of the reservoir and wire 35 grounds the heater.  A thermostat 36 is mounted in the wall of the reservoir and extends into it.  Wire 37 connects the thermostat to heater 34 and wire 38 connects the thermostat to the thermostat control 39.  Wire 40 connects the control to the ignition switch 41 which in turn is connected to battery 19 via wires 20 and 42.

 

A pair of relatively spaced parallel perforated baffle plates 43 and 44, are connected to the bulbous portion 33 on the upper end of throat 23, and a second pair of perforated baffle plates 45 and 46 extend inwards from the wall of reservoir 21 parallel to each other and parallel to baffle plates 43 and 44.

 

The baffle plates are arranged in staggered relation to each other so that baffle plate 45 is between baffle plates 43 and 44 and baffle plate 46 extends over baffle plate 44.

 

Baffle plate 45 has a central opening 47 and baffle plate 46 has a central opening 48 which has a greater diameter than opening 47.  The domed top 49 of reservoir 21, extends into a tubular air intake 50 which extends downwards into throat 23 and a mounting ring 51 is positioned on the exterior of the domed top, vertically aligned with intake 50.  An air filter 52 is mounted on the mounting ring 51 by a coupling 53 as is the usual procedure, and a spider 54 is mounted in the upper end of mounting ring 51 to break up the air as it enters ring 51 from air filter 52.

 

In operation, with carburettor 12 mounted on the internal combustion engine instead of a conventional carburettor, ignition switch 41 is turned on.  Current from battery 19 will cause pump 14 to move liquid fuel into reservoir 21 until float switch 18 cuts the pump off when the liquid fuel A has reached level B in the reservoir.  The control 39 is adjusted so that thermostat 36 will operate heater 34 until the liquid fuel has reached a temperature of 1050 F at which time heater 34 will be cut off.  When the liquid fuel has reached the proper temperature, vapour will be available to follow the course indicated by the arrows in Fig.2.

 

The engine is then started and if the foot control is actuated, pump 29 will cause raw liquid fuel to enter the intake manifold 25 until the vapour from the carburettor is drawn into the manifold to cause the engine to operate.  As the fuel is consumed, pump 14 will again be operated and heater 34 will be operated by thermostat 36.  Thus, the operation as described will continue as long as the engine is operating and the ignition switch 41 is turned on.  Reservoir 21 will hold from 4 to 6 pints (2 to 4 litres) of liquid fuel and since only the vapour from the heated fuel will cause the carburettor 12 to run the engine, the engine will operate for a long time before more fuel is drawn into reservoir 21.

 

Baffles 43, 44, 45 and 46 are arranged in staggered relation to prevent splashing of the liquid fuel within the carburettor.  The level B of the fuel in reservoir 21 is maintained constant by switch 18 and with all elements properly sealed, the vapour fuel system 10 will operate the engine efficiently.

 

Valve 28 controlling the entrance of vapour into intake manifold 25, controls the speed of the engine in the same manner as the control valve in a conventional carburettor.

 

There has thus been described a vapour fuel system embodying the invention and it is believed that the structure and operation of it will be apparent to those skilled in the art.  It is also to be understood that changes in the minor details of construction, arrangement and combination of parts may be resorted to provided that they fall within the spirit of the invention.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The High MPG Carburettor of Harold Schwartz

 

US Patent 3,294,381          27th December 1966           Inventor: Harold Schwartz

 

CARBURETTOR

 

 

This patent describes a carburettor design which was able to produce very high mpg figures using the gasoline available in the USA at the time but which is no longer available as the oil industry does not want functional high mpg carburettors to be available to the public.

 

 

DESCRIPTION

This invention relates to a carburettor construction.   An object of the present invention is to provide a carburettor in which the fuel is treated by the hot exhaust fumes of an engine before being combined with air and being fed into the engine.

 

Another object of the invention is to provide a carburettor as characterised above, which circulates the fume-laden fuel in a manner to free it of inordinately large globules of fuel, thereby insuring that only finely divided and pre-heated fuel of mist-like consistency is fed to the intake manifold of the engine.

 

The present carburettor, when used for feeding the six-cylinder engine of a popular car, improved the miles per gallon performance under normal driving conditions using a common grade of fuel, by over 200%.  This increased efficiency was achieved from the pre-heating of the fuel and keeping it under low pressure imposed by suction applied to the carburettor for the purpose of maintaining the level of fuel during operation of the engine.  This low pressure in the carburettor causes increased vaporisation of the fuel in the carburettor and raises the efficiency of operation.

 

This invention also has for its objects; to provide a carburettor which is positive in operation, convenient to use, easily installed in its working position, easily removed from the engine, economical to manufacture, of relatively simple design and of general superiority and serviceability.

 

The invention also comprises novel details of construction and novel combinations and arrangements of parts, which will appear more fully in the course of the following description and which is based on the accompanying drawings.  However, the drawings and following description merely describes one embodiment of the present invention, and are only given as an illustration or example.

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

In the drawings, all reference numbers apply to the same parts in each drawing.

 

Fig.1 is a partly broken plan view of a carburettor constructed in accordance with the present invention, shown with a fuel supply, feeding and return system.

 

 

Fig.2 is a vertical sectional view of the carburettor taken on the plane of line 2--2 in Fig.1

 

 

 

Fig.3 is a partial side elevation and partial sectional view of the carburettor, showing additional structural details

 

 

 

The carburettor is preferably mounted on the usual downdraft air tube 5 which receives a flow of air through the air filter.  Tube 5 is provided with a throttle or butterfly valve which controls the flow and incorporates a flow-increasing venturi passage.  These common features of the fuel feed to the engine intake manifold are not shown since these features are well known and they are also disclosed in my pending Patent application Serial No. 182,420 now abandoned.  The present carburettor embodies improvements over the disclosure of the earlier application.

 

The present carburettor comprises a housing 6 mounted on air tube 5, and designed to hold a shallow pool of fuel 7, a fuel inlet 8 terminating in a spray nozzle 9, an exhaust gas manifold 10 to conduct heated exhaust gasses for discharge into the spray of fuel coming out of nozzle 9 and for heating the pool of fuel 7 underneath it.  Means 11 to scrub the fuel-fumes mixture to eliminate large droplets of fuel from the mixture (the droplets fall into pool 7 underneath), a nozzle tube 12 to receive the scrubbed mixture and to pass the mixture under venturi action into air tube 5 where it is combined with air and made ready for injection into the intake manifold of the engine.  Pickup pipe 13 is connected to an outlet 14 for drawing excess fuel from pool 7 during operation of the carburettor.

 

The system connected to the carburettor is shown in Fig.1, and comprises a fuel tank 15, a generally conventional fuel pump 16 for drawing fuel from the tank and directing it to inlet 8, a fuel filter 17, and a pump 18 connected in series between the fuel tank and outlet 14 to place pipe 13 under suction and to draw excess fuel from the carburettor back to tank 15 for re-circulation to inlet 8.

 

Carburettor housing 6 may be circular, as shown and quite flat compared to its diameter, so as to have a large flat bottom 20 which, with the cylindrical wall 21, holds the fuel pool 7.   Cover 22 encloses the top of the housing.  The bottom 20 and cover 22 have aligned central openings through which the downdraft tube 5 extends, this pipe forming the interior of the housing, creating an annular inner space 23.

 

The fuel inlet 8 is attached to cover 22 by a removable connection.  Spray nozzle 9 extends through the cover.  While the drawing shows spray-emitting holes 24 arranged to provide a spray around nozzle 7, the nozzle may be formed so that the spray is directional as desired to achieve the most efficient interengagement of the sprayed fuel with the heating gasses supplied by the manifold 10.

 

The manifold is shown as a pipe 25 which has and end 26 extending from the conventional heat riser chamber (not shown) of the engine, the arrow 27 indicating exhaust gas flow into pipe 25.  The pipe may encircle the lower portion of the housing 6, to heat the pool of fuel 7 by transfer of heat through the wall of the housing.  The manifold pipe is shown with a discharge end 28 which extends into the housing in an inward and upward direction towards nozzle 9 so that the exhaust gasses flowing in the pipe intermingle with the sprayed fuel and heat it as it leaves the nozzle.

 

The fuel-scrubbing means 11 is shown as a curved chamber 29 located inside housing 6, provided with a series of baffle walls 30 which cause the fumes-heated fuel mist to follow a winding path and intercept the heavier droplets of fuel which then run down the faces of the baffle walls, through openings 31 in the bottom wall 32 of scrubbing chamber 29 into the interior space 23 of housing 6 above the level of the fuel pool 7.

 

Pickup pipe 13 is also shown as carried by housing cover 22 and may be adjusted so that its lower open end is so spaced from the housing bottom 20 as to regulate the depth of pool 7, which is preferably below the bottom wall 32 of the scrubbing chamber 29.   Since this pipe is subject to the suction of pump 18 through outlet 14 and filter 17, the level of pool 7 is maintained by excess fuel being returned to tank 15 by pump 16.

 

It will be seen that the surface of pool 7 is subject not only to the venturi action in tube 5, but also to the suction of pump 18 as it draws excess fuel back to fuel tank 15.  Thus, the surface of the pool is under somewhat less than atmospheric pressure which increases the rate of vaporisation from the pool surface, the resulting vapour combining with the flow from the scrubbing chamber to the downdraft tube 5..

 

While this description has illustrated what is now contemplated to be the best mode of carrying out the invention, the construction is, of course, subject to modification without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.  Therefore, it is not desired to restrict the invention to the particular form of construction illustrated and described, but to cover all modifications which may fall within its scope.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The High MPG Carburettor of Oliver Tucker

 

US Patent 3,653,643               4th April 1972               Inventor: Oliver M. Tucker

 

CARBURETTOR

 

 

This patent describes a carburettor design which was able to produce very high mpg figures using the gasoline available in the USA at the time but which is no longer available as the oil industry does not want functional high mpg carburettors to be available to the public.

 

 

ABSTRACT

A carburettor including a housing having a fluid reservoir in the bottom, an air inlet at the top of the housing, a delivery pipe coaxially mounted within the housing and terminating short of the top of the housing, and a porous vaporising filter substantially filling the reservoir.  A baffle is concentrically mounted within the housing and extends partially into the vaporising filter in the reservoir to deflect the incoming air through the filter.  The level of liquid fuel in the reservoir is kept above the bottom of the baffle, so that air entering the carburettor through the inlet must pass through the liquid fuel and vaporising filter in the reservoir before discharge through the outlet.  A secondary air inlet is provided in the top of the housing for controlling the fuel air ratio of the vaporised fuel passing into the delivery pipe.

 

 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

It is generally well known that liquid fuel must be vaporised in order to obtain complete combustion.  Incomplete combustion of fuel in internal combustion engines is a major cause of atmospheric pollution.  In a typical automotive carburettor, the liquid fuel is atomised and injected into the air stream in a manifold of approximately 3.14 square inches in cross-sectional area.  In an eight cylinder 283 cubic inch engine running at approximately 2,400 rpm requires 340,000 cubic inches of air per minute.  The air velocity in the intake manifold at this engine speed will be approximately 150 feet per second and it will therefore take approximately 0.07 seconds for a particle of fuel to move from the carburettor to the combustion chamber and the fuel will remain in the combustion chamber for approximately 0.0025 seconds.

 

It is conceivable that in this short period of time, complete vaporisation of the fuel is not achieved and as a consequence, incomplete combustion occurs, resulting in further air pollution.  The liquid fuel particles if not vaporised, can deposit on the cylinder walls and dilute the lubricating oil film there, promoting partial burning of the lubricating oil and adding further to the pollution problem.  Destruction of the film of lubricating oil by combustion can also increase mechanical wear of both cylinders and piston rings.

 

 

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The carburettor of this invention provides for the complete combustion of liquid fuel in an internal combustion engine, with a corresponding decrease of air pollutant in the exhaust gasses.  This is achieved by supplying completely vaporised or dry gas to the combustion chamber.  The primary air is initially filtered prior to passing through a vaporising filter which is immersed in liquid fuel drawn from a reservoir in the carburettor.  The vaporising filter continuously breaks the primary air up into small bubbles thereby increasing the surface area available for evaporation of the liquid fuel.  Secondary air is added to the enriched fuel-air mixture through a secondary air filter prior to admission of the fuel-air mixture into the combustion chambers of the engine.  Initial filtration of both the primary and secondary air removes any foreign particles which may be present in the air, and which could cause increased wear within the engine.  The carburettor also assures delivery of a clean dry gas to the engine due to the gravity separation of any liquid or dirt particles from the fuel-enriched primary air.

 

Other objects and advantages will become apparent from the following detailed description when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, in which the single figure shows a perspective cross-sectional view of the carburettor of this invention.

 

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The carburettor 40 disclosed here is adapted for use with an internal combustion engine where air is drawn through the carburettor to vaporise the fuel in the carburettor prior to its admission to the engine.

 

In this regard, the flow of liquid fuel, gas or oil, to the carburettor is controlled by means of a float valve assembly 10 connected to a source of liquid fuel by fuel line 12 and to the carburettor 40 by a connecting tube 14.   The flow of liquid fuel through the float valve assembly 10 is controlled by a float 16, pivotally mounted within a float chamber 18 and operatively connected to a float valve 20.

 

In accordance with the invention, the liquid fuel admitted to the carburettor 40 through tube 14, is completely evaporated by the primary air for the engine within the carburettor and mixed with secondary air prior to admission into a delivery tube 100 which is connected to the manifold 102 of the engine.  More specifically, carburettor 40 includes a cylindrical housing or pan 42, having a bottom wall 44 which forms a liquid fuel and filter reservoir 46.  A vaporising filter 48 is positioned within reservoir 46 and extends upwards for a distance from the bottom wall 44 of the housing 42.  The vaporising filter 48 is used to continuously break up the primary air into a large number of small bubbles as it passes through the liquid fuel in reservoir 46.  This increases the surface area per volume of air available for evaporation of the liquid fuel, as described in more detail below.  This filter 48 is formed of a three-dimensional skeletal material that is washable and is not subject to breakdown under the operating conditions inside the carburettor.  A foamed cellular plastic polyurethane filter having approximately 10 to 20 pores per inch has been used successfully in the carburettor.

 

Housing 42 is closed at the top by a hood or cover 50 which can be secured in place by any appropriate means.  The hood has a larger diameter than the diameter of housing 42 and includes a descending flange 52 and a descending baffle 54.  Flange 52 is concentrically arranged and projects outwards beyond the sides of housing 42 to form a primary air inlet 56.  Baffle 54 is concentrically positioned inside housing 42 to create a primary air chamber 58 and a central mixing chamber 60.

 

Primary air is drawn into housing 42 through air inlet 56 and is filtered through primary air filter 62 which is removably mounted in the space between flange 52 and the outside of the wall of housing 42 by means of a screen 64.  The primary air filter 62 can be made of the same filtering material as the vaporising filter 48.

 

As the primary air enters the primary air chamber 58 it is deflected through the liquid fuel in reservoir 46 by means of the cylindrical baffle 54.  This baffle extends down from hood 50 far enough to penetrate the upper portion of the vaporising filter 48.  The primary air must pass around the bottom of baffle 54 and through both the liquid fuel and the vaporising filter 48 prior to entering the mixing chamber 60.

 

The level of the liquid fuel in reservoir 46 is maintained above the bottom edge of baffle 54 by means of the float valve assembly 10.  The operation of the float valve assembly 10 is well known.  Float chamber 18 is located at approximately the same level as reservoir 46 and float 16 pivots in response to a drop in the level of the liquid fuel in the float chamber and opens the float valve 20.

 

One of the important features of the present invention is the efficiency of evaporation of the liquid fuel by the flow of the large number of bubbles through the reservoir.  This is believed to be caused by the continual break up of the bubbles as they pass through the vaporising filter 48.  It is well known that the rate of evaporation caused by a bubble of air passing unmolested through a liquid, is relatively slow due to the surface tension of the bubble.  However, if the bubble is continuously broken, the surface tension of the bubble is reduced and a continual evaporating process occurs.  This phenomenon is believed to be the cause of the high evaporation rate of the liquid fuel in the carburettor of this invention.

 

Another feature of the carburettor of this invention is its ability to supply dry gas to the central mixing chamber 60 in housing 42.  Since the flow of primary air in the central mixing chamber 60 is vertically upwards, the force of gravity will prevent any droplets of liquid fuel from rising high enough in the carburettor to enter the delivery tube 100.  The delivery of dry gas to the delivery tube increases the efficiency of combustion and thereby reduces the amount of unburnt gasses or pollutants which are exhausted into the air by the engine.

 

Means are provided for admitting secondary air into the central mixing chamber 60 to achieve the proper fuel-air ratio required for complete combustion.  Such means is in the form of a secondary air filter assembly 80 mounted on an inlet tube 82 provided in opening 84 in hood 50.  The secondary air filter assembly 80 includes an upper plate 86, a lower plate 88, and a secondary air filter 90 positioned between plates 86 and 88.  The secondary air filter 90 is prevented from being drawn into inlet tube 82  by means of a cylindrical screen 92 which forms a continuation of tube 82.  The secondary air passes through the outer periphery of the secondary air filter 90, through screen 92 and into tube 82.  The flow of secondary air through tube 82 is controlled by means of a butterfly valve 94 as is generally understood in the art.

 

Complete mixing of the dry gas-enriched primary air with the incoming secondary air within housing 42, is achieved by means of deflector 96 positioned at the end of tube 82.   Deflector 96 includes a number of vanes 98 which are twisted to provide an outwardly-deflected circular air flow into the central mixing chamber 60 and thereby creating an increase in the turbulence of the secondary air as it combines with the fuel-enriched primary air.  The deflector prevents cavitation from occurring at the upper end of the outlet tube 100.

 

The flow of fuel-air mixture to the engine is controlled by means of a throttle valve 104 provided in the outlet or delivery tube 100.   The operation of the throttle valve 104 and butterfly valve 94 are both controlled in a conventional manner.

 

 

THE OPERATION OF THE CARBURETTOR

Primary air is drawn into housing 42 through primary air inlet 56 and passes upwards through primary air filter 62 where substantially all foreign particles are removed from the primary air.  The filtered primary air then flows downwards through primary air chamber 58, under baffle 54, through fuel filter reservoir 46, and upwards into central mixing chamber 60.  All of the primary air passes through the vaporising filter 48 provided in reservoir 46.  The vaporising filter 48 continuously breaks the primary air stream into thousands of small bubbles, reducing surface tension and increasing the air surface available for evaporation of the liquid fuel.  Since the outer surface of each bubble is being constantly broken up by the vaporising filter 48 and is in constant contact with the liquid fuel as the bubble passes through the vaporising filter 48, there is a greater opportunity for evaporation of the fuel prior to entering the central mixing chamber 60.  The vertical upward flow of the fuel-enriched primary air in the central mixing chamber, ensures that no liquid fuel droplets will be carried into the delivery tube 100.

 

The fuel-enriched primary air is thoroughly mixed with the secondary air entering through tube 82 by means of the deflector system 96 which increases the turbulence of the primary and secondary air within the central mixing chamber and prevents cavitation from occurring in delivery tube 100.  The completely mixed fuel-enriched primary air and the secondary air then pass through delivery tube 100 into the inlet manifold of the engine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The High MPG Carburettor of Thomas Ogle

 

US Patent 4,177,779           11th December 1979              Inventor: Thomas H. Ogle

 

FUEL ECONOMY SYSTEM FOR AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

 

 

This patent describes a carburettor design which was able to produce very high mpg figures using the gasoline available in the USA at the time but which is no longer available as the oil industry does not want functional high mpg carburettors to be available to the public.

 

 

ABSTRACT

A fuel economy system for an internal combustion engine which, when installed in a motor vehicle, overcomes the need for a conventional carburettor, fuel pump and fuel tank. The system operates by using the engine vacuum to draw fuel vapours from a vapour tank through a vapour conduit to a vapour equaliser which is positioned directly over the intake manifold of the engine. The vapour tank is constructed of heavy duty steel, or the like, to withstand the large vacuum pressure and includes an air inlet valve coupled for control to the accelerator pedal. The vapour equaliser ensures distribution of the correct mixture of air and vapour to the cylinders of the engine for combustion, and also includes its own air inlet valve coupled for control to the accelerator pedal. The system utilises vapour-retarding filters in the vapour conduit, vapour tank and vapour equaliser to deliver the correct vapour/air mixture for proper operation. The vapour tank and fuel contained in it, are heated by running the engine coolant through a conduit within the tank. Due to the extremely lean fuel mixtures used by the present invention, gas mileage in excess of one hundred miles per gallon may be achieved.

 

 

 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

 

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention is related to internal combustion engines and, more particularly, is directed towards a fuel economy system for an internal combustion engine which, when applied to a motor vehicle, overcomes the need for conventional carburettors, fuel pumps and fuel tanks, and enables vastly improved fuel consumption to be achieved.

 

2. Description of the Prior Art

The prior art evidences many different approaches to the problem of increasing the efficiency of an internal combustion engine. Due to the rising price of fuel, and the popularity of motor vehicles as a mode of transportation, much of the effort in this area is generally directed towards improving fuel consumption for motor vehicles.  Along with increased mileage, much work has been done with a view towards reducing pollutant emissions from motor vehicles.

 

I am aware of the following United States patents which are generally directed towards systems for improving the efficiency and/or reducing the pollutant emissions of internal combustion engines:

 

    ______________________________________

    Chapin                        1,530,882

    Crabtree et al               2,312,151

    Hietrich et al                3,001,519

    Hall                             3,191,587

    Wentworth                   3,221,724

    Walker                        3,395,681

    Holzappfel                   3,633,533

    Dwyre                         3,713,429

    Herpin                         3,716,040

    Gorman, Jr.                 3,728,092

    Alm et al                     3,749,376

    Hollis, Jr.                     3,752,134

    Buckton et al               3,759,234

    Kihn                            3,817,233

    Shih                            3,851,633

    Burden, Sr.                  3,854,463

    Woolridge                    3,874,353

    Mondt                         3,888,223

    Brown                         3,907,946

    Lee, Jr.                       3,911,881

    Rose et al                   3,931,801

    Reimuller                     3,945,352

    Harpman                     3,968,775

    Naylor                         4,003,356

    Fortino                        4,011,847

    Leshner et al               4,015,569

    Sommerville                 4,015,570

    ______________________________________

 

 

 

The Chapin U.S. Pat. No. 1,530,882 discloses a fuel tank surrounded by a water jacket, the latter of which is included in a circulation system with the radiator of the automobile. The heated water in the circulation system causes the fuel in the fuel tank to readily vaporise. Suction from the inlet manifold causes air to be drawn into the tank to bubble air through the fuel to help form the desired vapour which is then drawn to the manifold for combustion.

 

The Buckton et al U.S. Pat. No. 3,759,234 advances a fuel system which provides supplementary vapours for an internal combustion engine by means of a canister that contains a bed of charcoal granules.  The Wentworth and Hietrich et al U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,221,724 and 3,001,519 also teach vapour recovery systems which utilise filters of charcoal granules or the like.

 

The Dwyre U.S. Pat. No. 3,713,429 uses, in addition to the normal fuel tank and carburettor, an auxiliary tank having a chamber at the bottom which is designed to receive coolant from the engine cooling system for producing fuel vapours, while the Walker U.S. Pat. No. 3,395,681 discloses a fuel evaporator system which includes a fuel tank intended to replace the normal fuel tank, and which includes a fresh air conduit for drawing air into the tank.

 

The Fortino U.S. Pat. No. 4,011,847 teaches a fuel supply system wherein the fuel is vaporised primarily by atmospheric air which is released below the level of the fuel, while the Crabtree et al U.S. Pat. No. 2,312,151 teaches a vaporisation system which includes a gas and air inlet port located in a vaporising chamber and which includes a set of baffles for effecting a mixture of the air and vapour within the tank. The Mondt U.S. Pat. No. 3,888,223 also discloses an evaporative control canister for improving cold start operation and emissions, while Sommerville U.S. Pat. No. 4,015,570 teaches a liquid-fuel vaporiser which is intended to replace the conventional fuel pump and carburettor that is designed to mechanically change liquid fuel to a vapour state.

 

While the foregoing patents evidence a proliferation of attempts to increase the efficiency and/or reduce pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines, no practical system has yet found its way to the marketplace.

 

 

OBJECTS AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is therefore a primary object of the present invention to provide a new and improved fuel economy system for an internal combustion engine which greatly improves the efficiency of the engine.

 

Another object of the present invention is to provide a unique fuel economy system for an internal combustion engine which provides a practical, operative and readily realisable means for dramatically increasing the gas mileage of conventional motor vehicles.

 

A further object of the present invention is to provide an improved fuel economy system for internal combustion engines which also reduces the pollutant emissions.

 

The foregoing and other objects are attained in accordance with one aspect of the present invention through the provision of a fuel vapour system for an internal combustion engine having an intake manifold, which comprises a tank for containing fuel vapour, a vapour equaliser mounted on and in fluid communication with the intake manifold of the engine, and a vapour conduit which connect the tank to the vapour equaliser for delivering fuel vapour from the former to the latter. The vapour equaliser includes a first valve connected to it for controlling the admission of air to the vapour equaliser, while the tank has a second valve connected to it for controlling the admission of air to the tank. A throttle controls the first and second valves so that the opening of the first valve preceeds and exceeds the opening of the second valve during operation.

 

In accordance with other aspects of the present invention, a filter is positioned in the vapour conduit to retard the flow of fuel vapour from the tank to the vapour equaliser.  In a preferred form, the filter comprises carbon particles and may include a sponge-like collection of, for example, neoprene fibres.  In a preferred embodiment, the filter comprises a substantially tubular housing positioned in series in the vapour conduit, the housing containing a central portion comprising a mixture of carbon and neoprene, and end portions comprising carbon, positioned on each side of the central portion.

 

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, a second filter is positioned in the vapour equaliser for again retarding the flow of the fuel vapour to the engine intake manifold. The second filter is positioned downstream of the first valve and in a preferred form, includes carbon particles mounted in a pair of recesses formed in a porous support member. The porous support member, which may comprise neoprene, includes a first recessed portion positioned opposite a vapour inlet port in the vapour equaliser to which the vapour conduit is connected, while a second recessed portion is positioned opposite the intake manifold of the engine.

 

In accordance with still other aspects of the present invention, a third filter is positioned in the tank for controlling the flow of fuel vapour into the vapour conduit in proportion to the degree of vacuum in the tank. The filter more particularly comprises a mechanism for reducing the amount of fuel vapour delivered to the vapour conduit when the engine is idling and when the engine has attained a steady speed. The throttle acts to close the second valve when the engine is idling and when the engine has attained a steady speed, to thereby increase the vacuum pressure in the tank. In a preferred form, the third filter comprises a frame pivotally mounted within the tank and movable between first and second operating positions. The first operating position corresponds to an open condition of the second valve, while the second operating position corresponds to a closed condition of the second valve. The tank includes a vapour outlet port to which one end of the vapour conduit is connected, such that the second operating position of the frame places the third filter in communication with the vapour outlet port.

 

More particularly, the third filter in a preferred form includes carbon particles sandwiched between two layers of a sponge-like filter material, which may comprise neoprene, and screens for supporting the layered composition within the pivotable frame. A conduit is positioned on the third filter for placing it in direct fluid communication with the vapour outlet port when the frame is in its second operating position.

 

In accordance with yet other aspects of the present invention, a conduit is connected between the valve cover of the engine and the vapour equaliser for directing the oil blow-by to the vapour equaliser in order to minimise valve clatter. The tank also preferably includes a copper conduit positioned in the bottom of it, which is connected in series with the cooling system of the motor vehicle, for heating the tank and generating more vapour.  A beneficial by-product of the circulating system reduces the engine operating temperature to further improve operating efficiency.

 

 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Various objects, features and attendant advantages of the present invention will be more fully appreciated as the same become better understood from the following detailed description of the present invention when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:

 

Fig.1 is a perspective view illustrating the various components which together comprise a preferred embodiment of the present invention as installed in a motor vehicle;

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.2 is a cross-sectional view of one of the components of the preferred embodiment illustrated in Fig.1 taken along line 2--2

 

 

Fig.3 is a sectional view of the vapour tank illustrated in Fig.2 taken along line 3--3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.4 is an enlarged sectional view illustrating in greater detail one component of the vapour tank shown in Fig.3 taken along line 4--4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.5 is a perspective, partially sectional view illustrating a filter component of the vapour tank illustrated in Fig.2

 

 

 

Fig.6 is a cross-sectional view of another component of the preferred embodiment of the present invention illustrated in Fig.1 taken along line 6--6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.7 is a partial side, partial sectional view of the vapour equaliser illustrated in Fig.6 taken along line 7--7

 

 

 

Fig.8 is a side view illustrating the throttle linkage of the vapour equaliser shown in Fig.7 taken along line 8--8

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.9 is a longitudinal sectional view of another filter component of the preferred embodiment illustrated in Fig.1

 

Fig.10 is a view of another component of the present invention

 

 

Fig.11 is an exploded, perspective view which illustrates the main components of the filter portion of the vapour equaliser of the present invention.

 

 

 

 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

Referring now to the drawings, where parts are numbered the same in each drawing, and more particularly to Fig.1 which illustrates a preferred embodiment of the present invention as installed in a motor vehicle.

 

The preferred embodiment includes as its main components a fuel vapour tank 10 in which the fuel vapour is stored and generated for subsequent delivery to the internal combustion engine 20.  On the top of fuel vapour tank 10 is mounted an air inlet control valve 12 whose structure and operation will be described in greater detail below.

 

The internal combustion engine 20 includes a standard intake manifold 18.  Mounted upon the intake manifold 18 is a vapour equaliser chamber 16.  Connected between the fuel vapour tank 10 and the vapour equaliser chamber 16 is a vapour conduit or hose 14 for conducting the vapours from within tank 10 to the chamber 16.

 

Reference numeral 22 indicates generally an air inlet control valve which is mounted on the vapour equaliser chamber 16.  Thus, the system is provided with two separate air inlet control valves 12 and 22 which are respectively coupled via cables 24 and 26 to the throttle control for the motor vehicle which may take the form of a standard accelerator pedal 28. The air inlet control valves 12 and 22 are synchronised in such a fashion that the opening of the air inlet control valve 22 of the vapour equaliser 16 always precedes and exceeds the opening of the air inlet control valve 12 of the fuel vapour tank 10, for reasons which will become more clear later.

 

The cooling system of the vehicle conventionally includes a radiator 30 for storing liquid coolant which is circulated through the engine 20 in the well-known fashion.  A pair of hoses 32 and 34 are preferably coupled into the normal heater lines from the engine 20 so as to direct heated liquid coolant from the engine 20 to a warming coil 36, preferably constructed of copper, which is positioned within vapour tank 10. I have found that the water circulation system consisting of hoses 32, 34 and 36 serves three distinct functions.  Firstly, it prevents the vapour tank from reaching the cold temperatures to which it would otherwise be subjected as a result of high vacuum pressure and air flow through it. Secondly, the heated coolant serves to enhance vaporisation of the fuel stored within tank 10 by raising its temperature. Thirdly, the liquid coolant, after leaving tank 10 via conduit 34, has been cooled to the point where engine 20 may then be run at substantially lower operating temperatures to further increase efficiency and prolong the life of the engine.

 

Included in series with vapour conduit 14 is a filter unit 38 which is designed to retard the flow of fuel vapour from the tank 10 to the vapour equaliser 16.  The precise structure of the filter unit 38 will be described in greater detail below.  A thrust adjustment valve 40 is positioned upstream of the filter unit 38 in conduit 14 and acts as a fine adjustment for the idling speed of the vehicle.  Positioned on the other side of filter unit 38 in conduit 14 is a safety shut-off valve 42 which comprises a one-way valve.  Starting the engine 20 will open the valve 42 to permit the engine vacuum pressure to be transmitted to tank 10, but, for example, a backfire will close the valve to prevent a possible explosion.  The tank 10 may also be provided with a drain 44 positioned at the bottom of the tank.

 

Positioned on the side of the vapour equaliser chamber 16 is a primer connection 46 which may be controlled by a dash mounted primer control knob 48 connected to tank 10 via conduit 47.  A conduit 50 extends from the oil breather cap opening 52 in a valve cover 54 of the engine 20 to the vapour equaliser 16 to feed the oil blow-by to the engine as a means for eliminating valve clatter. This is believed necessary due to the extreme lean mixture of fuel vapour and air fed to the combustion cylinders of the engine 20 in accordance with the present invention.

 

Referring now to Fig.2 and Fig.3, the fuel vapour tank 10 of the present invention is illustrated in greater detail in orthogonal sectional views and is seen to include a pair of side walls 56 and 58 which are preferably comprised of heavy duty steel plate (e.g. 1/2" thick) in order to withstand the high vacuum pressures developed inside it.  Tank 10 further comprises top wall 60 and bottom wall 62, and front and rear walls 64 and 66, respectively.

 

In the front wall 64 of tank 10 is positioned a coupling 68 for mating the heater hose 32 with the internal copper conduit 36.  Tank 10 is also provided with a pair of vertically oriented planar support plates 70 and 72 which are positioned somewhat inside the side walls 56 and 58 and are substantially parallel to them.  Support plates 70 and 72 lend structural integrity to the tank 10 and are also provided with a plurality of openings 74 (Fig.2) at the bottom of them to permit fluid communication through it.  The bottom of tank 10 is generally filled with from one to five gallons of fuel, and the walls of tank 10 along with plates 70 and 72 define three tank chambers 76, 78 and 80 which are, by virtue of openings 74, in fluid communication with one another.

 

In the top wall 60 of tank 10 is formed an opening 82 for placing one end of vapour conduit 14 in fluid communication with the interior chamber 76 of tank 10.  A second opening 84 is positioned in the top wall 60 of tank 10 over which the air inlet control valve 12 is positioned.  The valve assembly 12 comprises a pair of conventional butterfly valves 86 and 88 which are coupled via a control rod 90 to a control arm 92.  Control arm 92 is, in turn, pivoted under the control of a cable 24 and is movable between a solid line position indicated in Fig.2 by reference numeral 92 and a dotted line position indicated in Fig.2 by reference numeral 92’.

 

Rod 90 and valves 86 and 88 are journaled in a housing 94 having a base plate 96 which is mounted on a cover 98.  As seen in Fig.1, the base plate 96 includes several small air intake ports or apertures 100 formed on both sides of the butterfly valves 86 and 88, which are utilised for a purpose to become more clear later on.

 

Rod 90 is also journaled in a flange 102 which is mounted to cover 98, while a return spring 104 for control arm 92 is journaled to cover 98 via flange 106.

 

Extending through the baffle and support plates 70 and 72 from the side chambers 78 and 80 of tank 10 to be in fluid communication with apertures 100 are a pair of air conduits 108 and 110 each having a reed valve 112 and 114 positioned at the ends, for controlling air and vapour flow through it.  The reed valves 112 and 114 co-operage with the small apertures 100 formed in the base plate 96 to provide the proper amount of air into the tank 10 while the engine is idling and the butterfly valves 86 and 88 are closed.

 

Mounted to the front wall 64 of tank 10 is a pivot support member 132 for pivotally receiving a filter element which is indicated generally by reference numeral 134 and is illustrated in a perspective, partially cut away view in Fig.5.  The unique, pivotable filter element 134 comprises a frame member 136 having a pin-receiving stub 138 extending along one side member of it.  The actual filter material contained within the frame 136 comprises a layer of carbon particles 148 which is sandwiched between a pair of layers of sponge-like filter material which may, for example, be made of  neoprene.  The neoprene layers 144 and 146 and carbon particles 148 are maintained in place by top and bottom screens 140 and 142 which extend within, and are secured by, frame member 136. ,A thick-walled rubber hose 150 having a central annulus 151 is secured to the top of screen 140 so as to mate with opening 82 of top wall 60 (see Fig.2) when the filter assembly 134 is in its solid line operative position illustrated in Fig.2.  In the latter position, it may be appreciated that the vapour conduit 14 draws vapour fumes directly from the filter element 134, rather than from the interior portion 76 of tank 10.  In contradistinction, when the filter element 134 is in its alternate operative position, indicated by dotted lines in Fig.2, the vapour conduit 14 draws fumes mainly from the interior portions 76, 78 and 80 of tank 10.

 

Fig.4 is an enlarged view of one of the reed valve assemblies 114 which illustrates the manner in which the valve opens and closes in response to the particular vacuum pressure created within the tank 10.  Valves 112 and 114 are designed to admit just enough air to the tank 10 from the apertures 100 at engine idle to prevent the engine from stalling.

 

Referring now to Fig.6, Fig.7 and Fig.8, the vapour equaliser chamber 16 of the present invention is seen to include front and rear walls 152 and 154, respectively, a top wall 156, a side wall 158, and another side wall 160.  The vapour equaliser chamber 16 is secured to the manifold 18 as by a plurality of bolts 162 under which may be positioned a conventional gasket 164.

 

In the top wall 156 of the vapour equaliser 16 is formed an opening 166 for communicating the outlet end of vapour conduit 14 with a mixing and equalising chamber 168.  Adjacent to the mixing and equalising chamber 168 in wall 154 is formed another opening 170 which communicates with the outside air via opening 178 formed in the upper portion of housing 176.  The amount of air admitted through openings 178 and 170 is controlled by a conventional butterfly valve 172.  Butterfly valve 172 is rotated by a control rod 180 which, in turn, is coupled to a control arm 182.  Cable 26 is connected to the end of control arm 182 furthest from the centreline and acts against the return bias of spring 184, the latter of which is journaled to side plate 152 of vapour equaliser 16 via an upstanding flange 188.  Reference numeral 186 indicates generally a butterfly valve operating linkage, as illustrated more clearly in Fig.8, and which is of conventional design as may be appreciated by a person skilled in the art.

 

Positioned below mixing and equalising chamber 168 is a filter unit which is indicated generally by reference numeral 188.  The filter unit 188, which is illustrated in an exploded view in Fig.11, comprises a top plastic fluted cover 190 and a bottom plastic fluted cover 192.  Positioned adjacent to the top and bottom covers 190 and 192 is a pair of screen mesh elements 194 and 196, respectively.  Positioned between the screen mesh elements 194 and 196 is a support member 198 which is preferably formed of a sponge-like filter material, such as, for example, neoprene.  The support member 199 has formed on its upper and lower surfaces, a pair of receptacles 200 and 202, whose diameters are sized similarly to the opening 166 in top plate 156 and the openings formed in the intake manifold 18 which are respectively indicated by reference numerals 210 and 212 in Fig.6.

 

Positioned in receptacles 200 and 202 are carbon particles 204 and 206, respectively, for vapour retardation and control purposes.

 

Referring now to Fig.9, the filter unit 38 mounted in vapour conduit 14 is illustrated in a longitudinal sectional view and is seen to comprise an outer flexible cylindrical hose 214 which is adapted to connect with hose 14 at both ends by a pair of adapter elements 216 and 218.  Contained within the outer flexible hose 214 is a cylindrical container 220, preferably of plastic, which houses, in its centre, a mixture of carbon and neoprene filter fibres 222.  At both ends of the mixture 222 are deposited carbon particles 224 and 226, while the entire filtering unit is held within the container 220 by end screens 228 and 230 which permit passage of vapours through it while holding the carbon particles 224 and 226 in place.

 

Fig.10 illustrates one form of the thrust adjustment valve 40 which is placed within line 14.  This valve simply controls the amount of fluid which can pass through conduit 14 via a rotating valve member 41.

 

In operation, the thrust adjustment valve 40 is initially adjusted to achieve as smooth an idle as possible for the particular motor vehicle in which the system is installed.  The emergency shut-off valve 42, which is closed when the engine is off, generally traps enough vapour between it and the vapour equaliser 16 to start the engine 20.  Initially, the rear intake valves 12 on the tank 10 are fully closed, while the air intake valves 22 on the equaliser 16 are open to admit a charge of air to the vapour equaliser prior to the vapour from the tank, thus forcing the pre-existing vapour in the vapour equaliser into the manifold.  The small apertures 100 formed in base plate 96 on tank 10 admit just enough air to actuate the reed valves to permit sufficient vapour and air to be drawn through vapour conduit 14 and equaliser 16 to the engine 20 to provide smooth idling.  The front air valves 22 are always set ahead of the rear air valves 12 and the linkages 24 and 26 are coupled to throttle pedal 28 such that the degree of opening of front valves 22 always exceeds the degree of opening of the rear valves 12.

 

Upon initial starting of the engine 20, due to the closed condition of rear valves 12, a high vacuum pressure is created within tank 10 which causes the filter assembly 134 positioned in tank 10 to rise to its operative position indicated by solid outline in Fig.2.  In this manner, a relatively small amount of vapour will be drawn directly from filter 134 through vapour conduit 14 to the engine to permit the latter to run on an extremely lean mixture.

 

Upon initial acceleration, the front air intake valve 22 will open further, while the rear butterfly assembly 12 will begin to open.  The latter action will reduce the vacuum pressure within tank 10 whereby the filter assembly 134 will be lowered to its alternate operating position illustrated in dotted outline in Fig.2.  In this position, the lower end of the filter assembly 134 may actually rest in the liquid fuel contained within the tank 10.  Accordingly, upon acceleration, the filter assembly 134 is moved out of direct fluid communication with the opening 82 such that the vapour conduit 14 then draws fuel vapour and air from the entire tank 10 to provide a richer combustion mixture to the engine, which is necessary during acceleration.

 

When the motor vehicle attains a steady speed, and the operator eases off the accelerator pedal 28, the rear butterfly valve assembly 12 closes, but the front air intake 22 remains open to a certain degree.  The closing of the rear air intake 12 increases the vacuum pressure within tank 10 to the point where the filter assembly 134 is drawn up to its initial operating position.  As illustrated, in this position, the opening 82 is in substantial alignment with the aperture 151 of hose 150 to place the filter unit 134 in direct fluid communication with the vapour conduit 14, thereby lessening the amount of vapour and air mixture fed to the engine.  Any vapour fed through conduit 14 while the filter 134 is at this position is believed to be drawn directly off the filter unit itself.

 

I have been able to obtain extremely high mpg figures with the system of the present invention installed on a V-8 engine of a conventional 1971 American-made car.  In fact, mileage rates in excess of one hundred miles per US gallon have been achieved with the present invention. The present invention eliminates the need for conventional fuel pumps, carburettors, and fuel tanks, thereby more than offsetting whatever the components of the present invention might otherwise add to the cost of a car.  The system may be constructed with readily available components and technology, and may be supplied in kit form as well as original equipment.

 

Obviously, numerous modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in light of the above teachings. For example, although described in connection with the operation of a motor vehicle, the present invention may be universally applied to any four-stroke engine for which its operation depends upon the internal combustion of fossil fuels. Therefore, it is to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described here.

 

 

CLAIMS

1. A fuel vapour system for an internal combustion engine having an intake manifold, which comprises:

   (a) A tank for containing fuel vapour;

   (b) A vapour equaliser mounted on and in fluid communication with the intake manifold of the engine;

        (c) A vapour conduit connecting the tank to the vapour equaliser for delivering fuel vapour from the former to the latter;

   (d) A vapour equaliser having a valve connected to it for controlling the admission of air to the vapour equaliser;

   (e) A tank having a second valve connected to it for controlling the admission of air to the tank;

   (f) A throttle for controlling the first and second valves so that the opening of the first valve precedes and exceeds the opening of the second valve.

 

2. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 1, further comprising a filter positioned in the vapour conduit for retarding the flow of fuel vapour from the tank to the vapour equaliser.

 

3. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 2, where the filter comprises carbon particles.

 

4. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 2, where the filter comprises carbon particles and neoprene fibres.

 

5. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 2, where the filter comprises a substantially tubular housing positioned in series in the vapour conduit, the housing containing a central portion comprising a mixture of carbon and neoprene and end portions comprising carbon positioned on each side of the central portion.

 

6. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 1, further comprising a filter positioned in the vapour equaliser, for retarding the flow of the fuel vapour to the engine intake manifold.

 

7. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 6, where the filter is positioned downstream of the first valve.

 

8. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 7, where the filter comprises carbon particles.

 

9. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 8, where the filter further comprises a porous support member having first and second recessed portions for containing the carbon particles, the first recessed portion being positioned opposite a vapour inlet port in the vapour equaliser to which the vapour conduit is connected, the second recessed portion being positioned opposite the intake manifold of the engine.

 

10. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 9, where the porous support member is comprised of neoprene.

 

11. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 1, with a further filter positioned in the tank for controlling the flow of fuel vapour into the vapour conduit in proportion to the degree of vacuum in the tank.

 

12. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 11, where the filter incorporates a method for reducing the amount of fuel vapour delivered to the vapour conduit when the engine is idling and when the engine has attained a steady speed.

 

13. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 12, where the throttle acts to close the second valve when the engine is idling and when the engine has attained a steady speed to thereby increase the vacuum pressure in the tank.

 

14. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 13, where the filter comprises a frame pivotally mounted within the tank and movable between first and second operating positions, the first operating position corresponding to an open condition of the second valve, said second operating position corresponding to a closed condition of the second valve.

 

15. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 14, where the tank includes a vapour outlet port to which one end of the vapour conduit is connected, and where the second operating position of the frame places the filter in direct fluid communication with the vapour outlet port.

 

16. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 15, where the filter includes carbon particles.

 

17. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 16, where the filter includes neoprene filter material.

 

18. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 17, where the filter comprises a layer of carbon particles sandwiched between two layers of neoprene filter material, and a screen for supporting them within the pivotable frame.

 

19. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 18, further comprising a mechanism positioned on the filter for placing the filter in direct fluid communication with the vapour outlet port when the frame is in the second operating position.

 

20. A fuel vapour system for an internal combustion engine having an intake manifold, which comprises:

     (a) A tank for containing fuel vapour;

     (b) A vapour equaliser mounted on, and in fluid communication with, the intake manifold of the engine;

 (c) A vapour conduit connecting the tank to the vapour equaliser for delivering fuel vapour from the former to the latter;

               (d) A vapour equaliser having a first valve connected to it for controlling the admission of air to the vapour equaliser;

     (e) A tank having a second valve connected to it for controlling the admission of air to the tank;

 (f) A filter positioned in the vapour conduit for retarding the flow of the fuel vapour from the tank to the vapour equaliser means.

 

21. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 20, where the filter comprises a substantially tubular housing positioned in series in the vapour conduit, the housing containing a central portion comprising a mixture of carbon and neoprene and end portions comprising carbon positioned on each side of the central portion.

 

22. A fuel vapour system for an internal combustion engine having an intake manifold, which comprises:

     (a) A tank for containing fuel vapour;

     (b) A vapour equaliser mounted on and in fluid communication with the intake manifold of the engine;

     (c) A vapour conduit connecting the tank to the vapour equaliser for delivering fuel vapour from the former to the latter;

     (d) The vapour equaliser having a first valve connected to it for controlling the admission of air to the vapour equaliser;

     (e) The tank having a second valve connected to it for controlling the admission of air to the tank;

 (f) A filter positioned in the vapour equaliser for retarding the flow of the fuel vapour to the engine intake manifold.

 

23. The fuel vapour system as set forth in claim 22, where the filter is positioned downstream of the first valve, the filter comprises carbon particles and a porous support member having first and second recessed portions for containing the carbon particles, the first recessed portion being positioned opposite a vapour inlet port in the vapour equaliser to which the vapour conduit is connected, the second recessed portion being positioned opposite the intake manifold of the engine, and where the porous support member is comprised of neoprene.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Permanent Magnet Motor of Stephen Kundel

 

US Patent 7,151,332           19th December 2006                Inventor: Stephen Kundel

 

MOTOR HAVING RECIPROCATING AND ROTATING PERMANENT MAGNETS

 

 

This patent describes a motor powered mainly by permanent magnets.  This system uses a rocking frame to position the moving magnets so that they provide a continuous turning force on the output shaft.

 

 

ABSTRACT

A motor which has a rotor supported for rotation about an axis, and at least one pair of rotor magnets spaced angularity about the axis and supported on the rotor, at least one reciprocating magnet, and an actuator for moving the reciprocating magnet cyclically toward and away from the pair of rotor magnets, and consequently rotating the rotor magnets relative to the reciprocating magnet.

 

US Patent References:

0561144  June, 1896                    Trudeau            

1724446  August, 1929                 Worthington

2790095  April, 1957                     Peek et al.

3469130  September, 1969           Jines et al.

3703653  November, 1972 Tracy

3811058  May, 1974                     Kiniski

3879622  April, 1975                     Ecklin

3890548  June, 1975                    Gray

3899703  August, 1975                 Kinnison

3967146  June, 1976                    Howard

3992132  November, 1976 Putt

4011477  March, 1977                  Scholin

4151431  April, 1979                     Johnson

4179633  December, 1979            Kelly

4196365  April, 1980                     Presley

4267647  May, 1981                     Anderson et al.

4629921  December, 1986            Gavaletz

4751486  June, 1988                    Minato

5402021  March, 1995                  Johnson

5594289  January, 1997                Minato

5634390  June, 1997                    Takeuchi et al.

5751083  May, 1998                     Tamura et al.

5925958  July, 1999                     Pirc

6169343  January, 2001                Rich, Sr.

6343419  February, 2002              Litman et al.

6841909  January, 2005                Six

20020167236       November, 2002 Long

20040140722       July, 2004                     Long

 

 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to the field of motors. More particularly, it pertains to a motor whose rotor is driven by the mutual attraction and repulsion of permanent magnets located on the rotor and an oscillator.

 

Various kinds of motors are used to drive a load. For example, hydraulic and pneumatic motors use the flow of pressurised liquid and gas, respectively, to drive a rotor connected to a load. Such motors must be continually supplied with pressurised fluid from a pump driven by energy converted to rotating power by a prime mover, such as an internal combustion engine. The several energy conversion processes, flow losses and pumping losses decrease the operating efficiency of motor systems of this type.

 

Conventional electric motors employ the force applied to a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field. In a d. c. motor the magnetic field is provided either by permanent magnets or by field coils wrapped around clearly defined field poles on a stator. The conductors on which the force is developed are located on a rotor and supplied with electric current. The force induced in the coil is used to apply rotor torque, whose magnitude varies with the magnitude of the current and strength of the magnetic field. However, flux leakage, air gaps, temperature effects, and the counter-electromotive force reduce the efficiency of the motor.

 

Permanent dipole magnets have a magnetic north pole, a magnetic south pole, and magnetic fields surrounding each pole. Each magnetic pole attracts a pole of opposite magnetic polarity. Two magnetic poles of the same polarity repel each other. It is desired that a motor be developed such that its rotor is driven by the mutual attraction and repulsion of the poles of permanent magnets.

 

 

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

A motor according to the present invention includes a rotor supported for rotation about an axis, a first pair of rotor magnets including first and second rotor magnets spaced angularly about the axis and supported on the rotor, a reciprocating magnet, and an actuator for moving the reciprocating magnet cyclically toward and away from the first pair of rotor magnets, and cyclically rotating the first pair of rotor magnets relative to the reciprocating magnet. Preferably the motor includes a second pair of rotor magnets supported on the rotor, spaced axially from the first pair of rotor magnets, the second pair including a third rotor magnet and a fourth rotor magnet spaced angularly about the axis from the third rotor magnet. The reciprocating magnet is located axially between the first and second rotor magnet pairs, and the actuator cyclically moves the reciprocating magnet toward and away from the first and second pairs of rotor magnets.

 

The magnets are preferably permanent dipole magnets. The poles of the reciprocating magnet are arranged such that they face in opposite lateral directions.

 

The motor can be started by manually rotating the rotor about its axis. Rotation continues by using the actuator to move the reciprocating magnet toward the first rotor magnet pair and away from the second rotor magnet pair when rotor rotation brings the reference pole of the first rotor magnet closer to the opposite pole of the reciprocating magnet, and the opposite pole of the second rotor magnet closer to the reference pole of the reciprocating magnet. Then the actuator moves the reciprocating magnet toward the second rotor magnet pair and away from the first rotor magnet pair when rotor rotation brings the reference pole of the third rotor magnet closer to the opposite pole of the reciprocating magnet, and the opposite pole of the fourth rotor magnet closer to the reference pole of the reciprocating magnet.

 

A motor according to this invention requires no power source to energise a field coil because the magnetic fields of the rotor and oscillator are produced by permanent magnets. A nine-volt DC battery has been applied to an actuator switching mechanism to alternate the polarity of a solenoid at the rotor frequency. The solenoid is suspended over a permanent magnet of the actuator mechanism such that rotor rotation and the alternating polarity of a solenoid causes the actuator to oscillate the reciprocating magnet at a frequency and phase relation that is most efficient relative to the rotor rotation.

 

The motor is lightweight and portable, and requires only a commercially available portable d. c. battery to power an actuator for the oscillator. No motor drive electronics is required. Operation of the motor is practically silent.

 

Various objects and advantages of this invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the following detailed description of the preferred embodiment, when read in light of the accompanying drawings.

 

 

 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

These and other advantages of the present invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the following detailed description of a preferred embodiment when considered in the light of the accompanying drawings in which:

 

 

Fig.1A is a side view of a motor according to this invention;

 

 

Fig.1B is a perspective view of the motor of Fig.1A

 

 

Fig.2 is a top view of the of motor of Fig.1A and Fig.1B showing the rotor magnets disposed horizontally and the reciprocating magnets located near one end of their range of travel

 

 

Fig.3 is a top view of the motor of Fig.2 showing the rotor magnets rotated one-half revolution from the position shown in Fig.2, and the reciprocating magnets located near the opposite end of their range of travel

 

 

Fig.4 is a schematic diagram of a first state of the actuator switching assembly of the motor of Fig.1

 

 

Fig.5 is a schematic diagram of a second state of the actuator switching assembly of the motor of Fig.1

 

 

Fig.6 is cross sectional view of a sleeve shaft aligned with the rotor shaft showing a contact finger and bridge contact plates of the switching assembly

 

 

Fig.7 is an isometric view showing the switching contact fingers secured on pivoting arms and seated on the bridge connectors of the switching assembly

 

 

Fig.8 is isometric cross sectional view showing a driver that includes a solenoid and permanent magnet for oscillating the actuator arm in response to rotation of the rotor shaft

 

 

Fig.9 is a top view of an alternate arrangement of the rotor magnets, wherein they are disposed horizontally and rotated ninety degrees from the position shown in Fig.2, and the reciprocating magnets are located near an end of their range of displacement

 

 

Fig.10 is a top view showing the rotor magnet arrangement of Fig.9 rotated one-half revolution from the position shown in Fig.9, and the reciprocating magnets located near the opposite end of their range of displacement; and

 

 

Fig.11 is a top view of the motor showing a third arrangement of the rotor magnets, which are canted with respect to the axis and the reciprocating magnets.

 

 

Fig.12 is a graph showing the angular displacement of the rotor shaft 10 and linear displacement of the reciprocating magnets

 

 

Fig.13 is a top view of a pair of rotor magnets disposed horizontally and reciprocating magnets located near one end of their range of travel

 

 

Fig.14 is a top view of the motor of Fig.13 showing the rotor magnets rotated one-half revolution from the position shown in Fig.13, and the reciprocating magnets located near the opposite end of their range of travel; and

 

 

Fig.15 is a perspective cross sectional view of yet another embodiment of the motor according to this invention.

 

 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

 

 

A motor according to this invention, illustrated in Fig.1A and Fig.1B includes a rotor shaft 10 supported for rotation about axis 11 on bearings 12 and 14 located on vertical supports 16 and 18 of a frame.  An oscillator mechanism includes oscillator arms 20, 22 and 24 pivotally supported on bearings 26 , 28 and 30 respectively, secured to a horizontal support 32, which is secured at each axial end to the vertical supports 16 and 18.  The oscillator arms 20, 22 and 24 are formed with through holes 15 aligned with the axis 11 of rotor shaft 10, the holes permitting rotation of the rotor shaft and pivoting oscillation of arms without producing interference between the rotor and the arms.

 

Extending in opposite diametric directions from the rotor axis 11 and secured to the rotor shaft 10 are four plates 33 , axially spaced mutually along the rotor axis, each plate supporting permanent magnets secured to the plate and rotating with the rotor shaft.

 

Each pivoting oscillator arm 20, 22 and 24 of the oscillator mechanism support permanent magnets located between the magnets of the rotor shaft. Helical coiled compression return springs 34 and 35 apply oppositely directed forces to oscillator arms 20 and 24 as they pivot about their respective pivotal supports 26 and 30, respectively.  From the point of view of Fig.1A and Fig.1B, when spring 34 is compressed by displacement of the oscillator arm, the spring applies a force to the right to oscillator arm 20 which tends to return it to its neutral, starting position.  When spring 35 is compressed by displacement of arm 24, the spring applies a force to the left to arm 24 tending to return it to its neutral, starting position.

 

The oscillator arms 20, 22 and 24 oscillate about their supported bearings 26, 28 and 30 , as they move in response to an actuator 36, which includes an actuator arm 38, secured through bearings at 39, 40 and 41 to the oscillator arms 20, 22 and 24, respectively.   Actuator 36 causes actuator arm 38 to reciprocate linearly leftwards and rightwards from the position shown in Fig.1A and Fig.1B.  The bearings 39, 40 and 41, allow the oscillator arms 20, 22 and 24 to pivot and the strut to translate without mutual interference.   Pairs of guide wheels 37a and 37b spaced along actuator arm 38, each include a wheel located on an opposite side of actuator arm 38 from another wheel of the wheel-pair, for guiding linear movement of the strut and maintaining the oscillator arms 20, 22 and 24 substantially in a vertical plane as they oscillate.   Alternatively, the oscillator arms 20, 22 and 24 may be replaced by a mechanism that allows the magnets on the oscillator arms to reciprocate linearly with actuator arm 38 instead of pivoting above the rotor shaft 10 at 26, 28 and 30.

 

 

Fig.2 shows a first arrangement of the permanent rotor magnets 42 – 49 that rotate about axis 11 and are secured to the rotor shaft 10, and the permanent reciprocating magnets 50 – 52 which move along axis 11 and are secured to the oscillating arms 20, 22 and 24.   Each magnet has a pole of reference polarity and a pole of opposite polarity from that of the reference polarity.  For example, rotor magnets 42, 44, 46 and 48, located on one side of axis 11, each have a north, positive or reference pole 54 facing actuator 36 and a south, negative or opposite pole 56 facing away from the actuator.   Similarly, rotation magnets 43, 45, 47 and 49, located diametrically opposite to rotor magnets 42, 44, 46 and 48, each have a south pole facing toward actuator 36 and a north pole facing away from the actuator.  The north poles 54 of the reciprocating magnets 50 – 52 face to the right from the point of view seen in Fig.2 and Fig.3 and their south poles 56 face towards the left.

 

 

Fig.4 shows a switch assembly located in the region of the left-hand end of rotor shaft 10.   A cylinder, 58, preferably formed of PVC, is secured to rotor shaft 10.   Cylinder 58 has contact plates 59 and 60, preferably of brass, located on its outer surface, aligned angularly, and extending approximately 180 degrees about the axis 11, as shown in Fig.5.  Cylinder 58 has contact plates 61 and 62, preferably made of brass, located on its outer surface, aligned angularly, extending approximately 180 degrees about the axis 11, and offset axially with respect to contact plates 59 and 60.

 

A D.C. power supply 64, has its positive and negative terminals connected electrically through contact fingers 66 and 68, to contact plates 61 and 62, respectively.   A third contact finger 70, shown contacting plate 61, connects terminal 72 of a solenoid 74 electrically to the positive terminal of the power supply 64 through contact finger 66 and contact plate 61.   A fourth contact finger 76, shown contacting plate 62, connects terminal 78 of solenoid 74 electrically to the negative terminal of the power supply 64 through contact finger 68 and contact plate 62.   A fifth contact finger 80, axially aligned with contact plate 59 and offset axially from contact plate 61, is also connected to terminal 78 of solenoid 74.

 

Preferably the D.C. power supply 64 is a nine volt battery, or a D.C. power adaptor, whose input may be a conventional 120 volt, 60 Hz power source.   The D.C. power supply and switching mechanism described with reference to Figs. 4 to 7, may be replaced by an A.C. power source connected directly across the terminals 72 and 78 of solenoid 74.   As the input current cycles, the polarity of solenoid 74 alternates, the actuator arm 38 moves relative to a toroidal permanent magnet 90 (shown in Fig.8), and the reciprocating magnets 50 – 52 reciprocate on the oscillating arms 20, 22 and 24 which are driven by the actuator arm 38.

 

 

Fig.5 shows the state of the switch assembly when rotor shaft 10 has rotated approximately 180 degrees from the position shown in Fig.4.   When the switch assembly is in the state shown in Fig.5, D.C. power supply 64 has its positive and negative terminals connected electrically by contact fingers 66 and 68 to contact plates 59 and 60, respectively.   Contact finger 70, shown contacting plate 60, connects terminal 72 of solenoid 74 electrically to the negative terminal of the power supply 64 through contact finger 68 and contact plate 60.   Contact finger 80, shown contacting plate 59, connects terminal 78 of solenoid 74 electrically to the positive terminal through contact finger 66 and contact plate 59.   Contact finger 76, axially aligned with contact plate 62 and offset axially from contact plate 60, remains connected to terminal 78 of solenoid 74.   In this way, the polarity of the solenoid 74 changes cyclically as the rotor 10 rotates through each one-half revolution.

 

 

Fig.6 shows in cross-section, the cylinder 58 which is aligned with and driven by the rotor shaft 10, a contact finger 70, and the contact plates 59 – 62 of the switching assembly, which rotate with the rotor shaft and cylinder about the axis 11 .

 

 

As Fig.7 illustrates, axially spaced arms 82 are supported on a stub shaft 71, preferably made of Teflon or another self-lubricating material, to facilitate the pivoting of the arms about the axis of the shaft